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OUP 39129-4-72 10,000. 


Call No. ^ 9 6 '~7 ^--* Accession No. 

Author C^ ^ | "J~ 


This book should be returned on or before the date last marked below. 


Research in 
English Literary History 








Research in 
English Literary History 

by Chauncey Sanders 




by Stith Thompson 


Copyright, 1952, by The Macmillan Company 

All rights reserved no part of this book may be reproduced in any 
form without permission in writing from the publisher, except 
by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in connection 
with a review written for inclusion in magazine or newspaper. 


Sixth Printing, 1961 

The author is indebted to the following for permission to use copyrighted material: 

American Library Association for a quotation from Isadore G. Mudge, Guide to 
Reference Books, 6th edition (1936) 

The Clarendon Press for quotations from R. B. McKerrow, An Introduction to 
Bibliography (1927) and Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare (1939) and 
from Bernard Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, ed. F. B. Kaye (1925) 

Reprinted by permission of Dodd, Mead & Company from "Homer and Humbug" 
by Stephen Leacock, in Behind the Beyond (1913) 

Ginn and Company for two quotations from Andre Morize, Problems and Methods 
of Literary History (1922) 

The Johns Hopkins Press for a quotation from Francis R. Johnson, A Critical Bibli- 
ography of the Works of Edmund Spenser 

Journal of the History of Ideas for quotations from Professor Arthur O. Lovejoy 

C. B. McKerrow for quotations from The Works of Thomas Nashe, ed. R. B 
McKerrow (1904-10) 

The Modern Language Association of America for quotations too numerous to men- 
tion specifically 

Oxford University Press and the British Academy for a quotation from W. W. 
Greg, Principles of Emendation in Shakespeare (1928) 

Sidgwick and Jackson, Ltd. and the author's representatives for quotations from 
Harold Jenkins, The Life and Work of Henry Chettle (1934) 

The University of Chicago Press for quotations from Arthur H. Nethercot, The 
Road to Tryermaine (1940) 

The University of Toronto Quarterly for quotations from Malcolm Ross, "Eliza- 
bethan Society and Letters" (1943) 


An Introduction to Research in English Literary History is intended 
for use as a text in courses in bibliography and method and as a 
guide for students in the writing of theses or dissertations or other 
scholarly papers. Although the book is designed primarily for stu- 
dents of English, it will, I trust, be helpful in other branches of the 
humanities as well. What is said of printing and bookmaking, for 
example, will have application wherever research involves books 
rather than test tubes or mathematical formulae. 

There has been no attempt at an exhaustive treatment of hand- 
writing or papermaking or book illustration, or of any other of the 
subjects discussed in Part I of this book. Certain information not 
ordinarily presented in the usual graduate courses seems to me of 
value, or at least of interest, to students of literary history; I have 
included as much of that information as I could. I have tried to keep 
the treatment throughout simple and practical. If I have at times 
committed the sin of explaining things that should be, and doubtless 
are, obvious to most graduate students, my only defense is that that 
seemed a lesser evil than to risk leaving even one student confused 
for lack of explanation. 

T do not pretend to have canvassed the whole field of scholarship 
in English and American literary history in selecting the examples 
used in Part ITT to illustrate various details of method. T have relied 
heavily upon the Publications of the Modern Language Association 
of America and American Literature because they are easily accessi- 
ble to graduate students and because the wide range of articles in 
them makes those two journals particularly fruitful sources of illus- 
trative material. When AmLit and PMLA have failed to provide 
the number or variety of illustrations wanted, I have, of course, 
turned to other periodicals or to books. Wherever possible, T have 
included examples from both English and American literary history 

vi Preface 

and from various periods. In all but a few instances I have refrained 
from comment on the books and articles used as illustrations; it 
seems to me that the student should be encouraged to form his own 
opinion as to the validity of an argument or the effectiveness of a 
presentation of facts. 

In arranging the apparatus criticus it has seemed best to put each 
explanatory note on the page containing the portion of the text to 
which the note relates, and to collect the purely bibliographical ref- 
erences at the back of the book. Reference numbers for the explana- 
tory notes are in roman type ; those for the bibliographical references 
are in italic. When a bibliographical reference is required within an 
explanatory note, it is enclosed in parentheses. In the section devoted 
to bibliographical references, each verso page has in the upper right 
corner a combination of roman and arabic numerals to serve as a 
guide in using the notes: "III, iv, 29" would mean that note 29 
for Chapter IV, Part III, is the first note that begins on that page. 
Similarly, in the upper left corner of each recto page is a symbol 
indicating the last note that begins on that page. 

The number of friends who have helped me in one way or another 
in the writing of this book is too great to permit mention of them all. 
I should, however, be most remiss did I fail to name Professors 
Wallace Douglas, of Northwestern University, and Ralph L. Collins, 
Laurens J. Mills, and John Robert Moore, all of Indiana University ; 
and Misses Marguerite Kennedy, of the Air University, and Mar- 
guerita McDonald, of the Montana State College Library. The 
authorities of the Houghton Library of Harvard University, the 
Yale University Library, the Folger Shakespeare Library, the Henry 
E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, and the Huntingdon College 
Library have been most helpful. My thanks are also due to numer- 
ous graduate students who have used this book or had it used on 
them in manuscript; and to Colonels Wilfred J. Paul and Garth 
C. Cobb and to Dr. Albert F. Simpson, all of the Air University, 
for their interest and encouragement. My indebtedness to Professor 
Stith Thompson is obvious; and that to my son and my wife is 
greatest of all. 

The Air University 
Maxwell Air Force Base 
Montgomery, Alabama 


Part I: The Materials of Research 1 

Part II: The Tools of Research 61 

Part HI: The Methods of Research 95 

CHAPTER ONE: Problems in Editing 95 

CHAPTER TWO: Problems in Biography 125 
CHAPTER THREE: Problems of Authenticity and Attribution 142 

CHAPTER FOUR: Problems of Source Study 162 

CHAPTER FIVE: Problems in Chronology 192 

CHAPTER six: Problems of Success and Influence 207 

CHAPTER SEVEN: Problems of Interpretation 217 

CHAPTER EIGHT: Problems of Technique 230 

CHAPTER NINE: Problems in the History of Ideas 239 

CHAPTER TEN: Problems in Folklore 253 

( by STITH THOMPSON, Professor of English and Folklore, 
formerly Dean of the Graduate School, Indiana University) 

Part IV: Suggestions on Thesis- Writing 277 

Bibliographical References 317 

Appendix A: Specimen Bibliographies 393 

Appendix B: Specimen Notes 407 

Appendix C: Specimen Thesis Pages 413 

Index 421 


THE material with which literary research is primarily concerned 
is, obviously, the expression of human thought ; but such 
expression must, for practical purposes, be recorded in more or less 
permanent form. A speech may be literature, but it becomes grist for 
the student's mill only when it has been recorded. 

Various means have been used in the past paintings on the walls 
of caves, carvings on stone or wood, impressions on clay or waxed 
tablets, inscriptions on papyrus or palm leaves for the setting down 
of facts or ideas ; but with these the student of English literature is 
not likely to be much concerned. Nor do we need to anticipate the 
complexities that may arise in future research from the use of 
photography or sound-recording devices as methods of preserving 
human thoughts. We shall be working with paper (occasionally, 
perhaps, with vellum or parchment) upon which thoughts have been 
recorded by hand or by means of a printing press that is, with 
manuscripts and books. 

Some kinds of research biography and editing, for example are 
likely to involve considerable use of manuscripts; and those who 
work in the earlier periods prior to the Restoration, say will need 
to familiarize themselves with the form or forms of handwriting 
practised during the age in which they are interested. This is not 
the place for a treatise on palaeography ; 1 but a few words of advice 
may not be amiss. So far as handwriting is concerned, Old English 
and Middle English manuscripts will cause the student less trouble 

1 For works on palaeography see Appendix A, Part VIII. 

2 An Introduction to Research 

than documents dating from the period 1500-1600. The older manu- 
scripts were written by professional scribes, generally in what is 
known as book-hand; since these men wrote with care, the writing 
is remarkably uniform. If one learns the shape of the book-hand 
letters by no means a difficult task- -he is not likely to have much 
trouble in making out the writing of a mediaeval scribe. 2 

After 1500, as more and more people acquired the art of writing, 
there is naturally less uniformity. Books were produced in the print- 
ing house rather than the scriptorium: hence the neat but rather 
laborious book-hand fell into disuse, to be commonly replaced by 
a more cursive, and consequently more rapid, form of writing. Such 
i hand had long been in use in the law courts, and was, after 1500, 
taken over by business men and others as such individuals came to 
write in their own persons instead of entrusting their correspondence 
to professional scriveners. The ordinary hand, therefore, of the six- 
teenth century the hand that Shakspere wrote was this English, 
or Secretary, hand. 3 But early in the century a form of writing 
imported from Italy had begun to achieve popularity; 4 by the end 
of the seventeenth century it had completely supplanted the English 
hand. During the Elizabethan age most educated persons wrote both 
the English and the Italian hands, using the latter for passages in 
Latin or in contemporary foreign languages and for proper names. 

The Italian hand is not difficult to read ; would that as much 
could be said for the English! Unfortunately, with both, the ink 
is often so faded as to be almost illegible; and the writing is 
almost always small and cramped, because paper was something 
of a luxury and the writer wished to get as many words as possible 
in small space. But with the English hand several of the letters 

2 The contractions in which mediaeval manuscripts abound will be troublesome; 
for help with these one may consult the dictionaries of contractions and abbrevia- 
tions listed in Appendix A, Part VIII. 

3 The Elizabethan writing masters recognized at least three varieties of English 
hands Text (derived from and similar to the mediaeval book-hand), Secretary, 
and Court; Hilary Jenkinson ("Elizabethan Handwritings", The Library, 4th 
Series, III (1922-23), 1-34) distinguishes nine kinds of English hands: Text, Ex- 
chequer, Chancery, Legal, Bastard Secretary, Set Hands (General), Pipe Roll, Sec- 
retary, and Free Hands (General). The non-specialist, however, will get along with 
a knowledge of the Secretary hand. 

4 There were actually two imported forms: the Roman, a somewhat upright 
script, from which the modern roman printing type is derived; and the Italian, 
which was similarly the ancestor of modern italic type. 

'>""V ; i< ',--- \ ~. - ' ;/;';> ' -/*$*, '-.SI x .;;,,, 'yl'y ' ; : 

.' * ; : : " ." 4% ,t t% jje>t*w<f ' !'*. Ar . .; " ,/ 

': '.Var yf : '// ' . 

* s < *^^' * x" '"* ' -|L' ' ' t ' * ' *" ''' ' ' 

'':- ; ; v /'>^ ! ^\ : ^^^gt* p . ' - " / ' : , - ;\ /J.: '*,..; : 
...X* "*,>*- ',. f"" /"/ juf.-' 1 />!^ '/'' 

Sffrr f /d/ 'p>y ft*K j S fu <J n ilwM-*nt>nrrs>,' , 

J f r'}^^ fr^f^^( fl ^y'^^JL... ' 
g,/H*S*ti J*ft tomato** yj"?^ t ^/" 

^^^n/^^ffyjt'^^^ f ^ fa - (Mt ' . 

S /"/" ../.., .f< j.*.*Jt. */?*// '*' 

JW f ||.-'* f < J f *-* v / *"^ , 

tjilff/t/S J!(tal . 
><-,' ., ,"-' " *""" ' ' . , : 

yfo^-^-^^^V-/^^*^-^^'^ ^^-^r> 
^ o>fc- yMeJi^+^r"<>% [(*&+. / 

\.^J;fc&t. >$*: fcp^-A^^y/fti^'-^ '.''-;.'' ' 

MI tug .tw*7^Wfe|'<<4 X^^'^-^/^^*fejf^-\. ,.', . : 
: ' "^^^w rv *f^,,g#K* W<./M-, f^WM'-^^f "''/. ' 

..' ' ^^l^^tfi- f ^4.^^^^^ A ^K/^<f^!^^' : - ' 

jJn,\*y ff<**+ &**4f* '.w***^^;^"^^*^ 1 

'"Tjft*^S</ ^ ^&-> y<' >& &wte>'^J*^>* : . 

l ^'/3nn^ifrr/k^J<y(^ f ^^> 
X/ 1 Utykls patt f&nipiS~.$l<Q (&v1fytj*i*st3?!f^ **?-''! 

rv ffjf^Qfttv $&*<&>? f*< ^^f top* fy* f 
( llf wiAtyy^&j'frw*''$& r M- Ji ii*^- ' 

r t ^s$'rwMtfrrHwi'p*Mi( *(****&* * 
. ' ^r^tytfrf-v fat +*&*'****'*? ' '-. ' 

*<V)&4r~:.^^ -'' 

^'/' ^^^^^ ; ' : ^^7> , 
- : ->- 3^^f&.*$ f *^s ^ m&-^ 

'' ' " * iM#Jun$M^ **$ , ' . ' ^ ' ' - 

, > , / n*X ;% -v,. %^ : .. . i , / rt*'"' 1 " , - > ; '- 

Figure /. The Secretary and the Italian hand. Reproduced from John Marston, 
Ashby Entertainment (EL 34 B 9), folio g v , by permission of the Henry E. 
Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California. 

[3 ] 


b * ^ * 

d <9- 


4? << 



Figure 2. The Secretary hand: typical forms of the minuscules. This and the 
following page are from R. B. McKerrow, An Introduction to Bibliography, 
by the kind permission of the Clarendon Press. 



C?" -^2 <& D 



M <#f < N 

U,v - w 


Figure 3. The Secretary hand: majuscules. 

6 An Introduction to Research 

differ greatly in form from those we use today; moreover some 
letters were made in two or more ways. And of course individual 
variations in handwriting add to the difficulty. 

The small letters miniscules, in the language of palaeographers 
that will ordinarily be utterly different from the modern forms are 
c, e, h, k, p, r, s, and /. There were, of course, two forms of s the 
long /, used initially and medially, and the short final s. Of the capital 
letters majuscules Dr. McKerrow wrote: 

The forms of these vary so much that it is difficult to say anything useful 
about them. They frequently resemble, more or less vaguely, the usual 
black letter [known to most of us as Old English] printed capitals, and 
fortunately it is generally possible to guess what they are meant to be. 
One or two hints may be given: occasionally a capital, especially B, H, 
M, and P, is very wide, so that it may at first sight appear to be two, 
or even more, separate letters; certain letters, especially L, .are often 
practically the same as the small letter, only written slightly larger; 
F is two small f's; a capital I or J carelessly written may resemble 
g or y (with clockwise crossed tail); and an unrecognisable letter con- 
sisting of several interlacing curves is likely to be either C, E, or G.' 

Additional difficulties in connection with capital letters are, first, 
that one writer may use two or more different forms of some letters ; 
and second, that Elizabethans were erratic in their capitalizing as in 
their spelling. They seem to have felt free to use as few or as many 
capitals as they pleased and to use them wherever they pleased. 

The mediaeval habit of abbreviating carried over to some extent 
throughout the sixteenth century, especiallv in Latin texts. The Latin 
contractions are too numerous to be given here, 5 but the ones most 
frequently found in English books are a straight mark (like a 
macron) or a double curve (like the Spanish tilde) which, placed 
over a vowel, takes the place of a following ;;/ or n (me or me), for 
men, and fro or fro, for from) ; qd. for quod (that is quoth) ; w for 
with; vfr for which; y for the ; 6 and y for that. 

5 An account of these will be found in McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, 
pp. 320-24 

6 "It should be superfluous to remind any possible reader of this book that in 
those abbreviations the y is the OE J> {thorn}, and that it is only in quite modern 
times that any one has had the strange notion of pronouncing 'the' as 'ye'. In 

Materials of Research 7 

The recommended procedure for acquiring a knowledge of Eliza- 
bethan handwriting is to secure a facsimile of a good clear hand, for 
which an accurate printed transcript is available, 7 and to study the 
facsimile along with the transcript until one is sure that he can read 
the manuscript letter for letter. Then one should imitate the hand- 
writing, being especially careful to make the strokes in the right 
order and direction. 8 Having practised a hand until one is satisfied 
with his imitation of it confident that an Elizabethan could have 
read it one should study and imitate a variety of hands such as can 
most readily be found in English Literary Autographs, 1550-1650* 
Such a discipline will enable the student to make his way among 
sixteenth-century manuscripts, if not with ease, at least with a 
reasonable degree of competence. 


Instead of passing directly from handwriting to printing, we may 
well consider briefly the materials of which manuscripts and books 
are made. The words vellum and parchment seem not to have been 
distinguished in ancient times ; but in modern usage vellum means 
calfskin prepared for writing purposes, whereas parchment is the 
skin of a sheep or goat. The very finest vellum is thought to have 
been made from the skin of an unborn calf, and hence is called 
uterine vellum. Instead of being tanned as for leather, hides intended 
for writing material were steeped in lime pits and then stretched on 
frames, where they were pared and scraped. Afterward they were 
rubbed and polished with pumice and chalk. In the whole process the 
hide was reduced to about half its original thickness. 

Parchment to adopt the old practice and use one term for both 

reprints in which these abbreviations are not expanded a superior e or t should 
always be used, either above the y or following it as 'y' 'y . It is incorrect to print 
'ye' or 'yt', which were at no period used as abbreviations in printed books." 
(McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, p. 322, n. i.) Perhaps I should add that 
ye and yt would have been meant by the writer and understood by the reader to be 
the personal pronouns ye and it. 

7 A good and generally accessible facsimile is that of the letter addressed by 
Thomas Kyd to the Lord Keeper Puckering; it appears as the frontispiece of Kyd, 
Works, ed. F. S. Boas (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1901). 

8 Dr. McKerrow gives (Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 344-50) information 
that will help the student to form the letters as the Elizabethans did. 

8 An Introduction to Research 

kinds of material has what might be called a right side and a 
wrong side; the hair side differs from the flesh side in being spotted 
with the follicles from which the hair has been removed. Mediaeval 
scribes were careful to arrange the leaves of their manuscripts with 
hair side next to hair side, and flesh side to flesh side, so that the 
pages would present a uniform appearance; when the manuscript is 
opened, one sees either two hair side pages or two flesh side pages. 
Knowledge of this fact is frequently helpful in settling questions 
involving the make-up of manuscript volumes; if we find a manu- 
script in which hair side comes next to flesh side, we may properly 
suspect that the leaves have been disarranged, or that some portion 
of the manuscript is missing. 

Parchment is still used for formal and decorative documents, such 
as diplomas ; vellum is used occasionally for printing a very small 
edition of a work, or for a few copies of a larger edition, the other 
copies being printed on paper. For illuminated manuscripts vellum 
was desirable because the colors used did not show through ; but for 
printing it is little better than good paper. 


Tradrtionally and probably paper was .Jn^entedMnChina : at 
least as early as the second century after Christ the Chinese were 
making paper from the inner bark of a kind of mulberry tree. In 
the eighth century the Arabs learned the secret of papermaking 
from some Chinese prisoners of war, and soon hit upon the device 
of using linen and cotton rags instead of "raw" vegetable fibers. 
The use of paper spread westward and was introduced into Europe 
by the Moors. By the twelfth century paper was being manufactured 
in Valencia and in Toledo. The Moslems also introduced paper into 
Sicily, and a paper mill existed in Italy, near Ancona, as early as 
1278. Before long the art of papermaking was known to the French 
and the Germans, and in 1495 a paper mill was set up in England 
by John Tate. "In England, and indeed in any civilized part of 
Europe, paper was evidently procurable without difficulty from the 
beginning of the fourteenth century." s Nevertheless, paper was not 
very commonly used until after the invention of printing had stimu- 
lated quantity production. 

Materials of Research 9 

Mr. Esdaile defines paper as "vegetable fiber disintegrated and' 
reintegrated in water; this distinguishes it from vellum and parch- 
ment, which are animal skins, and from papyrus, which is vegetable 
leaf not disintegrated but simply dressed by drying, rolling, and 
polishing." '' Cotton and flax, both of which are used, not "raw" but 
in the form of rags, furnish the best fiber for papermaking. Esparto, 
or alfa, a grass produced in Spain and North Africa; "chemical 
wood" -that is, wood chips reduced to fiber by boiling under pressure 
in a solution of caustic soda, or a mixture of caustic soda and either 
sulphate of soda or bisulphite of lime ; and "mechanical wood" pulp 
produced by grinding wood blocks into what is practically a fine 
sawdust- -are other sources of fiber suitable for paper. Mechanical 
wood, because of the shortness of its fibers, quickly turns brown and 
becomes brittle, as anyone who has occasion to handle a newspaper 
only a few years old can testify ; it has nothing but its cheapness 
to recommend it. Chemical wood, if properly manufactured, pro- 
duces a good quality of paper ; a good book paper made of chemical 
wood can be secured for less than a third of the price of an all-rag 
paper. Esparto may also produce a good book paper, but it is chiefly 
used for "antique" paper and art paper. 

All paper, down to the end of the eighteenth century, was made 
by hand ; and the very finest paper is made today much as it was 
in the beginning of the craft. The rags, after being sorted and cut 
into small pieces, were boiled for several hours in a solution which 
removed traces of fat and dye, and tended to separate the fibers. 9 
Then the rags were beaten with mallets until they formed a smooth 
pulp, to which water was added to make the mixture something like 
cream in consistency. A screen made of interwoven wires, the longi- 
tudinal ones being fine and close together, with the crosswires heavier 
and spaced about an inch apart, supported by a light frame under- 

9 According to one authority (Frank C, Butler, The Story of Paper-Making 
(Chicago: privately printed, 1901), pp. 50-51) a more primitive method was to 
moisten the rags and pile them "in some warm, damp place, often in a cellar, where 
they were left to decay for a period twenty days or more. During this time, the 
perishable portion, sometimes spoken of as vegetable gluten, fermented or decayed 
to such an extent that it could be washed from the fibrine, or long, white elastic 

Figure 4. Paper making in the seventeenth century. In this instance the rags 
are macerated by trip hammers activated by a water wheel. Reproduced from 
a woodcut of 1662, which appeared in Lancelot Hogben, From Cave Painting 
to Comic Strip', by permission of Max Parrish, Ltd., London, England. 

[ 10 ] 

Materials of Research 11 

neath, and having above it another frame of the same size and 
shape, called the deckle was used in converting the pulp to paper. 
These frames, or molds, were rectangular, the width being approxi- 
mately three-fourths the length ; and they varied in size from about 
12" by 1 6" to about 15" by 20". The mold was dipped into the vat of 
pulp and lifted out containing an amount of pulp sufficient to fill 
the mold to the top of the deckle; thus the height of the deckle 
determined the amount of pulp taken up, and consequently, the 
thickness of the resulting paper. 10 As the mold was lifted from the 
vat, the water in the mixture began to drain away through the 
screen ; at the same time the workman gave a horizontal shake to 
the frame. In this motion lies the secret of the papermaker's craft. 
There must be both a forward-and-backward movement and a side- 
to-side movement to make the fibers cross and interlock in all direc- 
tions; it is this interlocking that gives uniform strength to the 
paper. 11 When the water had all drained away, the pulp, by that 
time in more or less solid form, was turned out upon a sheet of felt 
stretched over a board called a couch. Over this layer of pulp was 
placed another sheet of felt, then another mold of pulp, more felt, 
more pulp, and so on until there was a pile, or post, consisting of 
perhaps a hundred sheets. Pressure was then applied to squeeze out 
as much as possible of the water that still remained in the paper, 
after which the sheets were hung over ropes or poles to dry. 

At this stage the paper was still what is called watcrlcaj it would 
absorb water, like blotting paper. To give it a non-absorbent surface 

10 The term deckle is also used to mean the rough and uneven edge of a sheet ot 
hand-made paper; nowadays this effect is admired and is often produced artificially 
on machine-made paper. The presence of the deckle-edge intact on the leaves of an 
old book is proof that the book has not been trimmed down in binding; if the 
margins happen to be very small, the presence of the deckle might be important as 
proof that no marginal notes had been cut away in successive rebindings. 

11 If a circular piece of hand-made paper be dropped onto water, it will turn up 
at the edge all around, until it is the shape of a saucer; machine-made paper will 
turn up on two sides only, because the fibers are matted only in one direction. 
Thus machine-made paper will withstand folding one way but will easily tear if 
folded the other. This fact is of importance in the binding of books: machine-made 
paper should be so folded that the binder's stitches cross the fibers of the paper; 
if the thread parallels the fibers, th n stitches will cut the paper. Hand-made paper 
can be folded and sewn in either direction. It has been stated (Reginald G. Williams, 
A Manual of Book Selection (London: Grafton, 1920), p. 101) that a strip of hand- 
made paper, if suspended, would have to be over four miles long to break of its own 

12 An Introduction to Research 

that would take ink without blurring, the paper had to be sized. 
The sheets of paper were dipped in a solution of animal gelatin, 
made from clippings of hides, horns, and hoofs. After being sized 
the paper was air-dried, smoothed, and pressed. 

If a piece of hand-made laid r2 paper is held up to the light, it 
will be seen that the wires constituting the bottom of the mold have 
left their mark on the finished product in the form of translucent 
lines running across the sheet close together in one direction and 
about an inch apart in the other. The surface of the paper may be 
quite smooth and its thickness uniform; but the lines, called, re- 
spectively, wire lines and chain lines, 1 * show up because the paper 
is less dense where the pulp rested on the wires than it is between 
the wires. 

It will also be discovered, if an uncut sheet of old paper is held 
up to the light, that there is a translucent design near the center 
of one half of the sheet/ This is the watermark th maker's device, 

12 Paper made in a mold such as has just been described would be laid paper; 
most machine-made paper and some hand-made is produced on a mold which has 
the crosswires closely spaced like the longitudinal wires, and is called "wove paper 
When held to the light, wove paper will have a slightly mottled appearance, or 
perhaps show a faint network of diamond-shaped markings. 

13 The chain lines and wire lines are sometimes both referred to as wire lines or 
wire marks; chain lines are sometimes called chain marks', and wire lines are some- 
times called laid lines. Wire lines and chain lines seem the most appropriate terms 
and are probably now in most common use. 

14 Wire mark would be a more accurately descriptive term than watermark. The 
standard work on watermarks is a treatise by C. M. Briquet, Les Filigranes (Paris: 
A. Picard et Fils, 1907), 4 vols. Many watermarks are reproduced in this work; 
thus one may be able to determine the place of manufacture and the date of a 
specific sheet of paper. The usefulness of watermarks as evidence is limited, how- 
ever. In the first place, the watermark is likely, in any book smaller than an 
octavo, to have been trimmed away, or multilated beyond recognition, by the 
binder; and in quartos and octavos the position of the watermark in the backfold 
(see below, p. 35) may make identification impossible without taking the book 
apart, a procedure which would seldom be permitted. Only in folios and broadsides 
can one be sure of having the watermark clearly visible. Furthermore, as Dr 
McKerrow observed: "Arguments from similarity or dissimilarity of watermark 
must, however, be used with extreme caution, for it seems quite clear that many 
printers bought their paper in job-lots, and it is common to find a number of 
different watermarks in a book about the printing of which there appears to have 
been nothing abnormal. At the same time, if we had reason for thinking that a 
certain part of a book had been inserted after the original printing, and we found 

Materials of Research 13 

and was produced by weaving the design with wire in the bottom 
of the mold. Thus the design shows up, as the wire lines and chain 
lines do, because the paper is less dense at that point, the pulp 
above the device having been thinner than elsewhere. The common- 
est designs were hands or gloves, ewers or jugs, pillars, and crowns; 
others ranged from simple stars, crosses, or initials, to coats-of- 
arms. 15 Beginning in the latter part of the seventeenth century and 
continuing through the eighteenth, paper manufacturers commonly 
put a second mark, called a counter mark and generally consisting 
of the maker's initials, in the center of the other half of the sheet. 

To this discussion of the old method of papermaking may be 
added some comment on modern machine manufacture, introduced 
at the end of the eighteenth century. The preparation of the fibers 
is accomplished by a series of machines the thrasher, the cutter, 
the devil or whipper, the duster, the digester, the washers or Hol- 
landers, the drainers, and the beaters, all of which names are more 
or less descriptive of the tasks performed. Inferior grades of paper 
are sized and tinted papers are colored in the beater; that is, the 
size and the dye are put into the pulp at this stage in manufacture. 16 
The pulp as it comes from the beater is known as half stuff. This 
solution, about 97 per cent water, is pumped out in an even layer onto 
a moving belt, which performs the function of the mold. It is an 
endless band of closely woven screen wire, supported and kept in 
motion by a roller at each end. Deckle-straps of rubber keep the 
pulp in place, being adjusted to provide whatever width of paper is 
desired ; the thickness of the paper is not, however, regulated by the 
height of the deckle but by a mechanical spreader and gate. As the 
moving wire mold carries along its burden of pulp, it shakes from 
side to side, thus matting or interlacing the fibers in one direction. 

that the paper, both before and after this particular section, bore the same water- 
mark whereas this section itself had a different one, we could certainly claim the 
fact as strongly supporting this view." (Introduction to Bibliography, p. 101, n. i.) 

15 Certain designs came to be associated with specfic sizes of paper, and many 
of our names for paper sizes came from watermarks. A tankard or vase suggested 
pot ; a post horn gave its name to post ; and foolscap and crown are self-explanatory. 

10 This method of sizing is known as engine-sizing; the better grades of paper 
are still tub-sized or vat-sized by dipping the finished paper into the sizing solution. 

14 An Introduction to Research 

By the time the pulp reaches the end of the moving belt having 
passed from the wet end to the dry end of the machine sufficient 
water has drained away to leave the pulp in a semi-solid state ; at 
this point it passes under a dandy roll, which compresses the pulp, 
thus helping to interlock the fibers, and imparts the watermark if 
there is to be one. The dandy roll also determines whether the paper 
is to be laid or wove. Since most machine-made paper is wove, the 
dandy roll is, in most cases, simply a roller of screen wire ; but by 
the addition of crosswires an effect can be achieved much like the 
chain lines and wire lines of hand-made laid paper. The matted 
pulp having now reached the place where the moving screen passes 
down around a roller to return to its starting point for another 
load of pulp is taken between two felt-covered rolls and is then 
carried by a moving felt web to press-rolls, which squeeze out more 
water and smooth the surface of the paper. After this the papei 
passes around a number of drying cylinders and then goes to the 
calenders, which impart a smooth and even finish. For most papers 
this is the end of the process. High-grade writing phpers, however, 
before being cut into sheets, are run through a size tub. If the paper 
must have an especially glossy surface as when it is to be used 
for printing very fine-screen half-tones a mineral coating may be 
brushed on and the surface then polished by supercalendering. 17 
When the proportion of mineral is too high more than one-fourth, 
say strength and durability are sacrificed to achieve the requisite 
glossy surface. Folding a piece of such paper breaks the coating and 
leaves little fiber to hold the paper together ; tiny flecks of the chalky 
clay of which the coating is composed can often be seen along the 
fold. Much better paper, with a surface smooth enough for printing 
all but the finest half-tones, is produced by loading the pulp, instead 
of coating the paper ; that is, the mineral is added to the half stuff 
while it is in the beater, and the paper is then calendered or super- 

The continuous web of paper is cut into sheets of the required 
size by automatic machines. Sizes and shapes vary according to the 
kind of paper and the purpose for which it is to be used. The New 
International Dictionary lists 152 sizes by name. Mr. Esdaile men- 

17 In supercalendering the paper is passed between pairs of rollers, one of which 
is of cast-iron heated by steam and the other is of compressed cotton or paper. 

Materials of Research 15 

tions eight sizes as being most commonly used now for book paper 
in England; 6 these are: Large Foolscap (13^2 by 17), Crown 
(15 by 20), Large Post (16^ by 21), Demy (1^/2 by 22^), 
Medium (18 by 23), Royal (20 by 25), Large Royal (20 by 27), and 
Imperial (22 by 30). In modern printing, paper is used in sheets two, 
four, or even eight times as large as these basic sizes. An American 
paper manufacturer lists nineteen sizes of book paper, ranging from 
22 by 32 to 44 by 64. 

Since modern books are printed on such large sheets, the paper 
used does not have the same significance for the student as is the 
case in old books. 18 A modern book which is advertised as being a 
crown octavo may be composed of sheets folded so as to make sixteen, 
thirty-two, or even sixty-four leaves; but the leaves will be of the 
size which results from folding a sheet of crown paper in octavo 
fashion 5" by 7^". 


The question of ink is one that is not likely to be of concern to 
many graduate students, or, indeed, to scholars generally ; but two 
comments should, perhaps, be made. First, it is to be noted that the 
ink used by writers of manuscripts is a material very different from 
printer's ink. Early writing ink was commonly made by mixing soot 
with gum and water ; this produced a lustrous black ink, but it was 
not proof against exposure to water. Like modern "washable" inks, 
it could be removed by sponging. 10 Since the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era a more permanent ink has been produced by mixing tannin 
(generally secured from oak-galls) with sulphate of iron and gum. 
Such ink, though reasonably permanent, tends to turn brown with 

From the beginning, printers realized that writing ink, however 
well it might serve the scribe, was not the proper medium to be used 

18 See below, pp. 3 5-.$ 7- 

19 Mediaeval writers took advantage of this fact to conserve paper and vellum ; 
many a classic was doubtless erased to make room for the recording of a dull sermon 
or theological treatise. Fortunately, modern science has enabled us (see below, 
p. 89) to recover the original reading of palimpsests and to read, literally, between 
and under the lines. 

16 An Introduction to Research 

in their craft. In the earliest days printing ink was what it is now 
a mixture of lamp black and varnish, the latter usually made from 
linseed oil and resin. 

The other fact to be noted about ink is that chemical analysis 
of the ink used in a manuscript or the pigment in illuminations 
may be of aid in detecting a forgery.- 

The invention of printing constitutes a subject much too involved 
for full consideration here ; it is, moreover, a subject entailing a 
number of problems about which has raged, and still rages, a good 
deal of controversy. At least three cities in as many countries have 
been credited with being the birthplace of printing as we know it ; 
and it has not yet been possible to prove or wholly to disprove the 
right of any one of them to the honor. 

Perhaps as early as the sixth century the Chinese were practising 
a form of printing by using wooden blocks upon which characters 
had been made to stand out in relief by cutting away the back- 
ground. The raised portion of the block was inked, and a sheet of 
paper pressed down upon it, the inked design being thus transferred 
in reverse, of course, mirror-fashion to the paper. In the eleventh 
century the Chinese were making types of clay or porcelain ; later 
they made molds of wood, trom which clay types could be made. 
These clay types, when baked, were serviceable, though they must 
always have been rather fragile. Tf the Chinese language had been 
based upon an alphabet, it seems very likely that the art of printing 
with movable types, here begun, would have been perfected as it 
was later to be perfected in Kurnpe. Hut the Chinese language is 
rinde up of more thnn seven t^-'^uv! characters, and the advantage 
of movable type over the wood block was so slight in view of the 
difficulties attendant upon setting and distributing so many char- 
actersthat the new method seems to have been discarded almost 
as soon as it was tried. 

Block printing was practised in Europe in the manufacture of 
textiles long before it was applied to paper ; and it was at one time 

20 See below, p. 144. 

Materials of Research 17 

quite generally held that the invention of printing grew out of 
block printing through the following stages: (i) block printing on 
cloth; (2) block printing for playing cards; (3) block print por- 
traits, generally figures of saints, often to be pasted into spaces left 
for them in manuscripts; (4) block books in which the portrait has 
an accompanying text, printed on one side of the leaf only ; (5) block 
books printed on both sides of the leaves; (6) books printed from 
movable type. This lineal descent of modern printing from mediaeval 
wood-cut printing is not accepted by most of the modern authorities. 
In the first place, there is some question whether playing cards were 
printed or drawn separately by hand. No block book is known 
certainly to have been produced before 1460, at which time printing 
with movable type was already under way. Block printing was 
carried on through the second half of the fifteenth century as an 
alternative and cheaper method of printing for certain kinds of 
books, especially religious picture books such as the Biblia Pau- 
perum and the Ars Moriendi, and one book without illustrations the 
standard Latin grammar of the period, "Donatus on the Eight Parts 
of Speech", commonly known as Donatus. Many copies and many 
editions of these books were printed, most of them perhaps all of 
them during the period 1460-1525. 

If it is not certain that modern printing grew out of block printing, 
neither is it certain that the European practice of those arts came, 
like the use of paper, from the Orient. Either kind of printing, or 
both, may have been introduced into Europe by travelers from the 
East ; either or both of them may have had an independent origin 
in the West. 

There are records in Avignon in 1444 and in Cambrai in 1446 
which may refer to printing with movable metal types ; L>1 but the 
language of the records is not altogether clear, and there are no 
specimens of the work done in those places at that time by which 
we can judge what method was in use. Consequently, the claims of 
France to have been the birthplace of modern printing have not 

21 It seems more likely that the method used in Avignon and Cambrai was to 
punch letters in a sheet of metal and then make a mold, like a modern stereotype, 
from that. Sec below, pp. 33-34. 

18 An Introduction to Research 

generally been allowed, and opinion has been divided between Hol- 
land and Germany. 

The Dutch claim is based upon two things : the existence of some 
rudely printed books, commonly called Costeriana, which have been 
assigned to a date earlier than 1440; and a legend which relates 
that the inventor of printing was one Laurens Coster, or Koster. 
The story goes that Coster, a wealthy citizen of Haarlem, while 
walking through a wood one day, idly cut some letters in a piece of 
birch bark, and afterward stamped the letters with ink on a piece 
of paper for the amusement of his grandchildren. It then occurred 
to him that this process might be used for the production of books. 
According to some authorities the Laurens Coster referred to was 
born in 1436; if he made letters in bark for the amusement of his 
grandchildren, he must have done so closer to 1480 than 1440. By 
the time that Laurens Coster could have been a grandfather, print- 
ing was well known. Even if we accept the Haarlem legend at its 
face value, there is nothing in it to justify our giving Coster credit 
for having been the inventor of printing ; there is nothing in the story 
to show that he bridged the gap between wooden block printing and 
the casting of individual metal types, which latter is the essence of 
modern printing. 

The rest of the Dutch claim is not so easily dismissed. Some of the 
Costeriana may have been produced by metallography, or cast print- 
ing ; 22 others may actually be of a later date than the first German 
printed books. It is certainly possible that someone was working 
with movable types in Holland as early as in Germany, perhaps 
earlier ; in fact, one document distinctly suggests that such was the 
case. On the authority of Ulrich Zell, Cologne's first printer, the 
statement was made in 1499 that printing was invented at Mainz, 
but that there was a prototype (Vurbyldung) previously invented in 
Holland. Unfortunately it is impossible to tell precisely what this 
statement means. If printing was invented at Mainz, what was it 
that was invented in Holland? If, on the other hand, Zell knew that 
the essential process was invented in Holland, why does he say 

22 In this method letters are stamped in molding sand, or clay, or metal, to form 
a mold; molten metal is then poured into the mold to form a solid plate, from 
which the printing is done. 

Materials of Research 19 

explicitly ". . . this art was invented at Mainz, as regards the man- 
ner in which it is now commonly used. . . ." 7 ? 

At the present time it is generally conceded L> * that the individual 
who made modern printing possible by inventing a method of casting 
individual types was Johann Gutenberg, a native of Mainz. In 1455, 
Johann Fust, a goldsmith of Mainz, sued Gutenberg for the recovery 
of sums of money advanced in 1450 and 1452. The money was to 
have been used in perfecting the art of printing; and Gutenberg 
pledged the apparatus that he was making as security for the loans. 
We know, then, that Gutenberg was at work on printing by 1450; 
some small pieces he may have produced even earlier than that. In 
1454 some Indulgences 21 were printed, apparently by Gutenberg, in 
a small type evidently designed for the occasion. The first substantial 
printed book appeared at some time before August 24, 1456; 2r> this 
is the famous Mazarine Bible (so called because a copy of it was first 
noticed in the Mazarine Library), or, as it is now more generally 
known, the "42-line Bible". 2 " There is also a 36-line Bible 27 of about 
the same date. It seems impossible now to determine exactly what 
share in these productions Gutenberg himself had. No book bearing 
Gutenberg's name as printer is known to exist. The financial transac- 
tions of 1450 and 1452 may have created a partnership in which 
Fust contributed something more than money, and this partnership 
was apparently dissolved by 1456, perhaps before the Mazarine Bible 

23 Pierce Butler, in The Origin of Printing in Europe (Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1940"') argues that the invention of printing was not the contribution 
of any one man but the culmination of the efforts of many, and seeks to give more 
credit to Fust and Schoeffer than to Gutenberg. There is doubtless much merit in 
the first point. It is as unlikely that the invention of printing was the contribution 
of a single man as that Bell was solely responsible for the telephone or Marconi for 
radio. As for the other point, it seems impossible now to determine how credit 
should be divided between Gutenberg and his associates. 

24 These were printed forms with blanks left for the name of the recipient and 
the date. They were issued by the King of Cyprus, with the authority of the Pope, 
to all who made contributions toward the expenses of war against the Turks. 

25 This date appears in one copy as the day on which the rubricating (coloring 
with red ink certain letters, generally initial, for purposes of decoration) of that 
copy was completed. 

26 It is printed in double columns, forty-two lines to a column. 

27 This is sometimes known as the Pfister or Bamberg Bible, because it was 
printed from type afterward used by Albrecht Pfister of Bamberg, who apparently 
acquired it from Gutenberg or his associates. 

20 An Introduction to Research 

was printed. Tn 1457 a Psalter (printed in large type so that half 
a dozen members of the choir could look on one copy) was printed, 
bearing along with the date the names of Fust and Peter Schoeffer 
(who later married Fust's daughter) as printers. Schoeffer seems to 
have made himself expert in the cutting of type. It may be then, 
that all these works including two editions of Indulgences (^o-line 
and 3i-line), and the 42-line and 36-line Bibles were the produc- 
tions of a partnership in which Gutenberg furnished the basic in- 
vention, Fust supplied the money, and Schoeffer designed and cut 
the type. It is rather more likely that Fust and Schoeffer separated 
from Gutenberg before 1455, and that Gutenberg printed the 31 -line 
Indulgence and the 36-line Bible, while Fust and Schoeffer produced 
the 30-line Indulgence and the 42-line Bible. 

Between 1456 and 1465, at which date he became a member of 
the court of the Count of Nassau and Archbishop of Mainz, Guten- 
berg may have been printing independently of his old partners ; sev- 
eral books of that decade have been tentatively assigned to his press. 
Gutenberg died in 1468. The partnership of Fust and Schoeffer con- 
tinued until the death of Fust in 1466, at which time his son suc- 
ceeded him. Schoeffer died about 1502, leaving three sons, all 

The Psalter of 1457 is the earliest example of color printing. 
Among other productions of Fust and Schoeffer are a Bible of 1462 
the first Bible with a printed date- -and an edition of Cicero's De 
Officiis of 1465. 

A fact that may be significant as supporting the German claim to 
priority in printing is that the men who carried the art of printing 
to all corners of Europe were not Hollanders but Germans. In Ger- 
many itself, as might have been expected, the art of printing spread 
rapidly. Before the end of the fifteenth century there were presses 
in fifty German towns, and more than two hundred printers were 
at work. German printers went out from their native land to Italy, 
France, Spain, the Netherlands even to Oxford. 

It is unnecessary to give here in detail the names and dates of 
those pioneer printers, or to list their productions. It may be ob- 
served, however, that in Germany most of the early books dealt 
with theology or jurisprudence ; in Italy the classics were naturally 
popular, though interest also extended to history, romances, and 

Materials of Research 21 

poetry ; in France the classics and the romances were the favorites, 
though there were notably beautiful service-books produced at Paris 
and Rouen. All of the earliest books were printed in Gothic that 
is, black letter type. But in 1464 a Strasbourg printer formerly 
known as the "R" printer, from a peculiar upper case letter used 
by him, and recently identified as one Adolf Rusch used roman 
type; in 1465 Sweynheim and Pannartz, pioneer German printers in 
Italy, used a semi-roman type at Subiaco, and in 1467 were working 
in Rome with a purely roman font. The roman style was really per- 
fected, however, by Nicholas Jenson, a French printer working at 
Venice, in 1470. 

Italic type is the creation of Aldus Manutius, of Venice; it was 
first used in a few words of a book of 1500, but was really designed 
for a series of pocket classics, beginning with a Virgil of 1501. The 
type was based on a scholarly fifteenth-century Italian hand not, 
as has sometimes been said, that of Petrarch and was at first called 
Chancery or Aldinc type. The first italic font had no upper case, 
roman capitals being used instead. 

Ft was at one time argued that the first printing in Fngland was 
done at Oxford ; a book printed in that city by Theodoric Rood, of 
Cologne, bears the date 1468, but it has been generally agreed that 
the book is wrongly dated. 2 * William Caxton is now conceded to 
have been the one who introduced printing into England. Caxton 
was an English merchant, who lived for several years in Bruges; 
after holding the office of "Governor of the English nation" refer- 
ring to the group of English merchants in the Low Countries he 
took service with the Duchess of Burgundy. In his new position, 
Caxton had leisure for literary work; hence he occupied himself 
with translating Raoul le Fevre's Rccucil des Histoircs de Troic. This 
was printed in 1474 the first printed book in the English language. 
By the autumn of 1476 Caxton had returned to England and set up 
a shop at Westminster. Here he brought out the first book printed 
in England The Dictes or Sayengis of the Philosophres in I477- 20 

28 See below, p. 196. 

29 The first bit of printing done in England, presumably also by Caxton, was 
apparently an Indulgence, now in the Public Record Office, dated 1476. 

22 An Introduction to Research 

Caxton, who continued to print until his death in 1491, was translator 
and editor as well as printer ; judging from his productions that have 
come down to us and they may represent a comparatively small 
part of the total amount of work he did he was a man of broad 
interests and considerable taste. Among the works printed by him 
are two editions (from different manuscripts) of Chaucer's Canter- 
bury Tales, Malory's Mortc d' Arthur, Gower's Confessio Amantis, 
The Rook oj the Subtyl Historyes and Fables of Rsope, The Golden 
Legend, Troilus and Creside, and Eneydos the last his own transla- 
tion of Virgil's Mneid. When Caxton died in 1491, his press was 
taken over by Wynken de Worde, who devoted himself mainly to 
carrying out plans made by Caxton and to the production of reprints 
of Caxton 's works. 

As we have seen, Theodoric Rood began to print at Oxford about 
1478; and a year later a press was set up at St. Albans. In 1480 
John Lettou later in partnership with William de Machlinia be- 
gan to print in London, producing at first nothing but law books. 
From 1490 to about 1530 Richard Pynson was at Vork in London; 
he was the first to use roman type in England. 

Among sixteenth-century printers may be mentioned John Day, 
Richard Tottel, Thomas Herthelet, Richard Grafton, Henry Bynne- 
man, Reynald Wolfe, Christopher Barker, and John Wolfe, some of 
whom did excellent work. The seventeenth century is recognized to 
have been the worst period for printing in England and throughout 
Europe. McKerrow finds no press in England worthy of mention 
during this period except the Oxford University Press, 8 and Esdaile 
mentions in addition only William Dugard/' By the end of the 
century a change had taken place in the business of book-producing. 
In the early days of the Stationers' Company the functions of editor 
and publisher might be assumed by either the printer or the book- 
seller. If an author took his manuscript to a printer, the printer 
acted also as publisher and turned the completed book over to one 
or more booksellers, who acted simply as retailers. But if the manu- 
script came to a bookseller, he became the publisher ; and the printer 
had no share in the work beyond the printing of it, for which he 
was paid the prevailing rate. 

In the seventeenth century publishing came to be a separate func- 
tion, and the names to be mentioned from this time on are generally 

Materials of Research 23 

those of publishers rather than printers. In the Restoration and 
eighteenth century we find Jacob Tonson and his successors, Bernard 
Lintot, Edmund Curll, and Robert Dodsley. In the eighteenth century 
also a stimulus was given to better printing by the new types de- 
signed by William Caslon and by John Baskerville. Charles Whit- 
tingham's Chiswick Press and William Morris's Kelmscott Press 
raised the level of English printing in the nineteenth century, the 
result being that excellent work is being done today both in England 
and America, not only by various private presses and by the univer- 
sity presses, but also by a number of commercial printers. 

In the early days, the essentials of a printing establishment were 
a press and a supply of type, with two men to operate the press and 
at least one compositor to set the type. The illustrations that we 
have of early presses would suggest that one man did the inking 
of the type 31 and the other placed the paper, operated the press, 
and removed the paper. But it is the work of the compositor that 
we must consider first. 

Y/hen a manuscript was received in the printing house, it was 
handed to a compositor (or sometimes divided between two or even 
more- -compositors), along with instructions concerning the page size 
desired and the kind and size of type to be used/' 2 The compositor 

30 McKcrrow prints (Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 39-47) five illustrations 
of sixteenth-century printing presses. In four of these two men are shown working 
the press and two are setting type; the fifth shows only three figures two at the 
press and a third casting type. 

31 The inking of the type pages was done by means of two balls like overgrown 
bass drum sticks with short handles. The balls were made of leather and stuffed 
with wool or feathers or some such material. Ink was spread on a stone and taken 
up from there to be dabbed on the type pages. To ink type by this method and 
secure an even distribution of the ink must have required a very special knack, but 
the results arc uniformly and surprisingly good. 

32 Type sizes were formerly known by such strange names as Nonpareil, Minion, 
Brevier, Burgeois (pronounced, for some reason, or perhaps no reason at all, 
"burjoice"), Long Primer, Pica (pronounced with a long i), English, and Great 
Primer. Nowadays, however, these names have largely fallen into disuse; the point 
system of measurement has replaced the old nomenclature. A point is Vb of an inch, 
and various types are designated by the mumber of points they measure in height. 
Thus an eight-point type is %2 of an inch high The effect of leading (increasing 
legibility by widening the space between lines by inserting thin strips of type metal 
leads or of wood reglets) is often gained by using type which has the face of 


An Introduction to Research 

took a composing stick ;i:{ in his left hand ; then standing before the 
case :i4 containing types of the size and style required, he picked up 
the types one at a time with his right hand and placed them in the 
composing stick. 35 As the first line of type placed in the stick was to 

Figure 5. The "Lay of the Case": adapted from Joseph Moxon's Mechanick 
Exercises (1683). Reproduced through the courtesy of the Yale University 

be the top line of the page, the compositor, holding the stick upside 
down, put the first type in the lower right-hand corner of the stick ; 
this would be the first letter in the upper left-hand corner of the 
printed page. Each type had a nick or notch in the bottom side, 

one size upon the body of a larger size, as, for example, a lo-point face on a 
1 2 -point body. Type of this kind is called bastard type, and a font of it is a bastard 

nrl Modern composing sticks are made of metal and are adjustable, so that they 
can be set for whatever line-length is desired. The early printers, however, used 
composing sticks made of wood, and must have had a different stick for each line- 
length in use. 

34 Really a pair of cases, the upper containing the capitals, the numerals, and 
some other less frequently used characters; and the lower containing the small 
letters, punctuation marks, and spaces 

'* 5 It is often assumed, and there is some evidence to support the assumption, that 
in the early days of printing the compositor had his copy read aloud to him. Dr. 
McKerrow (Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 241-46) examined the evidence and 
concluded that setting-up from dictation may sometimes have been resorted to but 
could not have been the common practice. 

Materials of Research 


so that the compositor could tell, by looking for the nick, that he 
had the type turned properly, i.e. upside down. If he found, as he 
approached the end of a line, that he had some room left but not 
enough for another word or another syllable, he might remove the 

Stem (or Shank) 

Pin Mark 

Beard (or Neck) 





Figure 6. A type and its parts. 

spaces 30 which he had placed between words and substitute thicker 
ones/* 7 This process of arranging letters and spaces so that the right- 
hand margin of the page will be even is called justifying. Early 

30 The spaces are short types, which, having no face (the face being the part of 
the ordinary type that comes into contact with the paper) , do not leave any 
impression on the paper. 

n7 Between certain letters like / and h, as in the combination "small letter" or 
"final halt", the space can be increased without being made noticeable. Conversely, 
if the type-setter wishes to get one more letter in a line, he may reduce the space 
between letters such as c. e, and o, as in "public opinion" and "too early". 

26 An Introduction to Research 

printers could and probably did to depend upon variations in spelling 
to aid them in justifying. Thus the compositor could choose chance 
or chaunce ; any or ante ; me, men, or menne ; merciles or mercileffe. 

When the compositor has as much as half a dozen lines of type in 
his composing stick, the weight of the stick will begin to be burden- 
some and the danger of "pieing" the type already set by dropping 
the stick, will become increasingly great. Nowadays he would trans- 
fer these lines to a galley a shallow tray long enough to hold about 
three pages of type. When galleys came into use is not precisely 
known; but there is evidence that Elizabethan printers arranged 
their type immediately into pages, perhaps placing the lines of type, 
a few at a time, in a shallow box the size of a page, adding the catch- 
word, 38 and tying the whole with string, to keep the type in position, 
as soon as lines enough for a page had been composed. 

If we assume that the proposed book is to be a quarto the most 
common format in Elizabethan times for the shorter, more popular 
works, such as plays and "novels" like Euphucs, Rosalyndc, and 
Pandosto each sheet of paper will, before it is sewn and bound, be 
folded twice. Thus each sheet of paper will constitute four leaves 
and eight pages of the finished book. On one side of the sheet will 
be printed pages i, 4, 5, and 8 ; on the other side will be pages 2, 3, 6, 
and 7. The type pages that will produce pages i, 4, 5, and 8 are called 
the outer jorme\ the remaining four pages constitute the inner 
forme. It will be seen that, if the inner forme is printed first, 40 
the press can be started to work as soon as page 7 has been composed. 
But before any printing can be done, the printer must impose the 
type pages, i.e., he must arrange them in the proper position with 
relation to one another and then wedge them firmly in the chase 
a frame about the size of a sheet of paper so that neither the inking 
nor the pressure exerted by the press will disturb the alignment of 
the individual types. In imposing the inner forme of a quarto book 
the printer would put the top of page 2 opposite the top of page 3, 
and the top of page 7 opposite the top of page 6 ; the left or inner 
margin of page 3 would be next to the right or inner margin of 

38 See below, p. 44. 

39 So called bcjause these pages are on the outside of the sheet after the first 

40 This seems to have been the usual practice; see McKerrow, Introduction to 
Bibliography, pp. 18-19. 

Materials of Research 27 

page 6, and the inner margin of page 7 next to the inner margin of 
page 2. When the type pages are properly arranged, the spaces 
between them, and between them and the chase, are filled with 
furniture J1 pieces of wood below type height and the forme is 
locked up by driving wedges, or quoins, between the furniture and 
the chase, so that the type pages are firmly fixed in place and the 
whole forme can safely be lifted and placed in the press. By the time 
all this has been accomplished, page 8 will doubtless have been set 
up; and the printer can proceed, in similar fashion, to the imposition 
of the outer forme. The top of page 8 is placed opposite the top of 
page 5, and the top of page i is opposite page 4 ; the left (inner) mar- 
gin of page i is next to the right (inner) margin of page 8, and the 
inner margin of page 5 next to the inner margin of page 4. Thus when 
the sheet is perfected*' 2 pages i and 2 will come on opposite sides of 
the same leaf, as will 3 and 4, 5 and 6, and 7 and 8. Now we come to 
the actual printing. 

The process of printing involves two essential pieces of apparatus 
a device for holding a sheet of paper in fixed juxtaposition to a 
page, or pages, of inked type; and a device for applying pressure 
to the paper, whereby the ink is transferred from the type to the 
paper. Since, in the early form of the printing press, the device foi 
applying pressure depended upon the mechanical principle of the 
screw, and since, for convenience, the screw had to turn a little less 
than half of one revolution, giving a clearance above the paper oi 
slightly more than half an inch, a third device was necessary a 
means of sliding the paper under the pressure-applying device and 
out again. 

A description of a press such as Gutenberg and his immediate suc- 
cessors used will serve to explain the technique of printing as it waa. 

41 The width of the margin is, of course, determined by the furniture. It will be 
noticed that in an attractively printed book the type page never appears exactly in 
the middle of the page of paper. The inner margin (the gutter) is always smaller 
than the others ; then comes the top, or head, margin ; then the outer, or fore-edge ; 
and finally the bottom, or tail. A very attractive result is achieved when the height 
of the type page equals the width of the paper page. 

42 Perfecting is printing the other side of a sheet already printed on one side. 

28 An Introduction to Research 

carried on down to the beginning of the nineteenth century. There 
were refinements and improvements, to be sure; metal was substi- 
tuted for wood in various parts, for example. But it was not until 
steam power later electricity was substituted for man power, thus 
permitting the use of larger sheets of paper and the printing of more 
pages at one time, that there was any radical change in the design 
of the press. We shall consider, then, such a press as might have 
been found in an Elizabethan printing house. 

A spindle a cylindrical piece about eighteen inches long and 
threaded for three or four inches of its length was placed upright 
in a frame in such a way that when it was turned by the pulling of 
a lever it was raised or lowered according to the direction of the 
lever's motion. Fastened to the lower end of the spindle was the 
platen a rectangular piece of hard wood; in one press its dimen- 
sions were 9" by 14" by 2^/2"" Projecting from the framework in 
which the spindle was fixed was the plank, so constructed that by 
the turning of a crank it could be made to move in under the platen 
and then, by a reverse movement of the crank, back out again. The 
end of the plank nearest the platen had a frame 2*4" long and i'8" 
wide, the bottom of which was a piece of marble or other smooth 
stone. This frame with its stone the press stone was called the 
coffin ; it was in the coffin that the forme was placed. 

Hinged to the end of the coffin away from the platen was a frame 
covered with vellum, called the tympan. It had to be larger than a 
sheet of paper, perhaps 18" by 24". The paper was laid upon this 
tympan and folded down so that the paper came in contact with the 
type. Tn order to keep the margins of the pages clean, it came to be 
the practice how early we do not know '* to make use of a 
jriskct ; this was a second frame hinged to the tympan and covered 
with a sheet of paper in which holes had been cut exactly the size 
of, and in the position of, the type pages. Thus contact between paper 
and type was made through the holes, and any ink that may have 
been carelessly smeared upon the furniture surrounding the type was 
taken up by the frisket and could not spoil the margins of the printed 

In order to be sure that the pages on one side of the sheet would 
be in register with those on the other side that is, in the cor- 
responding position the sheet seems to have been folded before 

[ 29 

30 An Introduction to Research 

being put on the tympan and then placed so that two pins, fixed in 
the middle of the long sides of the tympan, pierced the sheet through 
the fold, one on each side of the sheet. 43 

When the paper had been placed in the proper position, the frisket 
was folded over upon the tympan, and frisket and tympan together 
with the paper between them were folded over upon the forme. 
The printer, by turning a crank at his left hand, caused the plank 
bearing forme, tympan, paper, and frisket to move to a marked posi- 
tion under the platen. Then, reaching out with his left hand, he seized 
the bar or lever and pulled it toward him. As soon as the outer 
end of the bar which curved away from the operator came within 
reach, the printer added the strength of his right arm to that of the 
left ; and the platen was brought down upon the tympan with suffi- 
cient pressure to transfer a clear impression of one-half of the forme 
to the paper. Then the bar was thrust back to its original position- - 
thus raising the platen and the plank was moved until the other 
half-forme came directly beneath the platen. Another pull of the bar 
completed the printing of the sheet on that side. The plank was there- 
upon moved back to its first position, the tympan and frisket were 
folded back, and the paper was lifted and hung up to dry. 

If the printer had two presses as several did he could begin to 
perfect the sheet print the other side as soon as the ink on the first 
side was dry. If he had only one press, he would have to wait until 
all the copies required for the edition had been printed on one side ; 
then he would remove the chase from the coffin, wash the forme with 
a solution that removed the remaining ink from the type, unlock the 
forme and remove the furniture, and then distribute the type i.e., 

43 When the forme was in the press ready for printing, the pressman (or, as the 
British call him, the machine minder) would pull a proof. This proof might reveal 
corrections to be made, but its chief purpose was to show whether the type page 
was giving an even impression i.e., whether the letters all appeared equally black 
on the page. If one portion of the page pressed too lightly against the paper, so 
that the letters appeared gray, or too hard, so that there was tendency for the 
types to cut into the paper, the printer might be able to make adjustments in the 
type page by pounding down the types that were too high. But another device was 
frequently resorted to in this process of making ready. A piece of paper the size and 
shape of the area that was printing too lightly was pasted on the tympan at exactly 
the proper place to press the paper more forcibly because of the greater thickness 
of the tympan at that point against the portion of the type page that was too low 
and was, consequently, printing too lightly. 

Materials of Research 31 

replace each type in its proper compartment, or box, in the type- 
case. 44 

Proofreading was done while the printing went on, usually by an 
employee of the printing house rather than the author ; that this is 
true is indicated by the fact that the mistakes that are corrected are 
likely to be those that a printer would notice. Thus a letter of the 
wrong font will be changed, but some absurd blunder affecting the 
sense of a passage is likely to remain intact. Moreover, the sheets 
that had already been printed and consequently contained mistakes 
were not destroyed. You may find four variations what might be 
called four issues of one sheet: (i) both formes corrected, (2) both 
formes uncorrected, (3) the inner forme corrected and the outer 
forme uncorrected, and (4) the outer forme corrected and the inner 
forme uncorrected. If the press was stopped a second time for cor- 
rections and that sometimes happened the number of possible 
variations would be still greater. 

The term issue just used may, perhaps, call for an explanation. 
When the type used in printing a book has been distributed, and 
then more copies of the book are printed from a new setting of type, 
the later copies represent a new edition. But when, as often happened, 
sheets printed from the original setting of type are put out with a new 
title page and perhaps some minor revision affecting only one or two 
sheets, these copies represent a new issue of the same edition. Since 
most modern books are printed from plates, a resetting of type occurs 
only when a book has been extensively revised. Hence most pub- 
lishers do not today speak of editions but rather of printings or im- 
pressions, the two terms being synonymous and meaning, in the 
singular, the copies printed in one lot or at one time. 

This is not the place for a discussion of modern printing, or of the 
different types of presses now in use. It has already been observed 
that the application of steam power and then of electricity to the 

44 If the printer anticipated a prompt demand for a second edition, he might keep 
the type pages intact by tying string around them. It could not have been very 
common, however, for a printer to have such a large stock of type that he could 
Seave a whole book unless a vsrv short one standing in type for any considerable 
length of time. 

32 An Introduction to Research 

printing industry made it possible to use larger sheets of paper and 
print more pages at a single impression. Thus an octavo book now- 
adays is likely to be printed on quad paper, four times the size of an 
ordinary sheet, giving a signature of thirty-two leaves instead of 
eight. The printer may impose both inner and outer formes of two 
sheets, signatures A and B, let us say. If a quad sheet is run through 
the press and is turned properly in perfecting, the result will be two 
perfect copies of signature A and two of B. What would formerly 
have taken eight operations of the press is thus accomplished in two. 

One or two other features of modern printing may briefly be 
touched on here. Most typesetting, except for very fine printing, is 
now done by machine. There are two kinds of machine: one, the 
linotype, casts a whole line of type in a solid slug of type metal ; the 
other, monotype, casts individual types, so that a line is made up of 
separate types, as it would be if it were set by hand. 

In the first kind of machine, which is universally used for news- 
papers and cheaper printing of various kinds, the compositor in this 
case known as a linotype operator sits at a keyboard much like a 
typewriter keyboard. Just as if he were a typist, he strikes the keys 
called for by the copy that has been given to him. As he strikes each 
key, a matrix or mold of the letter represented by that key slides 
from its magazine to join the other matrices that make up the 
required line. When the operator reaches the point at which another 
word or another syllable would make the line too long, he presses 
a lever ; thereupon, the words constituting the line are automatically 
spread apart evenly so as to bring the line out to the right-hand 
margin i.e., justify it and then molten type metal is forced into 
the mold formed by the line of matrices. The metal is quickly cooled 
as the slug falls into a galley ; it is then ready to be placed in the 
press. If the operator realizes that he has made a mistake somewhere 
in the line, he must, nevertheless, finish the line somehow ; he cannot 
stop in the middle of a line and start over. Hence he fills out the line 
with some nonsense and begins the line anew, correcting the error as 
he proceeds. (The operator or proofreader is expected to remove 
the offending slug.) Generally the operator will fill out a faulty line 
simply by running a finger down the first two rows of keys; the 
result "etaoinshrdluetaoin" is familiar to the readers of all news- 
papers whose proofreaders are not infallible. 

Materials of Research 33 

The monotype machine likewise has a keyboard, but here striking 
a key causes a certain perforation or combination of perforations to 
be made in a strip of paper that goes through the machine, like a 
typewriter ribbon but vertically instead of horizontally, from one 
spool to another. The perforated paper strip is then run through the 
casting machine ; as in a mechanical piano player a certain perfora- 
tion in the roll causes a certain note to be struck, so here the proper 
combination of perforations causes a matrix of the desired letter to 
fall into place. The matrix is filled with type metal, and thus a single 
type is formed. Monotype is commonly used for books and for better 
printing generally. It gives a rather more artistic result than is 
usually achieved with linotype ; and it has the very great advantage 
that a wrong letter can be corrected by the substitution of the correct 
letter ; whereas with linotype the whole line must be reset with the 
ever-present likelihood that in the correcting of one mistake another 
mistake will be made elsewhere in the line. 

The economy of mechanical typesetting is such as to compensate 
in the opinion of the commercial printer, at least- -for any lack of 
artistic quality such as may be achieved by hand composition; 4r> for 
not only is the actual setting much speedier, but in addition the time 
formerly required in distributing the type is saved. With machine 
composition, once the type has been used for printing or for making 
plates it is thrown into the caldron to be melted up and the metal 
used over again. Another advantage of machine composition is that 
the compositor does not have to be on the watch to discard broken 
or defaced types, such as are to be found in any font of type that has 
been much used. 

The mention of plates brings up another feature of modern print- 
ing. In the United States the actual type pages, whether set by hand 
or by machine, are not used for printing, except for small editions ; 46 
instead, a mold is made of the type page, either with plaster of Paris 
or, more commonly, a pulp called flong made of paper and paste. 
When the paper pulp is properly pressed or beaten down upon the 
type surface, a matrix is formed into which molten type metal can 

45 W. T. Crouch has an interesting comment on machine composition in his 
chapter, "Book-Making in the South", in The Annual of Book-Making (New 
York: The Colophon, 1938). 

40 In England the first impression of a book is commonly printed direct from 
type, plates being made for later impressions. 

34 An Introduction to Research 

be poured to form a stereotype plate. Several matrices can be made 
from a type page before the type is broken up, each matrix can be 
used for half a dozen plates, and each set of plates can be used to 
print a great many copies of a book. Hence it is seldom necessary in 
these days for a book to be set up in type more than once, unless, of 
course, extensive revisions are to be made in it. 

Another method of producing plates for printing is electroplating ; 
in this process a wax mold is made of the type page, and the mold is 
then dusted with graphite, to make it an electrical conductor. By 
electrolysis a thin shell of copper is deposited upon the mold, which, 
when backed up with type metal, gives a more perfect reproduction 
of the type page and a more satisfactory printing surface than the 
stereotype plate. The electrotype plates are slower to make, however, 
and consequently more expensive. 

One more kind of printing may be mentioned here in passing. 47 In 
offset printing the ink is transferred from type or plate to a rubber 
cylinder, then from the rubber cylinder to paper ; this kind of print- 
ing is known to everyone through the rotogravure sections of Sunday 
newspapers, though it has other uses also. 


After the sheets have left the printer's hands, they are still to be 
made into books. The simplest practicable method of folding and 
fastening together sheets of paper to form a book is that in which 
each sheet is folded once across its smaller dimension and sewn, by 
means of stitches through the fold, to cords or tapes which hold it 
together with the other sheets comprising the book. This method of 
folding produces the format known as folio. Each sheet of paper 
forms two leaves (four pages) from eleven to sixteen inches high and 
from eight to eleven inches wide.' 5 Since this method of construc- 
tion causes all the folds to come together in the back, making the 
back edge of the book much thicker than the fore edge, and results in 
an unnecessary amount of sewing, it became the common practice to 
put two or more folio sheets together, one inside another, before 
sewing. If two sheets are placed together, making a gathering of four 
leaves (eight pages), the book is a folio in fours] if three sheets are 

47 See below, p. 52. 

Materials of Research 




Scale 1:7 



Figure 8. Sketches showing the direction of the chain lines and the position of 
the watermark in various formats. 

used to a gathering, the result is a folio in sixes. One may find folios 
also in eights, tens, and twelves. 

If a sheet is folded as for a folio, and then folded again across the 
other dimension, the result is a quarto sheet, with four leaves (eight 
pages) about seven inches by ten inches in size. Another fold, pro- 

36 An Introduction to Research 

ducing eight leaves from six to eight inches wide and from eight to 
eleven inches high, gives the octavo format. Still another fold pro- 
duces sextodecimo, generally referred to as sixteenmo ; and there are 
also such formats as thirty-twomo and sixty- jour mo. Other methods 
of folding will produce sheets or gatherings of twelve (duodecimo), 
twenty-four (twenty- fourmo), or even forty-eight (jorty-eightmo) 
leaves. The common abbreviations for book formats are : Fol., 4 to , 8 VO , 
i2 mo , i6 mo , 24 lno , 32 mo , 48 mo , and 64 mo . 

It has already been observed that the translucent lines crossing a 
sheet of laid paper and spaced about an inch apart are known as 
chain lines. Since we know that the chain lines always cross the sheet 
along its smaller dimension, we can make use of that knowledge in 
determining the format of a book. In folios the chain lines will cross 
the page longitudinally ; in quartos, transversely ; * 8 in octavos, longi- 
tudinally again ; in sextodecimos, transversely again ; and so on, the 
direction changing with each additional fold. The direction of the 
chain lines in duodecimos and twenty-fourmos will depend upon the 
method of folding used. 49 

The position of the watermark when one can be found will 
serve to confirm the evidence of the chain lines. In folios there should 
be a watermark in the middle of one leaf of each sheet and none f)0 in 
the other leaf. In quartos the watermark will be found on leaves 
i and 4 or 2 and 3 in the inner margin of the leaf, halfway between 
top and bottom. In octavos the watermark will appear if it has not 

48 A book may be found of the right size for an octavo and with longitudinal 
chain lines but with four leaves to a sheet; such a book must have been printed 
on half-sheets of paper, and might be described as a quarto in half-sheets. Books are 
also sometimes found of quarto format but with vertical chain lines; these were 
apparently printed on half-sheets of double-size paper. See Allen T. Hazen, "Eight- 
eenth-Century Quartos with Vertical Chain-Lines", The Library, 4th Series, XVI 
(1935-36), 337-42. 

49 Experiments with folding will show that a duodecimo gathering could be pro- 
duced by folding a sheet once, as for folio, then folding it into thirds, and then 
folding once again. Or a sheet may be folded as for octavo, and a half-sheet, folded 
twice, inserted to make a twelve-leaf gathering. Or a sheet may be folded in thirds 
first and then folded twice again. And there are still other methods. (See McKerrow, 
An Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 169-73 and 325-28.) In any method, however, 
the final fold must involve all the leaves of the gathering so that they will all be 
held by the binder's stitches. 

50 Folios of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries may have a counter-mark 
in the other leaf; see above, p. 13. 

Materials of Research 37 

been cut away by the binder at the top of the inner margin of leaves 
i, 4, 5, and 8 or 2, 3, 6, and 7. Binders are likely to have removed all 
traces of a watermark from sextodecimos; but if any traces are 
present, they should be found normally on leaves 9, 12, 13, and 16 in 
the top, outer corner of the leaf. 

In octavo and formats of smaller size some of the leaves are joined 
by folds at the outer margin, which must be cut through with a knife 
or trimmed off by the binder before the book can be read. 51 These 
folds are called bolts ; r>2 and pages are generally so imposed and 
sheets so folded that the bolts come in the second half of the sheet. 
Thus in an octavo, leaves 5 and 6 will be joined at the outer margin, 
as will leaves 7 and 8. 

Two leaves that comprise one piece of paper folded at the back 
and stitched through by the binder are said to be conjugate. In an 
octavo sheet leaves i and 8 would be conjugate, as would 2 and 7, 
3 and 6, and 4 and 5. Cancels r ' 3 can often be discovered by the fact 
that the lines of print are not even with those of the corresponding 
conjugate leaf as of course they should be if the imposing has been 
done properly but are either higher or lower on the page. 54 

51 A book in which the leaves have not been cut apart is described by bibliogra- 
phers and booksellers as unopened. A book which is said to be uncut is one in which 
the margins are of the original width, indicating that the book has not been reduced 
in size by having been rebound. An uncut book is naturally more valuable than one 
which has been cut down; such a book is sometimes referred to as a tall copy. There 
is no premium on unopened books. 

52 Similar folds at the top edge of the leaves in quartos and all smaller sizes, and 
at the bottom of the leaves in some formats, are sometimes also called bolts. 

53 A cancel is a leaf in which some correction or expurgation or other revision has 
been made, so that the binder may cut out the original leaf and substitute the cancel. 
The leaf replaced by a cancel is called a cancelland. 

M Cancels may also be discovered by the stub which the binder leaves when 
sewing the cancel into the book to make sure that his stitches will hold. Unless a 
book is very tightly bound, the stub of a cancel will be plainly visible. Another 
indication of a cancel is a signature on a leaf which would not ordinarily be signed. 
If, in a quarto in which only the first three leaves of a sheet are regularly signed, 
one finds a fourth leaf signed, he may suspect it to be a cancel. Any cancel would, 
of course, have to be signed in order that the binder will know where to insert it. 

38 An Introduction to Research 

If one examines an old book or a modern book printed in England, 
he will discover a letter, or two or three letters, printed just below 
and generally near the middle of the last line on certain pages. This 
letter, or combination of letters, 55 is called a signature ; it is intended 
to serve as a guide to the binder of the book. A signature will be 
found on the first page (the recto side of the first leaf) of each of the 
sheets except the first which when sewn together, constitute the 
complete book ; the first sheet, since the first page of it is likely to be 
blank, or to contain the title or half title, and since it is easily recog- 
nized as the first sheet, is generally unsigned, i.e., bears no signature. 
In old books, the second, third, and sometimes other leaves of a sheet 
were also signed, the general though by no means invariable rule 
having been to sign one more than half the leaves in every sheet or 
gathering. In an ordinary quarto or octavo there is little reason for 
signing any leaf beyond the first ; but suppose that the binder is deal- 
ing with a folio. He may not know at first whether it is an ordinary 
folio, or a folio in fours, in sixes, or in eights. He picks up the first 
sheet that comes to him and finds it signed B ; another sheet, B2, is 
obviously intended to go inside B ; seeing still another sheet, 3, he 
puts that inside B2. But is this a folio in sixes or in eights ? Unless he 
stops to read the inside pages of Bj, he cannot tell, in the absence of 
a signature, whether or not another sheet 64 is meant to go inside 
Bj. But if, on opening Bj, he finds the second leaf signed (on page 3 
of that sheet or page 7 of the gathering) 84, he knows that there is 
no other sheet to be inserted, that he is dealing with a folio in sixes. 
Thus the habit arose of signing quartos B, B2, Bj, with the fourth 
leaf unsigned ; octavos are likely to run B, B2, Bj, Bq, B$, followed 
by three unsigned leaves ; and similarly with other formats. 

I have used the B signature above as an illustration because it is 
usually in first editions, at least the first regular signature in a 
book. The reader may have observed that authors, even today, are 
likely to write the introduction to a book after the text of the book 
is finished. In the earlier days of printing it appears that the intro- 

55 In modern books a number is sometimes found on a line with the signature 
but generally near the inner margin ; this number is a serial number assigned by the 
publisher to that particular work. If the work consists of more than one volume, 
the volume number is given also. 

Materials of Research 39 

ductory matter the so-called preliminaries 56 was frequently 
brought to the printer after he had started work on the text of the 
book. Hence the practice arose of signing the first sheet or gathering 
of a work B, leaving signature A for the preliminaries when they 
should be ready for the compositor. As authors usually knew how to 
limit themselves in space (though not always in the warmth of their 
praises of the dedicatee and the reader), the printer was generally 
able to get all of the preliminaries in one sheet or gathering ; some- 
times he could even leave the first leaf blank. In the latter event, the 
title page would be /1 2 ; but it would normally be unsigned. The first 
signature, /lj, would come on the third leaf (fifth page) of the sheet; 
and the following leaf, A4, the last of the sheet if the book were a 
quarto would be unsigned. If it proved to be impossible to get all of 
the preliminaries on one sheet, another sheet or half-sheet signed 
Aa might be used ; or both sheets might be signed with asterisks, 
* and **, instead of letters. 

One may wonder why binders found it necessary to use signatures 
when they could have guided themselves by page numbers instead, 
thus, in an octavo or quarto in eights, taking page 17 as the first page 
of the second sheet or gathering, page 33 as the beginning of the 
third, and so on. But a moment's reflection will show that for several 
reasons the signatures are more practical. In the first place, the pages 
of early books were seldom numbered. The manuscript practice was 
to number leaves rather than pages ; hence when we find any num- 
bering in early books down to the end of the sixteenth century, say 
it is likely to be joliation (numbering by leaves) rather than 
pagination. Of course the binder could have used leaf numbers as 
well as page numbers; but the fact is that printers were almost 
incredibly careless in their handling of such numbers, and the binder 
who tried to make use of the numbering, whether of pages or of 
leaves, would have found himself frequently at a loss. Moreover, the 
successive sheets of an octavo would not necessarily begin with pages 
17, 33, 49, 65, and so on; even if the preliminaries are separately 
paged, as is the usual practice today, and the text begins on the first 

30 In Elizabethan times the preliminaries generally consisted of title page, dedica- 
tory epistle, and an epistle to the readers; often commendatory verses generally 
contributed by the author's friends were added. 

40 An Introduction to Research 

page of a sheet, there may be full-page illustrations which take up 
one or more pages but are not included in the numbering. 

If a second edition of a work was called for, the printer sometimes 
found it possible to reduce the amount of space devoted to the pre- 
liminaries perhaps by reducing the size of the type and to begin 
the text on A4 instead of Bi ; then the page numbers at the begin- 
ning of the sheets would be 3, n, 19, 27 (assuming that the book is a 
quarto) instead of i, 9, 17, and 25. 

Since the early signatures were derived from the Latin alphabet, 
in which / and /, and U and F, were not differentiated, printers used 
either / or /, but not both, and U or F, but never both. W was 
omitted, perhaps because it was felt to be literally a double-U or 
double-V. 57 The signatures normally found, then, are: A, B, C, I), E, 
F, G, H, T (or J), K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U (or V), X, Y, 
and Z. If the book contains more than twenty-three sheets or gather- 
ings, the printer would start through the alphabet again, sometimes 
using lower case letters instead of capitals, but generally doubling the 
letter, either AA, BB, and so on, or Aa, Bb. There is seldom, if ever, 
any significance to be attached to the style of type used in signatures, 
as the compositor generally used type of the same font that he was 
using in the line preceding the signature. 58 

American printers have, to the annoyance of British bibliographers, 
devised a means of dispensing with signatures. Mr. Esdaile wrote 
with, I think, evident exasperation 

Will it be believed that all these complications, two volumes, separately 
paged preliminaries, unpaged block pages, and no signatures, are intro- 
duced into a standard and finely produced recent book on printing, 
written and printed by a modern American scholar-printer, in fact, no 
other than Mr. Daniel Berkeley Updike's Printing Types? Koelhoff of 
Cologne was more practical in 1472. * 4 

But Mr. Updike and other American printers have been more con- 
cerned about the opinions of lay readers than about those of bibliog- 
raphers. They apparently feel that if the signature which adds 
nothing to the content of the page but rather detracts from its appear- 
ance can be eliminated without undue hardship on printers and 

57 Whenever a printer ran out of W's, as often happened toward the end of a long 
signature, he got around the difficulty very nicely by using two V's, thus: VV. 

58 The kind of type used in certain signatures is sometimes mentioned in descrip- 
tions, however, as it may help to identify an edition. 

Materials of Research 41 

binders, they will willingly bear the brunt of the disapproval of 
bibliographers, who will be constrained to refer prosaically to p. 36 
instead of using such esoteric terms as Zzz$ or P6 ". However, the 
bibliographers, being a conservative lot, will doubtless continue to 
ignore the page numbers and will write instead " | Zzz3 1 " and 
"|P6 V |" r>{) (the brackets indicating that the leaves are unsigned). 

The method adopted by the American publishing trade to eliminate 
signatures is to print a spot of ink, generally square or rectangular, 
on the outer fold of each sheet or gathering. The spot on the first 
sheet is near the top of the fold, that on the second is just a little 
lower, that on the third still lower, and so on. Thus if a binder takes 
up a pile of sheets constituting, presumably, a complete copy of a 
book, there will be a line of spots extending diagonally across what 
will be the back of the book. If one gathering is missing, there will be 
a break in the line; if there are two copies of the same sheet, there 
will be two spots side by side ; if any sheet is not in its proper place, 
the fact will immediately be evident. The binder can see at a glance, 
without stopping to look for, or at, signatures, whether the book is 
complete and whether the sections are in the correct order." 

The terms sheet and gathering are rather loosely used. Some bib- 
liographers speak of a sheet (meaning the portion of a book compris- 
ing a single sheet of paper) when ordinary folios, quartos, or octavos 
are involved, and reserve the term gathering for two sheets folded 
together in folios in fours and quartos in eights, or three sheets folded 
together in folios in sixes, and so on. Others call the portion of a book 
bearing one signature a gathering, whether it is made up of a single 
sheet of paper, a half sheet, or several sheets. 01 

59 Verso (left, as a book lies open) pages are distinguished from recto (right) 
pages by the use of a superior "v"; some bibliographers, however (Esdaile, Student's 
Manual of Bibliography, p. 259), use a superior "a" for recto and u b" for verso; 
they would write "Bi a " instead of "Bi" and "P6 b " instead of "P6 V ". 

60 The method just described seems to have been used in my copy of Mr. Esdaile's 
book, from which I quoted above. Although the book was printed in England and 
contains a full complement of signatures, there are traces to be seen on several of 
the gatherings of ink spots that could hardly have served any purpose other than 
that of guiding the binder. 

61 Dr. McKerrow wrote: " 'Gatherings' are sometimes called 'quires', and the use 
of the word has good authority to commend it, but neither this nor 'gathering' 
seems appropriate when a single sheet is in question. 'Section' has also been sug- 
gested, but has the disadvantage that the word is commonly applied to divisions 
of a book's literary content. It would, I think, be better if some new word could be 

42 An Introduction to Research 

When a statement concerning the printer or publisher of a book (or 
both printer and publisher) appears on the title page, it is called an 
imprint ; when such information is given at the end of a book, the 
proper term is colophon. Most of the early books had colophons ; but 
through the sixteenth century the tendency was for an imprint to 
take the place of the colophon, and after 1600 the colophon prac- 
tically disappeared. 62 Imprints in sixteenth-century English books 
generally took such forms as these : 

Imprinted at London for Thomas 

C adman, dwelling at the great North do ore 

of S. Paules, at the figne of the Byble. 


Imprinted at London, in Fleete- 

ftreate, beneath the Condu\te y at 

the figne of S. lohn Euangelift, 

by H. lack f on. 


At London 
Imprinted for Wil- 
liam Ponfonby. 



Printed by Ihon Wolfe for Edward White 

and are to bee fold at his fhop, at the litle 

North doore of Paules, at the figne of 

the Gunne. 

I587.' 8 

Printed by lohn Wolfe,for EdwardWhite. is88. lp 

introduced such as 'consute' (i.e. what is sewed together), which has no other asso- 
ciations." (An Introduction to Bibliography, p. 25, n. 2.) 

02 Colophons have, however, been revived in modern times. See, for example, 
McKerrow, An Introduction to Bibliography: "Printed in England at the University 
Press, Oxford / By John Johnson, Printer to the University" (p. [360]). 

Materials of Research 43 

Printed at London by Roger Ward, for 
Thomas Cadman. i$8g. 20 

Imprinted by lohn Wolfe, and are to bee fold at his 
fhop at Poules Chayne. 

Imprinted at London for T.C. and E.A.** 

Imprinted at London by Roger 

Warde,dwelling at the figne of 

the Talbot neere vnto Hol- 

burne Conduit. 


It will be seen from these examples that the imprint may or may 
not give the name of the printer (unless he was also the publisher) ; 
but it regularly gives the name of the publisher, that is, the book- 
seller. Thus the chief function of the imprint seems to have been to 
inform a prospective buyer as to where he might find copies of the 
book for sale. 

Three of the books included above have colophons. Arbasto has 
(on H3 V ) "Imprinted at London by lohn Windet / and Thomas 
ludfon, for Hugh / lackefon. Anno. 1584!' (The "by H. lackfon" of 
the imprint is evidently an error; it should be "for" instead of "by", 
as in the colophon.) Gwydonius has (on X2 V ) "AT LONDON / 
Printed by T. East, for William Ponfonby. / 1584." In The Myrrour 
of Modestic the colophon appears in the middle of a page (Xy), with 
decorations of type ornaments above and below it ; the colophon 
reads: "LONDON / Printed by Ro- / ger Ward dwelling at / the 
figne of the Talbot, / neere vnto Holhurne / Conduit. / 1584." The 
last page of The Spanish Masquerado (4) contains a decoration, 
which may be the device of Ward or Cadman, 03 and may thus have 
served the purpose of a colophon. 

03 I do not find it among the devices given by McKerrow in his Printers' and 
Publishers' Devices Used in England and Scotland 1485-1640 ( London: printed for 
the Bibliographical Society at the Cheswick Press, 1913) ; it bears some resemblance 
to McKerrow's #179 and #378, but it is smaller and cruder than either of those. 

44 An Introduction to Research 

We have found the word register used in printing to refer to the 
arranging of the type pages and the paper so that the impression on 
one side of the sheet corresponds exactly to that on the other side. 64 
In bibliography a register is a list of signatures, sometimes found at 
the end of a book ; by comparing the signatures given in the register 
with those on the sheets or gatherings as he brought them together 
for binding, the binder could tell when he had a complete book. If 
there was nothing unusual about the signatures, 6 '" 5 a register was 
unnecessary, and hence is seldom found in English books. (Registers 
are more common in books printed on the Continent.) 

From about 1520 down to the end of the eighteenth century it was 
the practice of printers to put below the end of the last line of each 
page, the first word or the first syllable or two of very long words- - 
of the following page. Such words are called catchwords. The practice 
may have been carried over from manuscript days, when catchwords, 
like signatures, served as a guide to binders; but "Dr. McKerrow's 
suggestion that the chief function of catchwords was to serve as 
a guide to the printer in imposing his pages 2J> seems a likely one. 66 

Large capital letters, whether woodcuts or metal castings, used at 
the beginning of a chapter or paragraph, are called ornamental 
initials or, abbreviatedly, initials." 7 Such letters are of great im- 
portance to bibliographers. Often they furnish the best- -perhaps the 

64 The word register is also used to mean the exact correspondence of different 
impressions when two or more impressions are to be made on the same side of the 
sheet, as in color printing; see below, p. 53. 

65 For a case in which a register might have been helpful see Chauncey Sanders 
and William A. Jackson, U A Note on Robert Greene's Plane tomac hia" , The Library, 
4th Series, XVI ( 1935-36), [ 4441-47- 

00 The fact that John Johnson in his Typographia (II, 133, as quoted by McKer- 
row, An Introduction to Bibliography, p. 83) refers to catchwords as "direction- 
words" would support the belief that printers looked at the catchwords to set 
whether type pages were properly imposed. 

67 Strictly speaking, the term capital letter should mean a large letter used at the 
beginning of a chapter; but in common usage, even among printers, capitals or caps 
are upper case letters. 

Materials of Research 45 

only means of identifying the printer of a book ; 8 and, what is 
more important, they may furnish information as to the date, or at 
least the order, of different books or editions. 

An ornamental block with an opening in the center into which can 
be inserted an upper case letter from an ordinary font of type 
whatever letter the text calls for is called a factotum or fac. 
Factotums were generally, if not always, cast; copies of the same 
design may be found in the work of several printers. For that reason 
they seldom offer much information to the student. 


Almost as long as there have been books, there has been decorating 
of books. Sometimes the decoration consists merely of such printed 
ornamental initials as have just been mentioned. Sometimes certain 
letters are colored, either by hand or by making a second impression 
with colored ink. Sometimes there are pictures at first drawn or 
painted by hand, later produced by some form of printing- which are 
meant to elucidate or emphasize the text. 

In the age of manuscripts the scribe frequently left spaces at 
strategic points, such as the beginning of a chapter, in which a 
rubrisher to use the common English form instead of the Latin 
rubricator painted letters in red or blue ; such letters might there- 
after be further adorned with silver or gold by an illuminator. The 
third step, applied in the finer manuscripts, was the addition of 
miniature paintings appropriate to the text of the work, such as the 
paintings of the Canterbury pilgrims in the Ellesmere manuscript of 
Chaucer's Canterbury Talcs, now in the Huntington Library. 

After the invention of printing, illumination gradually died out; 
when books became relatively cheap, there was no point in bestowing 

68 If it should ever be found that one printer borrowed a set of ornamental 
initials from another, many of these identifications would, of course, be invalid. It 
seems likely, however, that the possession of a fine set of initials would be an asset 
a printer would be reluctant to share with any one. 

09 Since a factotum is something which does all things and serves all purposes, 
a printer's factotum is well named; it enables the printer to make one ornament 
serve for all the letters of the alphabet. 

46 An Introduction to Research 

expensive handwork upon them. Printed illustrations took the place 
of those done by hand. All printed illustrations fall into one or 
another of three classes: relief, intaglio, and planograph. In relief 
illustrations, as in letterpress printing, the background is cut away so 
that only the design takes ink and can be transferred to the paper. 
In intaglio work the design is cut into a block or plate. After being 
inked, the surface of the plate is wiped clean; when the plate is 
applied with strong pressure to paper, the ink remaining in the 
incised lines is transferred to the paper. In the planograph method 
the design is drawn upon a flat surface ; we shall see later how such 
a design can be printed. 

Line engraving on copper (an intaglio process) was known as early 
as was woodcut printing, technically known as xylography ; but in 
the early days of printing, woodcut illustrations were more popular 
than engraved ones because they could be printed along with letter- 
press in one operation, whereas the printing of engraved illustrations 
requires such great pressure that it must be done as a separate opera- 
tion. A distinction may be made between woodcutting and wood 
engraving. In woodcutting, which is the older process, the illustrator 
works with a block of wood planed with the grain u on the plank" ; 
with a knife he cuts away everything except the portions that are to 
appear black on the paper. In wood engraving the work is done on 
the end of a block of hard wood, usually boxwood, across the grain; 
with a graver instead of a knife the artist cuts into the wood the lines 
that are to be white in the illustration. Thus woodcutting is a black- 
line process, the design being the part that prints; and wood 
engraving is a white-line process, with the background taking the ink. 
Both are relief processes, however, since in both it is the high part of 
the block that takes the ink and transfers the impression. 70 

Woodcut illustrations fell into disfavor during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, but regained their popularity and remain 
popular today. In modern practice the printing is done not with the 
wooden block itself but with an electrotype plate. 

70 In recent times a good deal of work has been done using linoleum blocks instead 
of wood ; the process is the same, and the result is similar but somewhat coarser. 

Materials of Research 47 

The oldest of the intaglio processes is line engraving, at first on 
copper (copperplate), later on steel (steel engraving). In this method 
the artist cuts lines into the metal by means of a sharp tool called a 
burin. The ridge of metal (called the burr) thrown up by the burin is 
scraped away; then the plate is inked and wiped clean. When the 
plate is applied to paper with sufficient pressure, the paper is forced 
into the lines and the ink is transferred to the paper. If the paper is 
larger than the plate as is usually the case that portion of the 
sheet which was in contact with the plate will be smoothed and 
depressed by the pressure applied ; the line between that portion and 
the margin of the sheet is called the plate line. The absence of a plate 
line is generally evidence that the engraving has been trimmed and 
is, consequently, less valuable, since lettering or even a part of the 
design may have been cut away. 71 

Line engraving was used as early as the fifteenth century, became 
popular in the sixteenth, and largely replaced woodcuts in the seven- 
teenth. The softness of copper makes it impossible to make many 
impressions from a plate without damaging it ; hence the first prints 
made from a plate are more valuable than later ones. About 1800, 
engravers began working on steel instead of copper ; the harder metal 
made greater delicacy of line possible, even to the point of suggesting 
tone instead of line. (Earlier engravers had used cross-hatching for 
the purpose of suggesting tone, but without much success, as can be 
seen in the Droeshout portrait of Shakspere in the First Folio.) 
Toward the middle of the nineteenth century the practice of engrav- 
ing on steel died out. 

In the second intaglio process, drypoint, the design is drawn on 
copper with a steel point, like a pencil ; the burr which is thrown up 
is not removed but is left to hold ink. The result is a softer line than 
that produced by line-engraving. As the burr soon wears down, dry- 
point is not suitable for illustrating a book of which many copies are 
to be printed. 

The desire to achieve the effect of tone in engravings led to the 
invention in the seventeenth century of the process called mezzotint. 
In this method the engraver first roughens the entire plate by means 

71 In many book illustrations, especially in the first part of the nineteenth century, 
the printing was done on a large sheet, which was afterward cut up. Thus the 
whole sheet would have shown a plate line, but the individual illustrations do not. 

48 An Introduction to Research 

of a curved tool called a cradle or rocker ; thus the whole plate at this 
stage would print black. Then in the parts of the design that are to 
be almost as dark as the deepest black, the engraver lightly rubs 
down the burr so that it will hold less ink ; the next lighter portions- 
he rubs down still more ; and so on, until he comes to the high lights, 
which are rubbed smooth and polished so that they will hold no ink 
at all. Mezzotint was very popular in the eighteenth century, rather 
died out in the nineteenth, but has to some extent been revived. 

Several intaglio processes are forms of etching, in which the incis- 
ing of the plate is done with acid. The etcher covers his plate with 
some waxy compound that is resistant to acid ; then he generally 
smokes the surface by passing it above the flame of a candle or an 
oil lamp. This strengthens the resistance of the ground and also 
makes the surface opaque so that the etcher can see the lines as he 
draws them. With a sharp point (such as a steel phonograph needle) 
the etcher cuts through the soot-covered ground but avoids cutting 
into the metal. When the drawing is finished, the acid, or mordant 
(generally nitric acid diluted with water), is applied* and allowed to 
bite into the plate wherever the ground has been removed. When the 
etcher thinks that the lines that are to be lightest have been bitten 
deeply enough, he removes the plate from the acid-bath and stops out 
those lines by applying fresh ground or varnish. He then replaces 
the plate in the acid, and continues to remove and replace until all 
the lines have been bitten to the required depth. Then the plate is 
ready for proving. The resulting impressions or proofs whether one 
or many constitute the first state of the etching. Generally the 
etcher is not satisfied with the result thus far achieved but proceeds 
to remove some lines and add others. W T hen next a proof is pulled, it 
represents the second state. Every change that is made the addition 
or removal of a single line produces a new state ; these are, however, 
merely trial states. When the etcher is satisfied, an edition is printed, 
which becomes the first published state. 72 

In soft-ground etching, tallow is added to the ground to make it 
softer and somewhat adhesive. Then a piece of paper is laid over the 

72 The Encyclopedia Britannica (i4th ed., s.v. "Etching") shows four states of 
an etching of a bridge. The etcher was satisfied with the bridge in his first attempt; 
but certain shadows in the water were produced first with vertical, then with 
horizontal, again with vertical, and finally with horizontal strokes. 

Materials of Research 49 

ground and the design is drawn upon the paper with a pencil. When 
the paper is lifted from the plate, part of the ground clings to the 
paper ; where the pressure of the pencil was greatest, the most ground 
will be removed and the resultant etched lines will be broadest. Since 
the ground is nowhere removed so completely as it is by a point, the 
effect achieved is like that of a pencil drawing. A similar effect is 
attained in crayon etching, in which the lines are drawn in the ground 
with a roulette] thus each line is actually a row of fine dots. The 
regular spacing of the dots distinguishes roulette etching from soft- 
ground etching and from aquatint. 

In aquatint the ground is made grainy by the addition of sand or 
powdered resin. Any portion of the design that is to be white is 
covered with stopping-out varnish. The first biting produces the parts 
that are to be printed most lightly; these are then stopped out, and 
the plate is bitten again and again until all the desired gradations 
of tone have been achieved. The sand or resin in the ground continues 
to resist the acid, so that there is an effect of white dots in the printed 
surface, as in soft-ground etching. Aquatint, though probably older 
than the eighteenth century, was most popular during that period ; it 
died out in the latter part of the nineteenth century, but has since 
been revived. 

In lithography the design is neither incised nor in relief; thus the 
process is a planographic one. It depends upon the principle that 
grease attracts grease and water repels it. The design to be printed 
is drawn with a greasy crayon or pencil upon a smooth stone ; water 
is then poured on the stone and allowed to sink in, wetting the 
surface wherever there is no covering of grease. When the stone is 
inked, the water-soaked parts of the surface repel the ink which is 
itself a form of grease and the greasy lines attract it, thus leaving 
ink only on the lines that are to be printed. In practice, since a stone 
is not very portable, the drawing is usually done on paper and later 
transferred to the stone. A great advantage of using paper is that 
one can make the drawing just as it is to appear, since it will be 
reversed in transferring it to the stone and reversed again in the 

73 A zinc or aluminum plate with an especially prepared surface is sometimes used 
instead of a stone. 

50 An Introduction to Research 

printing; if one draws directly on the stone, he must make his 
drawing in reverse. Lithography was not very popular in England, 
largely because it was not very well done; since 1900 there has been 
considerable interest in the art and much good work has resulted. 
Colored lithographs chromolithographs or chromos were produced 
by using two or more stones, each inked with a different color ; some 
of these were so inartistic that the word chromo has come to have a 
very bad connotation. 

When the engraver or etcher is also the designer, the print is called 
an original engraving or etching. When two persons are involved, the 
designer's name, if given, generally appears in the lower left-hand 
corner, followed by the abbreviation del (for delincavit: "he drew 
it") or pinx (for pinxit: "he painted it") ; the engraver's name then 
appears in the lower right-hand corner, followed by the abbreviation 
sculp (for sculpsit: "he carved it"). In describing such a print one 
should say "By the engraver, after the designer", as "Etching by 
Jackson after Turner". 

The development of photography has led to methods of reproduc- 
ing illustrations too numerous and too complex to be discussed here 
in any detail. It may be said briefly, however, that there are two 
kinds of photographic printing plates line blocks and half-tone 
blocks. If the illustration is a line drawing, such as a pen-and-ink 
sketch, a photographic negative is made, in which, of course, the 
black lines of the original are white. Light is then passed through the 
negative so that it falls on a sheet of sensitized gelatine. The gelatine 
hardens when struck by light ; hence the black lines of the original 
(the white of the negative) are hardened and remain when the unaf- 
fected gelatine is washed away. The gelatine mold if one may call 
it that is then transferred to a metal plate, generally zinc, and the 
plate is etched. The gelatine serves as a mordant-resisting ground ; 
the white background of the original is etched away and only the 
black lines remain to take ink. The etched plate is mounted on wood 
to bring it to type height and is then ready to print. Such line blocks 
are called zincographs or zincos in England. 

Materials of Research 51 

If gradations of tone are to be represented in the illustration, it is 
necessary to break up the dark areas into masses of tiny dots ; the 
lighter grays will have smaller dots than the darker portions. To 
accomplish this, resort is made to a screen made up of two sheets of 
glass. Each of these sheets has opaque lines crossing it diagonally, 
from sixty to four hundred lines to the inch. The sheets are put 
together so that the lines cross, forming a latticework of black lines. 
The picture to be reproduced is fastened to a copy-board, and rays 
of light from powerful lamps are thrown upon it in such a way that 
they are reflected from the picture and pass through the aperture and 
lens of a camera, then through the screen, to fall at last upon a sen- 
sitized glass plate. Each tiny opening in the screen acts like the 
aperture in a pin-hole camera ; thus the size of the image thrown 
upon the plate from each opening depends upon the amount of light 
passing through the hole. If the light is strong as is that reflected 
from the white portions of the picture the image will be large ; the 
darker the area in the original picture, the smaller will be the cor- 
responding image on the plate. By regulating the size and shape of 
the aperture in the camera, the distance between the screen and the 
plate, and the time of exposure, the photoengraver can manage to 
have the images on the plate corresponding to the white areas in the 
picture so large that they almost but not quite join ; in the parts 
of the plate corresponding to the dark areas, the images are smaller 
and, consequently, farther apart. 

Since the lens of the camera has reversed the image, it must be 
reversed again before being transferred to the half-tone block. This 
reversal may be achieved either by stripping from the glass plate the 
coating which contains the negative, or by turning the plate. Then a 
contact print is made from the negative upon a copper plate sen- 
sitized with gelatine and potassium bichromate. The color values will, 
of course, be reversed upon the copper ; where the white images on 
the negative are largest (representing black areas in the original 
picture), relatively large dots of hardened gelatine will be produced 
by the action of the light ; and in areas where the white images are 
smallest (corresponding to portions that are white in the original), 
small dots will be left on the plate after the unexposed gelatine is 
washed off. Resin is then added to form a better resist, and the plate 
is etched. The result is a copper plate with a surface irregularly 

52 An Introduction to Research 

dotted, with large dots almost but not quite touching each other 
where the original picture is black, and small dots farther apart where 
the picture is white. When the plate is inked and applied to paper, 
the large dots will produce the illusion of solid black, and the small 
dots, of white. 

Coarse screen half-tones sixty-line are suitable only for such 
work as newspaper illustrations ; in them the individual dots of the 
half-tone can easily be distinguished. Finer screen blocks require 
paper with a very smooth surface, originally obtained by coating, but 
now generally achieved by loading and calendering. 

Other methods of producing plates for illustrations are photo- 
gravure (an intaglio process, like a photographic aquatint), roto- 
gravure (a form of photogravure involving the use of a rotary press), 
photolithography (in which a design produced by photography is 
transferred to a stone), and collotype (in which the sensitized gela- 
tine on a glass plate dries in fine wrinkles, producing a "grain"). 
Sunday newspapers have made everyone familiar with photogravure 
or rotogravure. It is an expensive process but is sofnetimes used for 
book illustrations. Collotype is particularly good for facsimiles of 
printed pages where it is desired to reproduce the color value of the 
original ; where mere black and white will suffice, a line-block will 
serve the purpose. 

The printing of an illustration may be either direct or offset ; in 
offset printing the design is transferred from the plate to a sheet of 
rubber generally a rubber-covered roller and then from the rubber 
to paper. The elasticity of the rubber makes it possible to get a good 
impression on paper rougher than that required in printing directly 
from the plate ; thus, for example, one may use a fine-screen half-tone 
without resorting to coated paper. In offset printing, of course, the 
plate and the print are alike, since the impression is reversed once 
when transferred from the plate to the rubber, and again in the 
transfer from rubber to paper. 74 

* * * 

There are four ways of producing colored illustrations for books. 
The most primitive is to add color by hand to the printed impression ; 

74 The fact that offset printing is used in the photogravure section of newspapers 
explains why, although the photogravure process is an intaglio process, there is no 

Materials of Research 53 

this was often done with woodcuts and later with aquatints. Or one 
might add the different colors to the plate or block and get a colored 
illustration from a single operation of the press ; this method would 
obviously require great skill and care. Another method is to have two 
or more blocks or plates, one for each color to be used ; each block or 
plate prints only the lines that are to appear in the color with which 
it is inked. The fourth method involves photography. 

In the production of colored photographic illustrations, three half- 
tone plates are made, one to be printed in each of the three primary 
colors. Each plate is made, of course, from a photographic negative ; 
and since the color values are reversed in the making of the plate, 
some way must be found to keep the light rays of the color with 
which the plate is to be printed from registering on the negative, so 
that they will be present on the plate. The device used is a color 
filter. The negative that is to be printed in red is made with a green 
filter that screens all the red values from the negative so that they 
will appear in the plate and hence in the impression made when the 
plate is printed with red ink. A second negative is made with a blue 
filter and a third with a red filter, and plates are made from these 
negatives. When impressions from the three plates the first printed 
in red, the second in yellow, and the third in blue are superimposed 
on paper, the three primary colors blend to produce natural color ; 
but the inks must correspond exactly to the filters and the register 
must be perfect, or the result becomes a travesty of natural color. In 
four-color printing a plate printed in black is used along with the 
three color plates ; it adds richness to the effect. 75 


When all the sheets that go to make up a work have been printed 
and arranged in the order in which they are to be read, they con- 
stitute what is, bibliographically, a book ; but the services of a binder 
are necessary to put them in a form convenient for handling ; only 
when bound (or cased) does the bibliographer's book become the 
layman's book. 

75 The effect of the four plates is well illustrated in the article on "Colour 
Photography" in the Encyclopedia Britannica (i4th edition). 

54 An Introduction to Research 

The binder, taking the sheets necessary to form a complete copy of 
the work, collates them, i.e., examines them to make sure that all 
the signatures are present and in the proper order. Then by means of 
stitches with strong linen thread, he sews the sheets or gatherings to 
stout cords or tapes (bands) placed at right angles to the back, or 
spine, of the book ; the bands are then securely fastened to covers, or 
boards. The outside of the book covers and spine is then covered 
with leather or fabric ; and the raw edges of the covering material are 
hidden by pasting a lining paper (or a doublure of leather or cloth) to 
the inner side of the cover. Since this lining paper is twice the size 
of a leaf of the book, the free half becomes a flyleaf. 77 This much 
of the bookbinder's craft is called forwarding ; that which remains 
the adorning of the book with designs and lettering is called 

In English-speaking countries most books are now sold cased 
rather than bound; in such books the tapes are short, and a strip 
of something like cheesecloth is glued to the spine of the book, with 
a margin of about an inch extending beyond the spine on each side. 
The cover is made in one piece and is attached to the book by gluing 
the ends of the tapes and the margins of the cloth strip to the inside 
of the cover; in most instances the tapes and the cloth strip can 
readily be seen through the lining paper. On the continent of Europe 
it is still customary for books to be sold in paper covers ; the pur- 
chaser then has them bound to his order. 

What is called library binding is something of a compromise be- 
tween true binding and casing. The sewing is done by machine, and 
the tapes longer than those used in casing are glued between split 
boards instead of being laced through a single, thicker board, as in 
true binding. 

Probably the best of all leathers for bookbinding is what is known 
as morocco or levant ; this is goatskin tanned with sumac. It has a 

70 In early bindings these covers were of wood; heavy cardboard is now gen- 
erally used. 

77 It will be noted that the flyleaf is a binder's addition ; hence it is not, biblio- 
graphically, a part of the book, and is not mentioned in a bibliographical description. 

Materials of Research 55 

beautiful grain, and is hard and durable. Straight grain morocco is 
morocco stretched in one direction so that the grain forms parallel 
ridges. In pin-head morocco the leather is stretched in two directions, 
producing the effect suggested by the name. In crushed morocco or, 
as it is more often called, crushed levant the leather is crumpled, so 
that the surface takes on a pleasing wrinkled effect. Niger morocco 
is a thick, strong leather, generally dyed a light reddish-brown. Cape 
goat is good, but not as good as morocco. 

Persian morocco and French morocco are inferior imitations, gen- 
erally sheepskin. Sheepskin is not a durable leather for bindings, 
especially when it is split, as in skiver. Roan and basil are forms of 

Pigskin is strong and durable but thick and stiff ; hence it is suit- 
able only for large books. It can be recognized by the presence of 
bristle-holes in groups of three. It has an attractive color and should 
not be dyed. 

Many books are to be found bound in calfskin, an attractive 
smooth leather without a grain ; it will take a pleasing polish 
(polished calf). Its chief fault is that it is likely to crack at the joints, 
or at least to become fatigued, as booksellers say. Tree-calf is a bind- 
ing decorated with a tree-like design, produced by staining the 
leather with acid. Russia calf is scented by the birch oil used in 
tanning it ; it is generally dyed a light chocolate brown, sometimes 
red. Sprinkled calf has a mottled effect, produced by sprinkling the 
leather with acid. 

Books are often bound in vellum or parchment. When calfskin (for 
vellum) or sheepskin (for parchment) is to be used in book- 
binding, it is not scraped thin as it is for use as writing material. 
Parchment is distinguished from vellum by the fact that it has a 

A whole binding is one in which all the outside of the book covers 
and back, or spine is covered with leather. In a three-quarter bind- 
ing, the leather covers the spine and one-third of each cover. A half 
binding has the back and the outer corners of the boards covered 
with leather, the rest of the boards being covered with paper or cloth. 
In a quarter binding only the spine is leather-covered. 

In the finishing of a binding, elaborate inlays of different colored 

56 An Introduction to Research 

leathers or enamel are often used ; in early bindings bosses 78 and 
jewels are sometimes found. Generally, however, the ornamentation 
consists of a design impressed in the leather or fabric by means of a 
narrow wheel called a fillet, a wider wheel called a roll, or a stamp, or 
by a combination of these tools. The fillet is used to produce lines 
such as often decorate the borders or divide the surface into panels. 
The roll produces a continuous succession of figures, such as a row 
of flowers or of conventional symbols. The stamp used with a press 
produces a larger design ; often the whole cover design is impressed 
by one stamp in one operation of the press. When the design is not 
colored, it is referred to as blind tooling or blind stamping. When 
gold is added, 79 the result is gold tooling. An extra binding is an 
unusually fine or luxurious one. 

Some of the common terms used in describing bookbinding 
designs are : 

ajoure a cut-out pattern laid over a colored background 

dentelles borders of small, lacy figures 

diaper covered with small figures, often diamond-shaped 

diced ornamented with a pattern resembling dice or small 
squares; checkered 

fleuron a flower-shaped ornament 

goffered (or gauffered) having an embossed or indented design, 
as goffered edges 

pointille work marked by small points or dots 

repousse having a design in relief 

seme (more often semis) a powdering or sprinkling of small 

Styles in binding in the early days, at least are likely to bear 
the name of the person for whom the binding was done rather than 
that of the binder. One of the earliest is the so-called Canevari, 
named for Demetrio Canevari but now believed to have been de- 

78 Bosses protuberances, generally of metal, placed in the four corners and often 
in the center of the outside of each cover kept the surface of the binding from 
being marred by contact with desk or table. 

79 The heated tool is pressed into the binding through gold leaf dressed with a 
white-of-egg preparation. 

Materials of Research 57 

signed for Pier Luigi Farnese, a sixteenth-century Italian book col- 
lector. This style is characterized by a rather plain tooled panel 
enclosing an impressed cartouche (an oval or rectangle) with a large 
cameo stamp in intaglio. 

One of the most famous names in bookbinding is that of Jean 
Grolier (1479-1565), who lived for many years in Italy. The Grolier- 
esque binding has a pattern of interlacing bars, bands, or ribbons, 
with delicate scrolls of slender gold line. The Majoli or Maioli style 
is named for another Frenchman, Thomas Mahieu, secretary to 
Catherine de Medici. Maioli bindings have a framework of ribbons 
and shields, with interlacing scrollwork, partly inlaid, partly gold- 

The sixteenth century in France also gave rise to the Lyonnese 
style, characterized by heavily tooled strapwork or by impressed 
center and corner stamps, generally with arabesques on a background 
of gold. Another French style of the same period is the fanfare bind- 
ing, in which the back and sides are decorated all over with interlac- 
ing geometrical patterns, the intervening space at first blank, but 
later filled in with sprays and wreaths of foliage. The name of 
Nicholas Eve has been associated with this style, but actually Eve 
practised a very restrained form of fanfare binding, using a central 
design with corner fleurons and allowing plenty of leather to show. 

A seventeenth-century modification of fanfare is the Le Gascon 
style, in which point tile work is used for the design, and the space 
enclosed by the strapwork is decorated by inlays of colored leather. 
In England there developed the style named for Samuel Mearne, 
stationer to Charles II ; Mearne bindings have designs made up from 
various combinations of a few tools, such as a curve and tulip. The 
Cottage style is a form of Restoration binding in which there is a 
center panel with a gable at the top, or at both top and bottom. 
Another development of the Restoration binding is the Harleian, in 
which a center panel is surrounded by a broad border, both decorated. 

One more style remains to be mentioned here the Jansenist. This 
developed in France in the latter part of the seventeenth century ; it 
is a simple style, in which a centerpiece frequently heraldic or 
symbolic is repeated in each of the four corners, the rest of the 
surface being left undecorated. 

Of course the only way to learn about bindings is to study them 

An Introduction to Research 

Maioli Harleian 

Figure 9. Examples of famous bindings. Reproduced through the kindness of 
William A. Jackson, Director of the Houghton Library, from books in the 
Harvard College Library. 

at first hand ; but even such cursory information as has just been 
given may help the student to visualize a binding from a description 
such as may be found in a bookseller's catalogue. Here are three, 
taken more or less at random : 

2 vols., thick folio, magnificently bound in full crushed green levant, 
heavily gilt tooled, red leather labels, 80 raised bands gilt, inner dentelles, 
gilt edges, white moire end papers, . . . 25 

Full orange levant morocco, gold tooled back (uniformly faded), gold 
tooled inside borders, top edges gilt, other edges uncut. 2 * 

Contemporary 81 black morocco, thin line and ornamental borders, the 

80 Labels are pieces glued to the spine, bearing the title, the author's name, the 
volume number, etc. 

81 Meaning that the book was bound at about the same time as the date of 
publication of the work and has not since been rebound. 

Materials of Research 


Fanfare Grolier Mearne 

LeGascon Lyonnese Canevari 

Figure 10. If some of these specimens appear not to correspond with the 
descriptions given in the text, it should be remembered that, though the shoe- 
maker may stick to his last, he does not always use the same last. 

side with a panel of conventional flowers on two stems surrounded with 
leaves, circles, etc., filled in with pointille work, and with comer fleurons 
in gold, red end-papers covered with gold ornaments, metal corner pieces 
(one missing) gilt edges. 27 

60 An Introduction to Research 

Generally, however, descriptions are briefer than those quoted 
above : 

"2 vols., thick tall 8vo, -)4 morocco (rubbed)"; "3 vols., thick folio, 
54 maroon morocco (one joint cracked)"; "thick 4to, blue buckram gilt 
stamped"; "i2mo., polished calf, plates slightly foxed". 82 

Such, then, are the materials of research the manuscripts and 
books, some witty, some wise, some poetic, some romantic, many, 
unfortunately, merely stupid and dull. Even the last, however, may 
have something to offer one who applies to them the tools of research. 

82 Foxed: spotted with stains caused by decay. 


tools of research in literary history consist of bibliographies, 
A a note-system, scientific instruments of several kinds, and a 
variety of forms of knowledge. The word bibliography, with its de- 
rivatives, has several meanings. Defined as "the science of books", 1 
bibliography may be divided into four kinds : 

(1) Historical, dealing with the history of book production history 
of writing, printing, binding, illustrating, publishing, etc., . . . 

(2) Bibliothecal, concerned with the collection, preservation, and or- 
ganization of books in libraries (library science and history of libra- 
ries) . . . 

(3) Enumerative, including lists of books of all sorts, which 'act the 
part of gentleman ushers toward other books by introducing them to the 
notice of strangers' . . . 

(4) Practical, dealing with the methods of work of student and author 
reading, research, compilation of notes and bibliography, the prepara- 
tion of manuscript for the press, publication, etc. 2 

Still another meaning is attached to the word bibliography as used 
in research ; thus all evidence derived from the physical make-up of 
a manuscript or book may be called bibliographical evidence. In 
speaking of bibliography as a tool of research, we are thinking 
mainly of enumerative bibliography. 


This is not the place for an exhaustive list of bibliographies ; every 
student interested in English literary history should have his own 
copy of Kennedy's Concise Bibliography, 3 or Spargo's Bibliograph- 

[ 61 ] 

62 An Introduction to Research 

ical Manual,'* or Cross's Bibliographical Guide. 5 ' l It may, however, 
be worth while to consider here what kinds of bibliographies there are 
for the student of English, and what aid one may legitimately expect 
to derive from each kind. 

The three guides mentioned above differ in details of organization 
and arrangement, but all begin with a section devoted to books and 
articles on bibliography ; this section includes such works as Theo- 
dore Besterman's The Beginnings of Systematic Bibliography, 6 and 
Bibliography, Practical, Enumerative, Historical, by Van Hoesen 
and Walter. 7 Next comes a section listing works on research, includ- 
ing not only such standard treatises as Langlois and Seignobos, Intro- 
duction aux Etudes Historiques* and Gustave Lanson, Mcthodes de 
I'Histoire Littcraire, 9 but also books on the compiling of bibliog- 
raphies (Martha Connor, Practical Bibliography-Making) 10 and the 
writing of theses (Andre Morize, Problems and Methods of Literary 
History)/ 1 on the use of public records (V. H. Galbraith, An Intro- 
duction to the Use of Public Records)/ 2 and on the use of libraries 
(Margaret Hutchins, Alice S. Johnson, and Margaret S. Williams, 
Guide to the Use of Libraries). 13 

The next section is made up of universal bibliographies, such as 
those of Grasse (Trtsor de Livres Rares et Precicux, . . .)/* 
Vapereau (Dictionnaire Universal des Literatures), 15 and Watt 
(Bibliotheca Britannica) , 16 As is to be expected, these universal 
bibliographies, in which the compiler "lists every book he can lay his 
hands on", 17 are not always to be relied upon. For the student of 
English literature, Volumes III and IV of Watt, which constitute an 
analytical subject index, will be most helpful ; although the wovk is 
more than a hundred years old, it is still indispensable for students 
of the English literature of the eighteenth century and earlier periods. 

Another section consists of bibliographies of bibliographies, the 
classics in this group being Courtney (Register of National Bib- 
liography . . .), 18 Petzholdt (Bibliotheca Bibliographica), 19 Stein 
(Manuel de Bibliographic Generale), 20 and Josephson (Bibliog- 
raphies of Bibliographies Chronologically Arranged). 21 Stein's work 
may be regarded as a continuation of Petzholdt's; and Josephson's 
serves as a continuation and correction of Stein's. The graduate stu- 

1 A briefer guide, consisting of 241 entries, is contained in Esdaile, Student's 
Manual of Bibliography, pp. 274-347. 

Tools of Research 63 

dent may be most likely to find what he wants in Clark S. Northup, 
A Register of Bibliographies of the English Language and Litera- 
ture** published in 1925. 

Among the lists of reference books, the standard for American 
students is Miss Tsadore G. Mudge's Guide to Reference-Books, of 
which the sixth edition appeared in 1936, with a supplement in 1939, 
and other supplements (by Constance M. Winchell) in 1941, 1944, 
and 1947." 

"General Catalogues and Lists of Books" will constitute another 
section. Here will be found first the trade-lists, such as the London 
Catalogue, 21 * which in various editions covers the period from 1700 to 
1855, and its continuation, the English Catalogue, 25 published annu- 
ally; and the United States Catalogue 20 (to 1928), supplemented 
and continued by the annual Cumulative Book Index. 27 Second, there 
are the general library catalogues, such as those of the British 
Museum and the Bibliotheque Nationale. The old British Museum 
Catalogue of the Printed Books 2i * (1881-1900) in 95 volumes, with a 
Supplement *'* (1905) of 15 volumes, is immensely valuable ; but it is 
being superseded by a new Catalogue of Printed Books, 30 which, 
begun in 1932, has already reached Volume XXXVIII ("Buer- 
Hunn"). When completed, the new catalogue will comprise more than 
150 volumes. The catalogue of the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris,** 
begun in 1897, nas proceeded slowly and is not yet complete ; Volume 
CLVI ("Rose-Roug") appeared in 1939. For the United States there 
is a catalogue based on Library of Congress catalogue cards, which 
reproduces the information contained on each card. 32 Third are a few 
subject-catalogues, such as Robert A. Peddie, Subject Index of Books 
Published before i88o. 3S 

In the next group are the check-lists and indexes to special collec- 
tions in American libraries, such as the Wordsworth collection at 
Cornell 3 * and that at Amherst, 35 American plays and poetry at 
Brown, books on the history of science at the John Crerar Library 
at Chicago, 37 and American Revolutionary War pamphlets and other 
collections at the Newberry Library (Chicago). 38 Included in this 
group are also the Check-List or Brief Catalogue of the Library of 
Henry E. Huntington (1919), with its Supplement (1920) ; 39 In- 
cunabula in the Henry E. Huntington Library (1937) 4 and Census 
of Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and 

64 An Introduction to Research 

Canada, edited by Seymour de Ricci with the assistance of W. J. 
Wilson. 4' Another item in this group is Ernest C. Richardson, An 
Index Directory to Special Collections in North American Libraries 
(1927),^ in which the arrangement is by places and by subjects. 

Professor Spargo's Section VII has no counterpart in the Concise 
Bibliography or in the Bibliographical Guide, though many of the 
books listed there are mentioned by Professors Kennedy and Cross 
under other headings; this section is headed "Book-Building", and 
there are subheads: "Palaeography", "Typography", and "The Parts 
of the Book". Most of the books in this section are mentioned else- 
where in the present work. 

In another category are the encyclopaedias, including the famous 
Allgemeine Encyklopddie der Wissenschajten und Kunste, 1 * 3 com- 
monly known, from the names of its editors, as "Ersch and Gruber", 
and, of course, the Encyclopaedia Britannica? There are also special 
encyclopaedias devoted to religion/''' names/ 5 social sciences/ 6 
music, Jf7 education/ 8 and the classics/ 9 to mention only those most 
likely to be of interest to graduate students in English. 

Another group of bibliographies is that made up of lists of learned 
societies such as the Malone Society, the Selden Society, the Cam- 
den Society, the Early English Text Society, the Chaucer Society 
or their publications. 50 Still another group consists of lists of dis- 
sertations. 5 ' 

Another kind of bibliography is that which lists biographical mate- 
rial. In this category are such general works as that by Helen 

2 Isadora Gilbert Mudge, in her Guide to Reference Books, p. 44, wrote: "The 
gth edition, under the able editorship of William Robertson Smith, was the high 
water mark of the Britannica, and its scholarly articles may still be used profitably 
for subjects where recent information is not essential. Many of its monumental 
articles have been carried over into later editions, sometimes abridged or revised. 
The nth edition, though more popular than the great gth edition, is more scholarly 
and more carefully made than the i4th; it (the nth) is now, except for post-war 
topics or scientific subjects, where late information is essential, the most generally 
useful of the three editions [the icth, i2th, and i.Uh were not really editions, but 
merely reprints with supplements], and its articles are more often useful than the 
more popularized articles in the i4th edition. The i4th edition, reset, with many 
new articles but not entirely remade, is a popularized and partially Americanized 
edition though still largely British in content and viewpoint. It contains many good 
new articles on timely subjects (sciences, post-war topics, etc.), but some of its 
older material carried over from the gth and nth editions has been inadequately 
revised or too much abridged; some of the new work is less accurate than the old, 
and its cross references are not always accurate." 

Tools of Research 65 

Hefling and Eva Richards Index to Contemporary Biography and 
Criticism 52 and one by Phyllis M. Riches. 1 There are more spe- 
cialized works for separate countries. Those for England will be of 
most use to students of English literature and English literary 
history ; and it should hardly be necessary to remind users of this 
volume that the first work to consult for information about an Eng- 
lishman no longer living or, more exactly, one who died before 
1940" is the Dictionary of National Biography, familiarly known 
as the DNB, just as Who's Who is the standard "first resort" for 
living Englishmen. For Cambridge men before 1751 a useful work 
is that by John Venn and J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses; *' 
and for Oxford men, Anthony a Wood, Athenae Oxonienses;'' 5 though 
more than a hundred years old and not always reliable, is still some- 
times valuable. For the United States we have Who's Who in 
America 56 and the Dictionary of American Biography/' 7 There are 
also, of course, a number of other biographical works for America, 
including a monthly publication by the H. W. Wilson Company ; 5 * 
mention should also be made of American Authors, i6oo-igoo: a 
Biographical Dictionary of American Literature] Authors Today 
and Yesterday; and Twentieth Centuty Authors, all three edited by 
Kunitz and Haycraft/' 9 Obituaries in the New York Times are fre- 
quently very informative and can easily be located through the Index. 

Dictionaries of anonymous and pseudonymous works constitute 
another class of bibliographies. In this field "Halkett and Laing" has 
long been standard ; and there is now a second, fairly recent edition. 60 

A very important class of bibliographies is that made up of periodi- 
cal indexes such as the Readers 1 Guide to Periodical Literature, 61 
published since 1900, and the even more important for graduate 
students in English Supplement, begun in 1907 and known since 
1913 as the International Index to Periodicals. 62 

The learned journals constitute another group of bibliographies. 
Strictly speaking, only those journals that provide bibliographies 
should be included ; hence, Professor Cross lists only periodicals that 
contain reviews. These journals may be classified according to sub- 
ject matter; Professor Spargo uses the following headings: "Bibli- 

3 The original publication in 66 volumes covered the period down to 1900, but a 
series of supplements, of which the latest was published in 1949, has brought the 
work down to 1940. 

66 An Introduction to Research 

ography", "The language and literature of England and the United 
States, related languages and literatures, and linguistics in general", 
"Phonetics and speech re-education", "The drama and the theatre", 
"Comparative literature", "Folklore", and "Other pertinent mate- 

Then come bibliographies devoted to literature, classified accord- 
ing to country, to period, and to type of literature involved. Such 
general works as the Cambridge History of English Literature 6k and 
John G. O'Leary, English Literary History and Bibliography 65 are 
now supplanted so far as the bibliographies are concerned by the 
Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, ed. F. W. Bateson, 
published in four volumes in i94o. 66 For the Old and Middle English 
periods there are Allen R. Benham, English Literature from Widsith 
to the Death of Chaucer? 1 and John E. Wells, A Manual of the Writ- 
ings in Middle English, 1050-1400 ; 68 the latter originally appeared 
in 1916, but seven supplements to it have been published. For the 
period from 1475 to the present, one finds the Stationers' Register, 69 
the Term Catalogues, 70 the Hazlitt materials, 71 and the Short Title 
Catalogue 72 (frequently abbreviated to STC), in addition to more 
specialized works. 

Among bibliographies of poetry, the classics are Corser's Collecta- 
nea Anglo-Poetica 73 Courthope's A History of English Poetry 7 * 
Saintsbury's Historical Manual of English Prosody 75 and War ton's 
The History of English Poetry from the Close of the Eleventh Cen- 
tury to the Commencement of the Eighteenth Century ; 76 there are 
more recent works in special fields. 

For fiction the standard work is Dunlop's History of Prose Fiction ; 
the edition by Henry Wilson is the one to be used. 77 For the English 
novel there is Ernest Albert Baker's The History of the English 
Novel 78 There are also bibliographies for such special fields as 
mediaeval romance, the novel of manners, the burlesque novel, and 
the like. 

Bibliographies of the essay include Bryan and Crane's The English 
Familiar Essay ; 70 there are also bibliographies of letters, diaries, 
and memoirs. For newspapers and periodicals, Crane and Kaye's 
Census of British Newspapers and Periodicals 1620-1800 80 and the 
Times Tercentenary Handlist of English and Welsh Newspapers . . . 
(/ 620-1 Q2o) 81 should be mentioned. 

Tools of Research 67 

In the field of drama there are general works such as Creizenach's 
Geschichte des Neueren Dramas 82 and Allardyce NicolFs The De- 
velopment of the Theatre: a Study of Theatrical Art from the Be* 
ginnings to the Present Day, 83 and more limited works like Roy C. 
Flickinger's The Greek Theatre and Its Drama, 81 ' Kathleen M. Lea's 
Italian Popular Comedy 85 and Karl Young's The Drama of the 
Medieval Church 86 For England there are Sir Edmund Chambers's 
The Medieval Stage 87 and The Elizabethan Stage, 88 Allardyce 
Nicoll's four works covering English drama from 1660 to 1850,^ 
Greg's A Bibliography of the English Printed Drama to the Restora- 
tion yo (of which only the first volume to 1616 has appeared), and 
other books by contemporary scholars, as well as Collier's History 
of English Dramatic Poetry, 91 Fleay's A Biographical Chronicle of 
the English Drama, 92 Langbaine's An Account of the English Dra- 
matick Poets, 93 and Ward's History of English Dramatic Litera- 
ture 9 * 

American literature has bibliographies which may be similarly 
classified. Among general works may be mentioned the Cambridge 
History of American Literature 95 John G. Bartholomew's A Literary 
and Historical Atlas of America, 96 Charles Evans's American Bibli- 
ography, 97 and W. O. Waters 's American Imprints, 1648-1797?* For 
the period from the beginning to 1783 there are The Puritans, by 
Perry Miller and Thomas H. Johnson," 9 and A History of American 
Literature during the Colonial Times, 1607-1765 10 and The Literary 
History of the American Revolution, /7<5j-/7#j/ 01 both by Moses C. 
Tyler. The period from 1783 to the present is covered by such books 
as Patrick K. Foley's American Authors, 1795-1895 10 ~ and Fred B. 
Millett's revision of Manly and Rickert's Contemporary American 
Literature. 103 

For American poetry there are such works as Gay W. Allen's 
American Prosody 10! > and Oscar Wegelin's Early American Po- 
etry ; l05 for fiction, Lyle H. Wright's American Fiction 1774-1850 10 * 
and Arthur H. Quinn's American Fiction] 107 for essays, Adeline M. 
Conway's The Essay in American Literature ; 108 for diaries, Har- 
riette Forbes's New England Diaries 1602-1800 ; 109 for periodicals, 
Clarence S. Brigham's Bibliography of American Newspapers 1690- 
1820 no and Winifred Gregory's American Newspapers 1821-1936 ; 111 
and for drama there are, among other works, Arthur H. Quinn's three 

68 An Introduction to Research 

volumes on the American drama from the beginning to the present 
day (or rather, 1931 )/" George C. D. Odell's Annals of the New 
York Stage 113 (fifteen volumes have carried the Annals to 1894), 
and Burns Mantle's Best Plays, 11 ' 1 published each year since 

Next may be mentioned bibliographies of individual authors ; there 
are bibliographies for Chaucer/" Coleridge,'"'' Dickens/ 17 Donne/ 18 
Dryden/ 1 ' Gray/ 20 Hardy," 1 Housman/^ Milton/*- 1 Pope/*'' Rus- 
kin," J Scott," 6 Shakspere/^ 7 Shaw/ 28 Spenser/- 9 Swift/ 30 and 
Wells/ 31 among English writers ; for Cooper/ 1 *'* Crane/ 33 Ed- 
wards/ 3 * Emerson," J Hawthorne,"* Howells," 7 Irving/ 38 James/ 39 
Lowell/" "Mark Twain"/''' Cotton Mather/'-' Increase Mather/* 3 
"O. Henry 'V 4 * Poe/* J Robinson/** Thoreau," 7 Whitman/'' 8 and 
Whittier/* 9 among Americans. Concordances exist for Beowulf 15 
and the Bible; "' for Browning/ 5 - Burns/ 1 " Chaucer/ 5 '' Cole- 
ridge/ 55 Collins/ 56 Cowper," 7 Donne,"" FitzGerald,"- 9 Goldsmith/ 
Gray," 1 Herrick/ 62 Housman,"* Keats/ 6 '' Kyd," J Marlowe/ 66 Mil- 
ton/ 67 Pope/ 68 Shakspere," 9 Shelley/ 7 " Spenser/ 7 ' Tennyson/ 72 
Wordsworth/ 73 and Wyatt; 17 '' and for Emerson/ 7 - 5 Hawthorne/ 76 
Lanier/ 77 and Poe. 178 

In the field of literary criticism and aesthetics such general works 
may be mentioned as Gayley's Introduction to the Methods and 
Materials of Literary Criticism, 179 Gayley and Kurtz's Methods and 
Materials of Literary Criticism, 1 " and Saintsbury's A History of 
Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe. 181 For England there are 
Gregory Smith's Elizabethan Critical Essays, 1 " 2 Spingarn's Critical 
Essays of the Seventeenth Century, 183 and a number of works on 
eighteenth-century criticism. 18 '' The works on American criticism in- 
clude George E. DeMille's Literary Criticism in America 185 and 
more restricted works such as Between Fixity and Flux: A Study of 
the Concept of Poetry in the Criticism of T. S. Eliot. 186 

A consideration of bibliographies in linguistics and phonetics 
would begin with works like Leonard Bloomfield's Language, 187 
Willem L. Graff's Language and Languages, 188 and Louis H. Gray's 
The Foundations of Language. 189 Following these might be men- 
tioned works on the English language, such as Albert C. Baugh's A 
History of the English Language 19 and Edward D. Myers's The 
Foundations of English, 191 and then the dictionaries. First would 

Tools of Research 6*J 

come the New English Dictionary, 192 familiarly known as NED, 4 and 
other dictionaries of modern English such as Webster's New Inter- 
national', 19S then the dictionaries of Old 1<Jff and Middle 1<j:> English 
and of English dialects. 796 For American English the most important 
work is A Dictionary of American English on Historical Princi- 
ples, 197 edited by Sir William Craigie and James R. Hulbert. This 
dictionary, completed in 1944, is designed to be to the language of 
America what the NED is to the language of England. Other books 
on American English include George P. Krapp's The English Lan- 
guage in America 1 and Henry L. Mencken's The American Lan- 
guage. 199 

Other bibliographies that may be useful to graduate students are 
those on rhetoric and oratory, on comparative literature, on litera- 
tures related to English (ancient Greek and Latin, mediaeval, ro- 
mance, Germanic, and Celtic), on folklore, and on history. Tn some 
fields such as the history of ideas bibliographies of philosophy and 
psychology, medicine and science, political science and economics, 
education, and other subjects may prove very valuable. 

It will, of course, be observed that many of the works listed above 
are not bibliographies in form, or, perhaps T should say, are not 
merely bibliographies. They are included here because they provide, 
either in an appendix or in footnotes, bibliographical information 
that may be more important for the graduate student than the text. 

No student has need to know the merits and demerits of all of the 
six hundred works mentioned by Professor Cross, or the eleven hun- 
dred named by Professor Spargo, or the seventeen hundred in Pro- 
fessor Kennedy's book. It is enough to know the relatively small 
number of bibliographical tools that serve whatever field one is in- 
terested in, and then to know where to turn to find others as the 
need for them arises. But to know bibliographies one must use them ; 
Courtney, Stein, Petzholdt, Watt even STC and NED are merely 
names, sometimes names rather hard to remember, until one has had 

4 The NED is often referred to as the Oxford Dictionary and sometimes as 
Murray's Dictionary (in honor of Sir James Murray, the first editor) ; it should 
not be news to graduate students in English that this is the greatest dictionary in 
the world, and that its greatness lies in the fact that it gives what amounts to a 
complete history of every word listed, with the spelling, pronunciation, and mean- 
ing indicated whenever any change occurred during the word's existence as a part 
of the English language. 

70 An Introduction to Research 

the experience of seeking in the works for which these names stand 
some much-desired piece of information, and finding it or perhaps 
not finding it. If the information is not to be found where one 
expected it, there is always some other authority to be consulted, 
some other way of achieving the desired result. But the student 
should first determine, if it is possible to do so, the reason for his 
failure to find what he expected. Sometimes it is a simple and 
inexcusable bit of carelessness, such as looking at the wrong place 
in the alphabet. 

There are, of course, tricks to alphabetizing, as there are to all 
trades. One would look in vain in the Geographical Gazetteer of the 
New International Dictionary (First Edition) for Cashmeer, even 
though he also tried Cashmere and Cashmir ; for the word appears, 
where doubtless it properly belongs, among the K's, as Kashmir. There 
is, to be sure, a warning note at the head of the C's : "For many names 
like Carlowitz, Cattegat, etc., see Karlowitz, Kattegat, etc., the 
preferable forms." There is no warning, however, that would lead 
one to look for the French town of Ax under the D's, where it appears 
as "Dax or Ax", with no cross-reference in the A's. Under "Van, Van 
der" there is a note: "For Dutch and Flemish names beginning with 
these elements, see the specific names". Hence one finds, as is to 
be expected, Philip van Dyck under D. But Anthony and Ernest 
van Dyck are listed under V. DC Mille, De Morgan, DC Soto, De 
Quincey, De Vere, and DC Wet are all under D, as is also Thomas 
D'Urfey ; but Henri Duke d'Harcourt is to be found under H, Jean 
de Meung under J, and Alfred dc M us set under M. The de M edicts 
appear between Medhurst and Meding, all of them, that is, except 
Marie, who comes between Marie Antoinette and Marie Louise. 
Rontgen is found between Ronsard and Rooke ; but where umlaut 
marks are not used as is often the case the fact that the vowel 
is umlauted is indicated by an e following the vowel (Graesse for 
Grasse), and the name may be alphabetized accordingly. Where an 
entry consists of more than one word, alphabetizing is sometimes by 
word rather than letter ; thus New York would come before Newton. 
McAdams sometimes comes before, sometimes after, MacAndrews] 
and I have seen an index in which the Mc's and Mac's were all 
gathered together at the end of the M's, after Myers. 

In the old British Museum Catalogue periodical publications were 

Tools of Research 71 

grouped together under the heading "Academies" and listed alpha- 
betically according to the place of publication. Tn the new Catalogue 
the "Academies" classification has been abandoned ; but periodicals 
are still listed according to the place of publication, and the original 
place of publication is the one used. Thus one finds the Publications 
of the Modern Language Association under "Baltimore", though for 
many years the periodical has been published elsewhere. And the 
Journal of English and Germanic Philology, which has long been 
associated with the University of Illinois, is listed under "Bloom- 
ington, Indiana" because it was published at Indiana University 
from 1897 t 1902. All of these practices may be perfectly proper 
and logical, but they emphasize the fact that one needs to have all 
his wits about him in using any index; otherwise he is likely to 
reach the quite erroneous conclusion that a particular bit of informa- 
tion is not to be found in a work that should and actually does 
contain it. 

One may also go wrong by looking for something that is not within 
the scope of the work consulted. One would look in vain in the older 
editions of Professor Cross's Bibliographical Guide for the Publica- 
tions of the Modern Language Association', it does not appear in 
Section VII, "Periodical Publications Containing Reviews", because 
it did not publish reviews. But since 1922, when PMLA began pub- 
lishing an annual bibliography, Professor Cross has included PMLA 
on the ground, presumably, that a critical bibliography is equivalent 
to a series of reviews, brief though the comments may be. 

One must consult the list given at the beginning of each issue 
of the Readers' Guide and the International Index to Periodicals to 
determine just what periodicals are included in each of those works. 
Likewise, in addition to the limitation set by the inclusion of the 
dates 1475-1640 in its title, the Short Title Catalogue announces 
other limitations to its scope in a note printed at the beginning 5 
of the volume : 

... a catalogue of the books of which its compilers have been able 
to locate copies, not a bibliography of books known or believed to 
have been produced. The extension given to the word 'English' is that 
adopted in the British Museum special catalogue of 1884, i.e. it includes 
all books in whatever language printed in England, Wales, Scotland, and 
5 P. xi. 

72 An Introduction to Research 

Ireland, and all books in English wherever printed, also Latin service- 
books, wherever printed, if for use in England and Scotland. It does not 
include works by English authors printed out of England in Latin or in 
any language other than English. 

Time will be saved and errors will be avoided if the student will 
take pains to determine, whenever he has occasion to use a reference 
book with which he is not already familiar, just what help he may 
legitimately expect to gain from it what information, that is, it may 
properly be expected to contain. 

Still in the realm of enumerative bibliography, we may give more 
extended attention to the learned journals, some of which are tools 
in the special sense that they may be counted upon to give help in 
specific fields. Thus the bibliographer may expect to find something 
of interest to him in every issue of The Library, and the medievalist 
may with like expectation take up any number of Speculum. 

From 1884 to 1888 the Library Association [London] published 
The Library Chronicle (Vols. T-V). In 1889 this journal was super- 
seded by The Library. Vols. I-X (1889-99) of the latter were fol- 
lowed by a New Series, I-X (1899-1909), then by a Third Series, 
T-X (1909-19), and finally by a Fourth Series still in progress. The 
Bibliographical Society [London] published its Transactions from 
1892 to 1919 in fifteen volumes. In 1920 the Second Series of the 
Transactions was combined with the Fourth Series of The Library. 
References to articles since 1920 are generally to The Library, though 
Transactions of the Bibliographical Society also appears on the title 
page. The journal, like most learned journals, is a quarterly. Since 
the first number of each volume appears in June of one year and the 
last in March of the next, a double year-date should be given : "The 
Library, 4th series, X (1929-30), 121-62". An index to the Third 
Series of The Library was published in Vol. X of that series. There 
is an index, published separately, to Vols. I to X of the Fourth 
Series. There is also an index to Vols. I to X of the Transactions, 
and an index to Vols. XI to XV was published in Vol. XV. 

Speculum, a quarterly journal of mediaeval studies, has been pub- 
lished at Cambridge, Massachusetts, since 1926. Each issue of 
Speculum contains a bibliography of the periodical literature in the 
mediaeval field that appeared during the preceding quarter. 
A journal devoted to Renaissance studies is Humanisme et Re- 

Tools of Research 73 

naissance, which began publication at Paris in 1934. Humanisms et 
Renaissance is the continuation of Revue de Seizieme Siecle, nineteen 
volumes of which appeared between 1913 and 1933, and which was 
itself the continuation of Revue des Etudes Rabelaislennes ; of the 
latter, Vols. I to X appeared between 1903 and 1912. 

Another journal of special interest to students of Renaissance 
literature is Studies in Philology, which publishes in each April issue 
a Renaissance bibliography. Studies in Philology (commonly abbre- 
viated SP) has been published at the University of North Carolina 
since 1906. There is an index for Vols. I to XXV. 

For students of the Restoration and the eighteenth century the 
Philological Quarterly (PQ) publishes in its April issue a bibliog- 
raphy covering the period 1660-1800. This journal has been pub- 
lished at the State University of Iowa since 1922. 

/i[nglish| L[iterary] //[istoryj, published at Baltimore since 
1934, provided in each March issue a critical bibliography of the 
Romantic movement ; this bibliography has recently been taken over 
by PQ. 

Modern Philology (MP) has been published at the University of 
Chicago since 1903 ; as each volume begins in one year and carries 
over into the next, a double year-date should be given ; but in citing 
a particular article it is perfectly proper to give only the year in 
which that article appeared. Beginning with 1933 Modern Philology 
has published annually a Victorian bibliography. 

The Publications of the Modern Language Association oj America 
(PMLA) began publication in 1884; there is an index for Vols. I 
to L. Since 1922 at first in the March issue but since 1931 in the 
Supplement PMLA has provided a bibliography of works on 
modern languages and literatures, chiefly those by American 

American Literature (AmLit), published at Durham, North Caro- 
lina, since 1929, has a current bibliography, in each number, of 
studies in American literature. 

For students of folklore, journals of special interest are the Journal 
of American Folk Lore and Folk Lore. The former has been pub- 
lished since 1888, first in Boston, then in New York, and finally in 
Lancaster, Pennsylvania; there is an index to Vols. I to XL. Folk 
Lore has been published in London since 1890. 

74 An Introduction to Research 

Other journals that every graduate student in English should 
know include : 

Anglia, Zeitschrijt jiir englische Philologie, which has been pub- 
lished at Halle since 1877. Vols. I to L have been indexed. Anglia 
Beiblatt: Mitteilungen uber englische Sprache und Literatur, con- 
sisting of monthly supplements, has been published since 1890. 

Archiv jiir das Studium der ncueren Sprachen und Literaturen? 
often known, after its founder, as Herrig's Archiv, has been published 
at Brunswick since 1846; there are indexes to Vols. I to L, LI to C, 
CI to CXX, CXXT to CXXX, and CXXXT to CXL. 

Englische Studien has been published at Leipzig since 1877 ; there 
are indexes for Vols. I to XXV and XXVI to L. Englische Studien 
is sometimes abbreviated ESt or Eng Stud ; but it is probably better 
not to abbreviate, since there is a journal English Studies published 
in Amsterdam. 

Essays and Studies by Members of the English Association has 
been published at Oxford since 1910. 

Huntington Library Bulletin began publication at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, in 1931; eleven volumes had appeared by 1937, at 
which time it was succeeded by the Huntington Library Quarterly, 
published at San Marino, California. 

I sis : International Review Devoted to the History oj Science and 
Civilization began publication in Brussels in 1913; World War I 
caused a suspension from 1914 to 1919, and World War II brought 
an end to the Belgian Isis. No. 84 of Vol. XXXI and Nos. 85 and 86 
of Vol. XXXII were ready for publication in 1940, but the war pre- 
vented their appearance at that time. A list of the contents of these 
issues is given in the new Isis No. 87, Ft. I of Vol. XXXIII (1941), 
[4i]~54 now published at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The Journal oj English and Germanic Philology (JEGP) began at 
Bloomington, Indiana, in 1897, as the Journal oj Germanic Philology. 
Vols. I to IV were published between 1897 and 1902. Vol. V was 
published at Evanston, Illinois, during the years 1903 to 1905. Since 
1906 it has been published at Urbana, Illinois, as the Journal oj 
English and Germanic Philology. 

6 In recent volumes since 1930, I believe the last two words of the title have 
been dropped. 

Tools of Research 75 

Litteris began publication at Lund, Sweden, in 1924; it suspended 
publication with the third issue of Vol. VIT. 

Modern Language Notes (MLN) has been published at Johns 
Hopkins University since 1886; it appears monthly from November 
to June. There is an index to Vols. I to L. 

Modern Language Quarterly (MLQ) began publication at the 
University of Washington in March, 1940. 

Modern Language Review (MLR) is published at Cambridge, 
England. It began in 1905 ; Vols. I to X are indexed in Vol. X, XI 
to XX in XX, and XXI to XXX in XXX. 

Notes and Queries (N&Q) has been published weekly in London 
since 1849. From November 1849 to December 1923 there were 
twelve series consisting of twelve half-year volumes each, with an 
index for every series. Beginning in January 1924, the series number 
was dropped. An index to Vols. CXLV to CLVI (July 1923 to June 
1929) was followed by one to Vols. CLVII to CLXVIII. There was 
also, from 1896 to 1901, an American Notes and Queries. 

Osiris: Studies on the History and Philosophy of Science and on 
the History of Learning and Culture was started at Bruges in 1936. 
Seven volumes had appeared by 1939; the publication of Vols. VIII 
and IX was prevented by the war. The contents of these two volumes 
are listed in Isis, XXXIII (1941), [411-54. 

The Review of English Studies (RES) has been published at 
London since 1925. 

The Literary Supplement of the [London] Times (LTLS or TLS) 
is a weekly publication, begun in 1902. There is an annual index. 
In the "Correspondence" columns are many items of interest to 

These, then, are the journals within the pages of which the student 
of English or American literary history may expect to find much 
of the material with which he must work. 

Let us turn now to another field of bibliography that serves the 
research student as a tool what may be called descriptive bibliog- 
raphy. Bibliographical descriptions enable one to locate a copy of a 
desired edition (or issue) of a book, or to determine whether a given 

76 An Introduction to Research 

copy belongs to the same edition as that represented by the copy 
described. If one can bring the two copies together, the easiest way 
to determine whether or not they belong to the same edition is to 
apply the straight-edge test. Lay a ruler diagonally across a page of 
one copy so that the edge of the ruler rests upon a definite point 
(such as a period or the dot over an i) near the upper left-hand 
corner of the page and upon a similar point near the lower right- 
hand corner. Then place another ruler so that its edge rests upon the 
corresponding two points on the same page of the other copy. The 
two copies should then be carefully examined, line by line, to de- 
termine where each line is intersected by the rulers. If the two pages 
are of the same setting of type and hence of the same edition 
every line in one copy will be intersected at exactly the same point 
as the corresponding line in the other copy; but if the two copies 
are of different settings, there will be considerable variation. Even if 
a compositor had been attempting to duplicate exactly the spacing of 
words and letters in the copy he was following and it seems un- 
likely that such a feat was ever attempted 7 the irregularity of early 
fonts of type would have made such exactness impossible. Strictly 
speaking, the straight-edge test proves only that the two pages com- 
pared are of the same edition ; the two copies might be of different 
issues. By testing one page of the inner forme and one of the outer 
forme of each sheet one can be reasonably sure whether the two 
copies are of the same setting of type throughout. 8 

7 Page-for-page reprints are seldom line-for-Iine. 

8 There are instances in which it would be necessary to test every page. Two edi- 
tions of Robert Greene's The Spanish Masquerado (1589) are recognized in the 
Short Title Catalogue; but there is some question as to whether they should be 
regarded as editions or issues. Sigs. B to D are of different settings of type through- 
out. Two pages (2 and E3 V ) of the inner forme of the last sheet are of the same 
setting except for the last line of 2 and the first line of E.} v ; a third page, 
Ei v , is of the same setting without change, but 4 is of a different setting through- 
out. The three pages of the outer forme (4" is blank) have been reset. A similar 
situation exists in sheet A. Of the inner forme Ai v is blank; A2 has the first four 
lines and the last two lines reset; and A$ v and A4 arc completely reset. Ai and A2 V 
have not been reset ; A^ has been changed only by the addition or removal of lines 
around an ornamental initial ; A4 V is blank. Apparently the decision to issue a second 
edition was made while the outer forme of sheet A which would naturally be the 
last to reach the press was being printed; thus it was used for both editions (or 
issues), rules on A3 being added or removed. Distribution of the type used in the 
inner forme of sheets A and E was halted, and the type reset where necessary. The 
type of the outer forme of sheet E had already been distributed ; hence it had to be 

Tools of Research 77 

Frequently as when one copy is in the Huntington Library and 
the other is in the Bodleian the straight-edge test cannot be ap- 
plied. 9 Then the student must rely upon a bibliographical descrip- 
tion. Perhaps two examples, with some comment, will make clear 
what difficulties are involved in such a description and what can be 
learned from one. 10 


Title: THE / Shepheardes Calender / Conteyning tvvelue ^Eglogues 
proportionable / to the twelue monethes. [this line in Black Letter ] / 
Entitled / TO THE NOBLE AND VERTV / ous Gentleman most 
worthy of all titles / both of learning and cheualrie M. / Philip Sidney. 
/ ('.") / [design, 20 by 20 mm., of type ornaments] / AT LONDON. 
/ Printed by Hugh Singleton, dwelling in / Creede Lane neere vnto 
Ludgate at the / figne of the gylden Tunne, and [this line in Black 
Letter; the n in gylden is either broken at the top or turned, so that it 
resembles a u] / are there to be folde. / 1579. 

Colophon: |N4 V ]: [band of type ornaments] / [ornament: a lady's 
head between cornucopias, 50 by 51 mm.] / Imprinted at London by 
Hugh / Singleton, dwelling in Creede lane [this line in Black Letter] 
/ at the signe of the gylden / Tunn neere vnto / Ludgate (see Note i 

Format and Collation: Quarto: U 4 , A-N 4 ; 56 leaves. 

All leaves of each sheet signed, except |fi, C3, C4, D4, H4, 13, K.3, 
M3, M4, N\3, and N T 4. 

Foliation: Commencing with Ai, leaves numbered Pol. i to jol. 52 in the 
upper right-hand corner of each recto page. Errors in foliation: 37 
for 38; 39 for 40; 94 for 49. 

Contents: |1|i v ], Poem 4 To His Booke" signed "Immerito"; H2-fl3 v , 

reset throughout When nine-tenths of the typ)e or more -has been reset, one 
might well consider that he is dealing with different editions; if we are to be 
strictly logical, however, we should call these issues rather than editions. 

tt Perhaps it should be noted that the straight-edge test can be applied to photo- 
stats; one photostat representing a single opening, that is, two pages would 
suffice to test both inner and outer formes of one sheet. 

10 The first of these descriptions is taken from Francis R. Johnson, A Critical 
Bibliography of the Works of Edmund Spenser, pp. 2-3 ; the second from Nashe, 
Works, ed. McKerrow, I, [iJ-2. I have made some alterations. For example, I have 
indicated the kind of type used on the title page of the Spenser work; whereas 
Mr. Johnson felt, rightly, that his reproduction of the title page made it possible 
for him to use roman type throughout his transcription. 

78 An Introduction to Research 

Dedicatory epistle "jfTo the most excellent and learned both Orator 
and Poete, Mayster Gabriell Haruey, his verie special and singular 
good frend E. K. commendeth the good lyking of this his labour, and 
the patronage of the new Poete." signed E. K. and followed by a post- 
script dated "from my lodging at London thys 10. of Aprill. 1579"; 
1J4-1J4 V , "The generall argument of the whole booke." [text in 
roman] ; Ai-[N4], the twelve eclogues, one for each month, each 
preceded by an illustrative woodcut and an "ARGUMENT" and fol- 
lowed by a "GLOSSE"; [N4 V ], Colophon, as described above. 
The woodcuts occur on A i, A3, 64, [C3 V J, [D4], [F2 V ],G2,H3, [13], 
K4, L4, and [M4]. Each has a design suitable to the subject of the 
eclogue to which it is prefixed and has the appropriate sign of the 
zodiac in the heavens. The argument of each eclogue is set in italic 
type, the poem itself in Black Letter, and the gloss in small roman. 

Running-titles: 1f2 v ~|f3 v , "Epistle"\ A i-[N4], different running-title for 
each eclogue, consisting of the name of the month in italic type. 

Notes: i. The Huth-J. L. Clawson copy has the earlier, uncorrected state 
of the outer form of the final, N, sheet. On Ni, jol. 49 has been mis- 
numbered fol. 94, while on |N4 V ], between the ornamental band and 
the colophon, there is the same woodcut ornament of a lady's head 
between cornucopias which had been used as a tail-piece on Gi v and 
I2 V . The revised state of this form, found in all other known copies, 
has the misprint in foliation corrected and Hugh Singleton's device 
(McKerrow No. 198) substituted for the ornament on the colophon 
page. . . . 

Thomas Nashe's The Anatomie of Absurditic (1589) might be de- 
scribed as follows: 


Title: The Anatomie of / Abfurditie: / Contayning a breefe confuta- 
tion of the {lender / imputed prayfes to feminine perfection, with a 
fhort / defcription of the feuerall practifes of youth, and / fundry 
follies of our licentious / times. / No lef fe pleafant to be read, then 
profitable to be remembred, / efpecially of thofe, who Hue more 
licentioufly, or addic- / ted to a more nyce ftoycall aufteritie. / Com- 
piled by T. Nashe. / Jta diligendi funt homines, vt eorum non / dili- 
gamus err ores. / [design of type ornaments, 12 by 16 mm.] / AT 
LONDON, / Printed by I. Charlewood for Tho- / mas Racket, and 
are to be folde at his shop / in Lumberd f treet, vnder the f igne of / 
the Popes heade. / Anno. Dom. 

Tools of Research 79 

Colophon: none. 

Format and Collation: Quarto: fl 4 , A-E 4 ; 24 leaves, jfi, probably blank, 


First three leaves of each sheet and A4 are signed, other fourth leaves 


Foliation or Pagination: none. 
Contents: If 2, Title; fl2 v , blank; 1f3-[1H v ], Dedicatory epistle, 

"To the right worshipfull Charles / Blunt Knight, adorned with all 

perfections of honour / or Arte, T. Nashe wisheth what euer content / 

felicitie or Fortune may enferre.", in roman and italic; Ai-[E4J, the 

Text, in Black Letter, roman, and italic; [E4 V ], blank. 
Running-titles: [3 V |-|4 V ], "The Epistle.", in roman; [Ai v ]-[E4], 

"The Anatomic / of Absurditie.", in roman. 11 

The chief difficulty in arriving at a satisfactory bibliographical de- 
scription lies in the transcribing of the title page. Except by provid- 
ing a facsimile, one cannot very well indicate the size of the type 
or the spacing of the lines on the page. For illustration, consider a 
transcription of the title page reproduced on the next page : 

[Within a rule, within a border of type ornaments, within a rule] A / 
Moft pleafant Co- / medie of Mucedorus the kings / fonne of Valcntia 
and Amadine / the Kings daughter of Arragon, / with the merie con- 
ceites / of Moufe. / Newly fet foorth, as it hath bin / fundrie times 
plaide in the ho- / norable Cittie oj London. / Very delectable and full / 
of mirth. / [rule, 50 mm. longl / [ornament, 13 by 19 mm.] / [rule, 
50 mm. long] / LONDON / Printed for William lones, dwel- / ling at 
Holborne conduit, at / the figne of the Gunne. / 1598. 

In this example the words A in the first line, Mucedorus in the 
third, and Moufe in the seventh appear in the transcription to be 
printed with type of the same font, though actually three sizes of 
type are involved ; one certainly cannot show such difference when 
he is using a typewriter, and attempts to do so with type except in 
facsimile are not very satisfactory. Neither can one very well show 
how much more space there is between the seventh and eighth lines 

11 In giving running titles or running heads, as they are often known one may 
use the slanting or vertical stroke to separate the verso and recto readings. In the 
example cited, the verso pages from Ai v to Ea v would all have "The Anatomic" and 
the recto pages from A2 to 4 would have "of Absurditie." Errors or variations 
in the running titles should be noted. 


th< KingJ daughter of ^*f4t{w, ! 
with the jn 

Hcwly fct it hath bin 
"' &Mta*f,flu6 intkt MI 
> i' wr4*<^|jl*ik \ 


ii. The Title Page of Mucedorus (1598). Reproduced through the 
kindness of the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D. C. 

[ 80 ] 

Tools of Research 81 

than between the eighth and ninth. In some descriptions an attempt 
is made to show roughly how the lines are spaced by varying the 
number of symbols used to indicate line endings ; thus // represents 
a wider space between the lines it separates than is shown by /, and 
/// marks a still wider space. 1 - 

Other things not shown in the above transcription are the facts 
that the ft of "Moft" (line 2), the ct of "delectable" (line n) and 
the fi of "figne" (line 16) are ligatures 13 and that the A in the first 
line and the M of "Mucedorus" in the third line are swash letters. 1 * 

The method used in the above transcription to describe the orna- 
mental border is the more common and, I think, better one. Some 
bibliographers, however, would work from the outside of the page 
inward, thus: "[A rule enclosing a border of type ornaments enclos- 
ing a rule]". If there is an ornament other than one made up of 
type ornaments, it should be identified, if identification be possi- 
ble; lr> if not, it should be described. The title page of Nashe's The 
Terrors of the Night (1594) might be transcribed thus: 16 

12 In describing very early books one must use a vertical stroke to indicate the 
end of a line, instead of a slanting stroke (virgule), since the latter was used by the 
first printers as a mark of punctuation. 

13 A ligature, in printing, is a type in which two or more letters are united in a 
single character on one type-body. It is to be distinguished from a logotype, in 
which two or more letters appear on a single type body but arc not united. (An 
upper case italic W is sometimes combined with a lower case o to avoid the un- 
attractive separation resulting from the use of two types.) Modern fonts vary in 
the number of ligatures they contain; "ff," "ffi," "ffl," "fi," "fl," are usual, "ae," 
"ct," "ce," and "st" are sometimes found. Early printers used in addition "fh," "fi," 
"fl," "ff," "ffi," "ffl," and several others 

14 A swash letter is an italic capital with a flourish generally produced by ex- 
tending and curving one of the serifs (fine cross strokes at the end of a basic stroke 
of a letter) at the top or bottom of the letter or both. Such letters were used 
along with letters of the regular form, presumably according to the whim of the 
compositor. The older printers apparently had no swash forms for F, L, O, S, W, 
and X. Some modern fonts contain swash letters, some do not. According to the 
University of Chicago Press Manual of Style (8th edition), Scotch Roman (p. 250) 
has no swash letters, Garamont (p. 244) has ten, and Caslon Old Style (p. 230) 
has swash forms for all the letters of the alphabet except, I, U. X, and Z. The swash 
form of / as it appeared in the old fonts, with a leftward curve below the line 
is the ancestor of our modern J, and the swash form of V curved instead of 
pointed at the bottom is the ancestor of modern U. 

J5 R. B. McKerrow, Printers' and Publishers' Devices . . . 1485-1640, contains 
reproductions of more than four hundred such ornaments; others may be found 
in R. B. McKerrow and F. S. Ferguson, Title-page Borders Used in England and 
Scotland 1485-1640 (London: The Bibliographical Society, 1932). 

16 This transcription may be compared with the original by consulting the re- 
production in Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, I, [339]. 

82 An Introduction to Research 

[Head ornament (17 by 70 mm.) with urn as central feature and volutes 
and leaves on each side of it] / THE / Terrors of the night / Or, / A 
Difcourfe of Apparitions. / Post Tenebras Dies. / THO: NASHE / 
[Danter's device (McKerrow No. 281)] / LONDON / Printed by 
lohn Danter for William lones, and are to be fold / at the figne of the 
Gunne nere Holburne Conduit. / 1594. 

In this example, the head ornament, which does not appear in 
McKerrow's Printers' and Publishers 9 Devices . . . 1485-1640, is 
described as definitely as seemed possible; the measurement is in 
millimeters, the vertical dimension being given first. If the book de- 
scribed is a rare one, and the same ornament occurs in some easily 
accessible work (such as McKerrow's edition of Nashe or Johnson's 
bibliography of Spenser), a note to that effect would be helpful to the 
reader who finds the description inadequate. 

Sometimes, to what has already been given as characteristic of a 
full bibliographical description, there are added "justificatory words'' 
the first words of a certain page, often page n or the catchwords 
on certain pages. Frequently the wording of the entry of the book in 
the Stationers' Register is quoted from Arber's transcript or from 
Eyre's, 17 together with the proper reference. It may also be helpful to 
specify the copy of the work that was used in making the descrip- 
tion; 18 then if some question of variant copies arises, students will 
know where to look for the particular copy represented by the 

If there are ornaments elsewhere than on the title page, they 
should be identified or described ; ornamental initials should also be 
noted, especially if they serve to identify the printer of the work. 

* * * 

In giving the collation, one must indicate any irregularities. Thus 
A-Z 8 if the book is described as an octavo represents a book made 

17 Arber's five volumes cover the period from 1554 to 1640; Eyre's three volumes 
carry on from 1640 to 1708. 

18 For some broks a long line of previous owners is known to bibliographers; 
thus one copy of the Fourth Edition of The Shepheardes Calender is the Utterson 
Carmichael Hoe Huntington Hagen copy and another is the Bridgwater Hunt- 
ington Clawson copy, while a copy of Amoretti and Epithalamion is the Holland 
Utterson Halliwell-Phillipps Corser Brooke copy. 

Tools of Research 83 

up of twenty-three sheets, each sheet folded so that it constitutes 
eight leaves ; 10 if the book were a folio in eights, it would have 
twenty-three gatherings of four sheets (eight leaves) each. But the 
sheets, or gatherings, do not always have the same number of leaves ; 
we may have a collation : "A 4 , B-M 8 , N G , O-Y 8 , Z 4 ". If the number of 
leaves alternates regularly, as sometimes happens, the fact may be 
indicated most concisely by the collation "A-Z 8/4 ", which would 
mean that signatures A, C, E, and so on contain eight leaves each, 
while B, D, F, and every second successive signature have only four 
each. In referring to specific pages, the symbol for the page is put in 
brackets if the page is unsigned; thus all verso pages would be 
bracketed,- and usually the recto of the fourth leaves of a quarto 
and the sixth, seventh, and eighth of an octavo. When a book contains 
so many signatures that a second and perhaps a third alphabet must 
be used, one may use the symbol "3X2" instead of "KKK2"; - l it is 
customary to use Arabic numerals in citing pages even though the 
original may have been signed in Roman: "A3" instead of "Aiij". 22 
In solving the many problems that may arise in connection with 
bibliographical descriptions, the student will find helpful, discussions 
by McKerrow, 200 Esdaile, 207 and Greg; 20><! as a model for form, I 
know nothing better than the Spenser bibliography to which refer- 
ence has already been made. 23 

Though the average graduate student is not likely to have occasion 
to describe a manuscript, it may be worth while for him to know 

19 In dealing with matters bibliographical one must be careful to preserve the dis- 
tinction between leaf and page (one side of a leaf) ; as Esdaile points out (Student's 
Manual of Bibliography, p. 261) some bibliographers go so far as to speak of "title 
leaf" instead of "title page" when it is the leaf they mean. They would say "Title 
leaf wanting", for example. 

20 It is not really necessary to use brackets with verso pages, since it can be taken 
for granted that they are not signed. Brackets are sometimes omitted in referring to 
the fourth leaf of a quarto and to other unsigned leaves (Esdaile, Student's Manual 
of Bibliography, p. 259) ; but it would seem better, in view of irregularities in the 
use of signatures, to use brackets in all references to unsigned recto pages. 

21 It might be better, however, to save the numerical symbol for books like 
Robert Greene's Planetomachia which have two sheets bearing the same signature; 
then "283" would refer to the second "B" signature. 

22 In early printing, when lower case letters were used for Roman numerals, a ; 
was used instead of an i for the final letter: "ij" and ";" instead of "" and "iii"; 
"iv" was often represented by "iiij". 23 See above, p. 77, n. 10. 

84 An Introduction to Research 

something about such descriptions. Excellent examples are to be 
found in Volume I of Manly and Rickert's edition of The Text of the 
Canterbury Tales. 293 A full quotation would require too much space 
here; but each description includes the following items: 

Contents: If the manuscript contains selections other than the 
Canterbury Tales, the titles are given, unless they are very numerous. 

Form: Information concerning the material, the size and style of 
page, and the like. 

Watermarks: If the material is paper, the watermarks are identi- 
fied by numbers in Briquet's Les Filigranes: where there was doubt 
as to the identification, the number in Briquet that most resembles 
the watermark in question is cited. 

Collation: The make-up of the MS is indicated (number of leaves 
in a gathering), any irregularities being noted, together with the 
presence of signatures and catchwords. 

Date: Estimated as accurately as possible, mainly on palaeographi- 
cal evidence. 

Writing: "We have tried to describe the hands in intelligible terms, 


Ink: Description of the color of the ink of the text and of correc- 

Stipervision and Correction: Comment on the nature and extent of 
the work of supervisors and correctors. 

Illumination: The main decorative features of each MS are noted ; 
these are generally a "decorative initial joined by : i) a conventional 
framework border extending around the whole page or three sides of 
it; or, 2) by hair-line sprays of varying lengths." 20J If the border 
extends around all four sides of the page, it is a vinet ; otherwise it is 
a demi-vinet. A champ is a small gold initial vinets and demi-vinets 
having a colored initial on a gold ground "on a square of colored 
ground decorated at the outside corners with feathery sprays". 206 ' 
There are also initials with pen flourishes, generally in color. Four of 
the MSS have historiated initials (initials with figures), three have 
miniature paintings of the Pilgrims (Ellesmere has a full set of the 
twenty-three who told tales), and one has symbolic representations 
of vices and virtues. 

Binding: The material, the style, and where possible the date of 
the binding are noted. 


"o d 






<* rt 



p g 

o o> 

-s s t 

aj o 


~ (U 


^ a 




- a 
















[ 85 ] 

86 An Introduction to Research 

Present Condition : A statement as to the present condition of the 
MS is made, chiefly to explain why some readings are illegible. 

Order of Tales: The letter system of the Chaucer Society is used 
(A for the Prologue, the Knight's Tale, the Miller's Tale, the Reeve's 
Tale, and the Cook's Tale ; B 1 for the Man of Law's Tale ; B~ for the 
Shipman's, the Prioress's, Sir Thopas and Melibeus, the Monk's, and 
the Nun's Priest's; and so on). 

Affiliations and Textual Character: "Under this heading is given a 
brief statement of the genealogical position of each MS with a view 
to showing whether the MS is steady or variable in its relationships, 
and, if variable, whether the variation is due to itself or its ances- 
tors." 207 

Dialect and Spelling: The dialect is indicated together with spell- 
ings that represent a variation from the norm for that dialect. 

Special Features: This heading covers a variety of information: 
the presence of glosses, marginalia, etc. 

Provenance: Two of the MSS have been traced to nineteenth- 
century owners only, thirty-nine have been identified with more or 
less certainty with fifteenth-century owners; the remaining forty- 
three have been traced to sixteenth-, seventeenth-, or eighteenth- 
century ownership. 


So much for bibliography as a tool of research ; let us consider now 
another tool a note-system. We shall speak here only of the physical 
characteristics of a proper note-system ; the method of using it may 
be more appropriately considered in another place. 24 

Professor Manly once remarked that the loose-leaf system was in 
use by scholars long before it was adopted by business men. The older 
scholars commonly made use of cards 3" by 5" the size of "bibliog- 
raphy cards", such as are found in the card catalogues of libraries. 
But [most students will find the 4" by 6" size much more convenient) 
The larger size will accommodate in most instances if both sides 
are used 25 as much information as one is likely to wish to incor- 

24 See below, pp. 290-97. 

25 Professor Morize wrote (Problems and Methods, p. 293) : "Never write on 
more than one side of the paper, . . ." But it seems to me better, if a note is very 
long as may sometimes happen to use both sides of the sheet than to clip two 
sheets together. Putting the word "over" at the bottom of the first side would 
prevent one's overlooking anything on the reverse side. 

Tools of Research 87 

porate in a single note; whereas, with the smaller size, one is con- 
tinually having to clip two sheets together, and the amount of space 
taken up in a file by a number of paper clips is not a negligible item. 
There is a certain amount of space wasted when the 4" by 6" size is 
used for purely bibliographical notes, but the convenience of having 
all of one's notes the same size justifies the waste.- 6 

For one who expects to take a large number of notes, the use of 
cards, either 4 by 6 or 3 by 5, will prove expensive, both in initial cost 
and in the expense of providing sufficient filing space. Yet the paper 
slips, which may be secured, like the cards, in packages of fifty or one 
hundred, are not heavy enough to be satisfactory for anything but 
temporary notesj The ideal solution is to buy a ream of heavy ledger 
paper and have it cut into pieces 4" by 6". A size can be secured 
which will cut up with little or no waste ; and hundreds, or even thou- 
sands of slips may thus be obtained at comparatively low cost. The 
right kind of paper will make slips heavy enough and stiff enough to 
handle as conveniently as cards, and as durable as can be desired, 
but thin enough to occupy little more than half the space in 

The student who looks forward to keeping a large body of notes 
accessible over a period of years will doubtless want a wooden or, 
better still, a steel filing case ; but most graduate students will prefer 
, the cardboard boxes of appropriate size that are procurable at any 
stationer's shop. Such boxes have the double advantage of cheapness 
and portability. To keep at hand a small sheaf of notes, 4" by 6" 
expanding envelopes of brown fiber, also relatively cheap and easily 
obtained, will be found useful. 

When one has accumulated enough notes to begin filing them in a 
box or a drawer of a filing case, he will want division cards to keep 
the notes on one topic separate from those on another. Such division 
cards may be procured with ready-cut tabs for labeling, but for pur- 
poses of research it may be better to get cards about 4^/2" by 6" and 
cut out tabs to suit one's own needs f Different colors, as many as are 
likely to be needed, are readily available. 

Sometimes a supplementary file, large enough to accommodate 
correspondence and reprints of scholarly articles, will be found desir- 
able ; the ordinary letter file which opens up like a book and has 

26 Moreover, one should form the habit of turning purely bibliographical notes 
into critico-bibliographical notes (see below, p. 290) as soon as possible. 

88 An Introduction to Research 

alphabetized division leaves is inexpensive and will hold a consider- 
able amount of material. 


Graduate students are not likely to be called upon to make use of 
scientific instruments except, perhaps, a magnifying glass ; but some 
notion of the contribution which science has made to literary research 
should be a part of every student's background. The photostat a 
photographic device by means of which an image is thrown directly 
upon sensitized paper instead of plate or film is familiar to most 
students. In a photostat the writing of a manuscript or the printing 
of a book appears in white upon a black background ; 27 but once one 
has become accustomed to the appearance of the page, there is no 
difficulty involved in working with white-on-black material. The 
great value of photostats is that they enable any library or any indi- 
vidual, for that matter to possess an identical copy of the text of a 
rare book, not merely a transcript, subject to scribal errors, or a 
reprint, subject to editorial and typographical errors. The disadvan- 
tage is that certain marks rust stains, for example which, in the 
original, show up clearly for what they are, in a photostat will appear 
to be of the same color as the ink ; thus a comma may look like a 
semicolon or an interrogation point. 28 

A somewhat less familiar means of reproducing books or manu- 
scripts involves the use of a small camera fitted with a long roll of 
film, like a motion picture film. A separate exposure is made for each 
opening of a book ; thus the contents of two adjacent pages are repro- 
duced on each tiny frame of the film. Here again the reproduction is 
white on black. These microfilms are considerably less expensive than 
photostats, but they must be studied by means of a reading device 
which at once illuminates and enlarges the image. 

27 The process can be repeated to produce the more familiar black on white. The 
Huntington Library regularly sends black-on-white photostats at no extra cost ; but 
to get black-on-white one generally has to pay double price and then gets both 
white-on-black and black-on-white copies. 

28 It is possible, of course, by means mentioned below, to screen out such marks 
so that nothing shows on the photostat except what is written or printed on the 

Tools of Research 89 

Various kinds of lighting devices, either with or without color 
filters, are used in the examining and photographing of books, and, 
more particularly, manuscripts. Writing which is too faint to be read 
may be made legible and may even be photographed if light of the 
proper intensity be thrown upon the manuscript from just the right 
direction. 29 Filters make it possible to read faded handwriting, to 
photograph through stains, to contrast details through a microscope, 
and to compare the colors of inks and pencil marks. In comparing 
colors, Lovibond Tintometer Glasses are used. 

Microscopes are used in examining handwriting, especially for the 
purpose of detecting forgeries, in transcribing manuscripts, in deter- 
mining whether pencil marks lie above or below ink marks/ 40 and in 
discovering the composition of paper. The microscope is also used, 
along with chemical analysis, in the investigation of inks and of pig- 
ments used in illuminations. Measuring instruments, of which there 
are at least fifteen different kinds, 31 are used in the study of hand- 

Photography has many uses in literary research. We have already 
considered its value in the making of additional copies of the text of 
a rare work ; photography may also preserve for posterity the text of 
a manuscript in which the writing is fading beyond the point of 
legibility, or the text of a manuscript or book which, for some reason 
or other, is disintegrating. Photography with infra-red light will bring 
out writing or printing on paper which is badly charred, and photog- 
raphy with Rontgen rays (X-rays) is sometimes also employed. 

Perhaps the most interesting use of photography in literary re- 
search is that which makes use of the principle of fluorescence. Many 
papers fluoresce under ultra-violet light. If a piece of such paper has 
had writing on it, even though the writing be faded so as to be unread- 

29 An excellent account of the use of various scientific devices is to be found in 
Captain R. B. Haselden, Scientific Aids for the Study of Manuscripts (Oxford: The 
Bibliographical Society [ London 1, 1935). 

30 See below, p. 144, n. 4. 

31 These are discussed by Albert S. Osborn itt ks Questioned D&cuments, 2nd ed. 
(Albany, N. Y.: Boyd Printing Co., 1929). 

90 An Introduction to Research 

able, or has been erased (as in a palimpsest), the writing masks the 
fluorescence in such a way that whatever had been written can be 
plainly read and can be photographed. Writing done with invisible 
ink can be read in the same way. Sometimes it is the ink rather than 
the paper that fluoresces; sometimes both ink and paper fluoresce, 
but in such a way that the contrast between the two kinds or degrees 
of fluorescence makes it possible to read the writing. In some in- 
stances neither ink nor paper is fluorescent, but Captain Haselden 
has discovered a way of treating the manuscript with a chemical 
solution which makes the paper fluoresce, 208 so that any writing or 
printing that may have been on it can be read. 

With all the skills and all the scientific aids now available, it is not 
too much to say that, although a literary fraud might go for a long 
time unsuspected, once it comes under suspicion and the forces of 
literary scholarship and science are marshaled against it, its fraudu- 
lent nature will inevitably be demonstrated. 


Whether or not he has occasion to make use of such scientific 
instruments as have been mentioned, the graduate student in English 
is likely to have need of certain equipment in addition to his knowl- 
edge of the English language and its literature. Just what equipment 
will be most useful will depend largely upon the period in which the 
student interests himself and upon the type of research he chooses to 
pursue. The most obvious item of such equipment is a knowledge of 
foreign languages. A thorough command of Latin and an almost equal 
knowledge of Greek used to be taken for granted as necessary for 
every scholar ; nowadays a good many students get along with little 
Latin and no Greek. Nevertheless, if one is intending to work in one 
of the earlier periods before 1600 he will find a knowledge of 
Latin highly desirable, if not absolutely essential ; and in the later 
periods Latin is also a very useful tool. A knowledge of Greek is not 
essential in any of the periods, although it may be highly useful in 
all of them. Any one who plans to work in the Renaissance will find 
Italian almost if not quite a necessity. For the student of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries French is perhaps the most 
useful foreign language ; and one who is interested in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century or the nineteenth will find German valuable. 

Tools of Research 91 

It goes without saying that one who is planning to work in com- 
parative literature will need to have more than ordinary command of 
whatever foreign language his work involves. One who is interested in 
philosophical studies would doubtless want to be able to read Greek 
philosophy in the original language, and the student of ballads or 
romances would need a thorough knowledge of the older forms of 
English. Biographical studies of the older writers would require an 
adequate knowledge of Latin, since almost all records were for 
centuries kept in that language. 

Foreign languages are not the only auxiliaries helpful to the stu- 
dent of literary history ; almost any branch of human learning may 
at times prove valuable. A famous crux in Beowulf was cleared up 
with the aid of archaeology. Early students of the poem had been 
baffled by the lines : 

Eoforlic scionon 

ofer hleorbergan gehroden golde, 
fah ond fyrheard, ferhwearde heold 
guj?modgum men. 3 - 

The words seemed clear enough, but how could boar-likenesses 
guard the lives of men ? Then a bronze plate 33 was dug up, on which 
appear in relief two fully armed Viking warriors ; atop each helmet, 
serving as a ridge or reinforcement, is the image of a boar. Thus the 
boar-likeness quite literally guarded the warrior's life by preventing 
his helmet from being caved in by a blow. 34 

A knowledge of architecture would be useful to the student of 
literature not the architect's knowledge, which enables him to 
design buildings and to calculate strain and stress, but such familiar- 
ity with the architecture of a period as will enable one to re-create in 

32 Ll. 303-6; the lines may be translated: "Boar-likenesses shone over the cheek- 
guards decorated with gold ; shining and fire-hardened, life-guard they held over the 
war-minded men." 

33 Pictured in Beowulf, ed. Franz Klaeber, 3rd ed. (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1936), 
p. M, fig. 2. 

34 An article (Eleanor Grace Clark, "The Right Side of the Franks Casket", 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 339-53) on the Franks Casket represents the converse of this 
kind of research; there literature contributes to the interpretation of an archaeo- 
logical relic. 

92 An Introduction to Research 

imagination the houses in which the people of that period lived, the 
castles in which they assembled for protection, and the churches in 
which they worshiped their God. Only through such sympathetic 
understanding of the culture of a people can the literature of that 
people be fully understood. 

It will readily be seen that a knowledge of political history is 
always valuable and often essential. An admirer of Browning once 
assured me that any one with an intimate acquaintance with the poli- 
tical history of thirteenth-century Italy could easily understand 
Sordello, regarded by most of those who have attempted to read it as 
quite unintelligible. A knowledge of economics and economic history 
is perhaps equally valuable; for an understanding of nineteenth- 
century literature it is essential. Social history is likewise important, 
especially in studies of the history of ideas. 

An understanding of music, particularly the history of music, 
would be helpful in studying ballads and the songs in plays. The 
science of psychology enters into such works as Professor Lowes 's 
The Road to Xanadu. 209 It has already been pointed out 3r> that the 
ability to read the old forms of handwriting is required in working 
with manuscripts older than 1650 ; and biographical studies are likely 
to demand a knowledge of the idiosyncrasies of public records, a 
knowledge to be gained only by experience with the records them- 
selves. 30 

The student, then, who is entering upon a career whether it be for 
a year or for life of research in literary history will do well to take 
stock of himself, to analyze and to rate conservatively his qualifica- 
tions. If his language equipment is weak, and he has no desire to 
strengthen it, he should not undertake to work, except in a very 
limited way, in the older periods; he should certainly avoid any 

35 See above, p. 2. 

36 Even subjects so diverse as mathematics and wrestling may be made to con- 
tribute to literary research. An article on Spenser (Vincent Foster Hopper, 
"Spenser's House of Temperance", PMLA, LV (1940), 958-67) makes use of mathe- 
matics in arriving at an interpretation of part of The F eerie Queene\ and one on 
Beowulf (Calvin S. Brown, "Beowulf's Arm-Lock", PMLA, LV (1940), 621-27) 
interprets a passage in the poem (11. 736-823) in the light of the author's knowl- 
edge of wrestling. 

Tools of Research 93 

studies involving the influence of a foreign literature. If he has no 
interest in economics, he can hardly expect to beccme an authority on 
nineteenth-century English literature, though there are projects in 
that field which he may safely attempt studies, for example, in 
technique. Finally, unless one is prepared to Fpend a period of ap- 
prenticeship in the Public Record Office in London, he would be wise 
not to attempt any extensive research in the life of one of the older 
English writers. 




PERHAPS not many graduate students will undertake theses that 
directly involve matters of editing; but every graduate student 
should understand the problems and the technique of editing in 
order that he may evaluate the editorial work of others be able to 
discriminate between good and bad editions and interpret rightly 
the notes and comments to be found in the critical editions with 
which he will have to work. 

Editing, in the nineteenth century, was a relatively simple matter ; 
the Reverend Dr. Alexander B. Grosart, one of the most prolific edi- 
tors of the period, expressed the ideals of his art and science for 
editing is both art and science in these words: 

Here I wish mainly to state, by way of General Preface, that with 
Greene, as in all my editing, my law and endeavour combined, is to 
reproduce the Author's own text in integrity, id est, without an attempt 
at (so-called) 'improvements/ or even modernisation of the spelling, 
punctuation, etc. The most of the original and early editions, having 

[ 95 ] 

96 An Introduction to Research 

been printed in what is known as Black Letter or Old English most 
trying of all types to read continuously I do not profess to furnish 
facsimiles; but I shall be disappointed if it be not found that within the 
inevitable limitations of human fallibility, the ipsissima verba of the text 
are faithfully rendered that text being in every case the earliest avail- 
able. . . . Such few corrections of misprints and mispunctuations as it 
has been deemed expedient to make are recorded in the Notes and Illus- 
trations, save trifles such as a reversed letter, as n for u; misplaced 
letters, as hwose for howse (= house); misplaced words, as 'yet if he 
doubting he' for 'yet doubting if he', . . . and the like. . . . 

Throughout there are well-nigh endless allusions to classical-mytho- 
logical names and incidents, not a few of them being oddly disguised by 
their orthography. Those merely trite are left unannotated ; but in every 
case where an ordinary Reader may be supposed to wish information or 
elucidation, an attempt is made in relative Notes and Illustrations to 
render adequate help; while in the closing volume, under the Glossarial 
Index, etc., every noticeable word, name, and the like, may be looked 
for. . . * 

The editorial principles here set forth are not, so far as they go, 
very different from those we hold today; unfortunately, Grosart's 
practice, because of defects both in his temperament and in his 
method, was not as good as his preaching. In the first place, Grosart 
did not always make use of the "earliest available" edition ; l the 
inadequacy of library catalogues was doubtless largely to blame, but 
a lack of assiduity in searching is also involved. Having found what 
he took to be the earliest edition, Grosart next hired a copyist to 
make a transcript of the work in question. It was this transcript that 
served as the printer's copy, and there is no indication that Grosart, 
or any one else, bothered to collate the transcript with the original ; 
at least, the collating, if it was done at all, was done very badly. Thus 
the editor was at the mercy of his copyist ; if the latter happened to 
be an accurate and painstaking workman, Grosart's text may ap- 
proach though because of the human fallibility referred to above, it 
seldom achieves a faithful rendering of the ipsissima verba. More 
often, the transcript was grossly inaccurate : 2 words were omitted ; 3 

1 It will be seen later (pp. 100-13) that the earliest edition is not necessarily the 
one to be reprint/ d; but Grosart did not always use the earliest edition when he 
should have done so. 

2 One scholar who has worked much with Grosart texts assured me, almost seri- 
ously, that he could always tell when lunch-time or tea-time had been imminent in 

Methods of Research: Editing 97 

"an f were" became "and weare" (twice on the same page) ; 4 lines 
were omitted ; 5 the Latin "actum" became "etiam", 6 "muto" became 
"motu", 7 "eorum" became "coram", 8 and so on and on. But enough of 
bad nineteenth-century editing ; what constitutes good modern edit- 

We must first of all distinguish different kinds of editions. A chil- 
dren's edition has its requirements, which are different from those of 
an edition intended for use by high school students as a class text, 
and from those of an edition designed for the ordinary adult reader. 
We are here concerned with editions intended for scholars, for serious 
students of an author or a period. The requirements for such an edi- 
tion commonly referred to as a critical edition are : 

First, it should provide a correct text, representing as exactly as 
possible the author's final intention, with all errors eliminated. 
Second, it should explain any allusions or other readings that are 
likely to prove difficult for the sort of person who may be expected to 
use the work. 10 Third, it should furnish a commentary that will serve 
to fit the work into its setting so that the reader may be able to appre- 
ciate its literary and historical significance. Fourth, it should, as 
Professor Morize wrote, "be easy to handle and convenient, arranged 
and printed in such a way as to afford instruction and pleasure, with 
notes that elucidate and do not submerge the text." 2 

The editor of a work of the seventeenth or an earlier century gen- 
erally has to depend upon printed editions for his text; but if a 
manuscript is available, then a fifth requirement must be added : the 
critical edition should by means of textual notes, enable the reader 

the copyist's life. As the transcriber grew more and more tired and hungry, the 
errors in the text became more and more abundant. 

n For example, the word then: "and [then! to reueale" (Greene, Works, ed. 
Grosart, V, 63, 1. 24) ; sometimes the omission, as of a negative, for instance, serves 
to change or destroy the meaning of the sentence: "haue been troubled" should 
read "haue not been troubled" (ibid., XII, 126, 11. 21-22). 

4 Ibid., V, 76,11. 7 and 21. 

* Ibid., p. 78, 11. 6-7: ". . . and to tell him that / [fhe fo meanely accounted 
either of his perfon or parentage, that] / after fhec had opened his letter . . ." 

"Ibid., p. 29, 1. 23. 7 Ibid., 1. i. * Ibid., p. 35, 1. 22. 

9 It should be noted that errors may be due to the carelessness of the author or 
of a copyist or compositor, or to the carelessness, ignorance, or prejudice of an 

10 A good general rule is to explain words and constructions that are not made 
clear in a dictionary such as the New International. 

98 An Introduction to Research 

to trace the development of the work from the earliest form available 
perhaps a rough draft through successive versions to its definitive 
form. 11 If there is no manuscript of the work it will suffice to give the 
readings of the significant editions. 12 


The first step, then, in preparing an edition is to provide a correct 
text ; and to do that one must choose, from all the versions available, 
a basic or copy text. By consulting such works as the Short Title 
Catalogue, catalogues of important libraries, and other bibliograph- 
ical tools, one should be able to discover all the versions known to be 
still in existence. 13 But in the search for a basic text one is not con- 
cerned with all the versions that exist ; since the editor's purpose is 
or should be to use as his basic text that version which best repre- 
sents his author's final intention, he need consider only those editions 
in which the author is known to have intervened or may have 
done so. 

The available texts may consist of one or more of seven kinds: (i) 
holographs; 14 (2) manuscripts not in the author's hand but contain- 
ing evidence of authorial correction; (3) manuscripts derived from 
an authentic text no longer extant; (4) editions supervised by the 

11 If the difference between versions is very great, it may be impossible to show 
the development of the text by means of textual notes. In such cases the versions 
may be printed separately, as in William Langland, The Vision of William Concern- 
ing Piers Plowman, ed. Wfalterl Wrilliaml Skeat (London: N. Triibner and Com- 
pany, 1867-77), 5 vols. ; or in parallel columns, as in the Chaucer Society's A Six- 
Text Print of the Canterbury Tales in Parallel Columns (London. N. Triibner and 
Company, 1869-71) ; or with such an arrangement as Professor Wilhelm Victor used 
in his edition of Hamlet (Marburg: K. G. Elwertsches Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1891, 
rev. ed. 1913): the lines of the First Quarto on the upper part of the verso pages, 
the corresponding lines of the Second Quarto on the upper part of the recto pag-*-, 
and the First Folio version on the lower part of both pages. 

12 The significant editions are, of course, those in which the author may have 

13 It is a good idea to consult persons who are familiar with the period to which 
the text belongs ; copies of previously unknown editions and manuscripts turn up 
from time to time and may be announced in a letter to the editor of the Times 
Literary Supplement or in a brief note in one of the learned journals. To make an 
exhaustive search of such sources of information might prove fruitless; and the 
prospective editor may save himself time by a tactful appeal to known authorities 
in the field. 

14 A holograph is a manuscript written wholly in the handwriting of the author, 
i.e., an autograph; since the term autograph is often used to mean a signature, it is 
perhaps desirable to use holograph in referring to a manuscript. 

Methods of Research: Editing 99 

author, the text of which theoretically, at least the author guaran- 
tees; (5) authorized editions, published with the author's approval 
or, at least, without protest but not corrected by the author and 
hence perhaps faulty in text ; (6) editions published after the author's 
death, but containing his corrections or revisions and hence represent- 
ing his final intention; and (7) unauthorized editions, printed before 
or after the death of the author, which may or may not represent his 

In choosing between a holograph and a printed text, one might 
think that the preference should always be given to the manuscript. 
What more, one might ask, could be desired than the author's words 
written out in his own hand? But there are circumstances which may 
make the printed text the proper choice, (i) The printed text, hav- 
ing been set up from the manuscript in question, may contain correc- 
tions or revisions made by the author in the course of reading the 
proof; (2) the printed text may be based upon a later manuscript 
no longer extant or not known to be extant; (3) the printed text 
may represent an earlier printed text which was itself a later version 
than that contained in the manuscript ; (4) the manuscript may be a 
careless copy of a printed text. 15 

A holograph or any demonstrably authoritative manuscript 16 
would be preferred to the printed text (i) if the printed text is based 
on a version earlier than that represented by the manuscript; (2) if 
the printed text is unauthorized and differs materially from the manu- 
script; (3) if the printed text, though published under the author's 
supervision, is a careless and corrupt rendering of the manuscript, 
i.e., if it contains readings that are incomprehensible or inconsistent 
with the author's apparent intention, whereas the manuscript is both 
clear and consistent; or (4) if the printed text has been toned down 
from fear of censorship or changed in some way so that it does not 
represent the author's real intention. 

15 It is not likely, of course, that an author would make an autograph copy of any 
long work ; but he might very well make such a copy, to serve as a gift or for some 
such purpose, of a short poem or essay. If such a manuscript contained important 
revisions, it would be taken as representing the author's latest intention, unless there 
were indications that the revision was intended for a certain reader or group of 
readers, rather than for the general public. 

16 A manuscript not in the author's handwriting may have all the authority of a 
holograph if it can be shown that the manuscript was written at the author's dicta- 
tion, if it bears revisions or corrections in the author's hand, or if in some other way 
the circumstances indicate that it represents the author's intention. 

100 An Introduction to Research 

In most cases, especially if the work be of a date before 1700, the 
prospective editor is not faced with the necessity of choosing between 
a printed text and a manuscript ; there is no manuscript. Frequently, 
too frequently, there is no choice at all ; the work exists in only one 
text, and an editor is constrained to use that text, no matter how 
bad it may be, how puzzling its cruxes. Of eighteen works by Thomas 
Lodge listed in the Short Title Catalogue, fourteen are represented 
by only one edition each ; for twenty-nine of the thirty-eight works 
of Thomas Dekker the same thing is true. 

If the work in question is represented by more than one printed 
text, shall one choose the first or princcps edition, or the last 
edition printed in the author's lifetime, or some other edition? Re- 
membering that a critical edition should represent the author's final 
intention, one might assume that the last edition in which the author 
intervened whether published before or after his death 17 is the 
one to choose as a basic text. But two things are to be kept in mind: 
first, that the author must be shown to have intervened ; and second, 
that his intervention must have been complete, or at'least extensive. 18 

It is often impossible to decide upon a basic text until a compari- 
son, called collation, has been made of all the versions, whether edi- 

17 It is possible, of course, that there may be published long after an author's 
death, an edition which incorporates changes desired by the author as indicated by 
a corrected copy or some other form of memoranda and consequently represents 
his final intention. 

18 In the sixteenth century it was rather unusual for an author to make correc- 
tions in the second and successive editions of a work. This situation is to be 
accounted for partly by the fact that authorship as a profession was conventionally 
held in low esteem; hence, to be much concerned about the correctness of the text 
of a published work was something of a violation of Elizabethan decorum. A more 
important circumstance, however, is the fact that in the early days of the publishing 
industry an author invariably, I think, sold outright his interest in a literary work. 
Thus any profits that resulted from a popularity which led to the issuing of more 
than one edition were shared by the publisher and the printer; the author had no 
financial interest once a manuscript got into print, or, rather into the printing house. 
We find that Nashe seems to have intervened (see below, pp. 108-9) in some, at 
least, of the later editions of his works; but his practice was unusual. Moie often a 
publisher's allegation that an edition was "Newlie revised and corrected" had no 
basis in fact, or else the corrections were such as were made by the printer or his 

19 It should be noted that this is a different use of the word collation from that 
mentioned in Part II, pp. 77-83, where a collation is a list of the signatures com- 
prising a book. The word is also used to mean an examination of the signatures to 
make sure that all are present, as in Part I, p. 54. 

Methods of Research: Editing 101 

tions or manuscripts, that have any authority all those, that is, in 
which the author may have intervened. Such collating may most con- 
veniently be done, if the text is not too long, by writing each line (of 
a poem) or each sentence (of a prose work) on a separate note slip 
The slips should be numbered in sequence, and the version repre- 
sented should be indicated by some significant abbreviation the 
initial of the owner of the manuscript, or the last two digits of the 
date of the edition.- When slips have been completed for one version, 
they should be compared, slip by slip, with another version. If the 
reading is identical, letter for letter and comma for comma, that fact 
may be indicated by using ditto marks or writing "Same", and then 
giving the symbol for the edition. Any variations that occur should 
be indicated as in the following illustration, representing the first 
quatrain of FitzGerald's version of the Rubdiydt of Omar Khayyam ; 

Awake! for Morning in the Bowl of Night 59 

Wake! For the Sun behind yon Eastern height 68 

Same 72 

Wake! For the Sun, who scatter 'd into flight 79 

1,2 2 

Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight: 59 

Has chased the Session of the Stars from Night; 68 

Same 7 2 

The Stars before him from the Field of Night, 79 

20 Dr. McKerrow, in his edition of Nashe, used capital letters to distinguish 
different editions of the same year; thus the two editions of A Countercufje Giuen 
to Martin lunior, both of 1589, are referred to simply as A and B. When there are 
both editions of different years and more than one edition of one year, as is true of 
Pierce Penilesse, they are represented as 92*, 92, 92, 93, and 95. 

102 An Introduction to Research 

I, 3 3 

And Lo! the Hunter of the East has caught 59 

And, to the field of Heav'n ascending, strikes 68 

Same 72 

Drives Night along with them from Heav'n, 79 

and strikes 

1,4 4 

The Sultan's Turret in a Noose of Light. 59 

The Sultan's Turret with a Shaft of Light. 68 

Same. t 72 

Same. 79 

the collation includes the four significant editions. The figure in the 
upper right corner of each note is the serial number of the note ; the 
figures in the upper left represent stanza and line ; and those at the 
end of each line show the edition. 

For longer pieces novels and the like it is best to secure, if pos- 
sible, a printed copy of the work to be collated. Taking a concrete 
example, let it be supposed that one is to edit Robert Greene's Groats- 
worth oj Wit. A copy of the work should be procured ; I used Volume 
XII of Grosart's edition of Greene's works.- 1 Editions of the Groats- 
worth dated 1592, 1596, 1617, 1621, 1629, and 1637 are known to exist. 
All of the seventeenth-century editions can be disregarded as having 
no independent authority, there being no evidence of authorial inter- 
vention in any of them. Since Greene died in 1592, before even the 

21 The edition by G. B. Harrison (London: John Lane, the Bodley Head, Ltd., 
and New York: button, 1923) might have been used instead. Or a photostatic copy 
could be used as a working copy. Photostats can also be used satisfactorily except 
for the possibility of mistaking a rust spot for an ink mark for purposes of 

Methods of Research: Editing 103 

first edition was published, the edition of 1596 could have authority 
only if it could be demonstrated that the first two editions were 
printed from different manuscripts, both in Greene's handwriting or 
showing evidence of having been approved by the author.-- Since no 
such evidence is known to exist, the edition of 1592 is the obvious one 
to choose for a basic text. It may seem that there is no reason to 
consider the 1596 edition at all ; but for two reasons it will be wise to 
collate that text. First, it is always possible that the compositor may 
have had access to the original manuscript and may have consulted it 
whenever he was in doubt about the printed text that he was using 
as his copy, being thus enabled to correct mistakes in the first edition. 
Second, a sixteenth-century printer's guess as to the way to correct an 
obvious error even though it was only a guess might often be more 
reliable than that of a twentieth-century editor. 23 

In explaining the process of collation T am taking up the 1596 edi- 
tion first only because I happened to collate it first; it makes no 
difference, of course, in what order different versions are collated. 
The copy used is the Huth copy in the Huntington Library ; that is 
the copy from which Grosart printed his text and according to the 
Short Title Catalogue the only copy extant. In the working copy, 
on the page preceding the title page, should be written with colored 
pencil 24 red, let us say "96 Huntington 61157 (STC 12246") 
representing, of course, the edition, the library call number of the 

22 Actually, the copy for the Groatsworth seems to have been submitted to the 
printer in the handwriting- of Henry Chettle (see Chettle, Kind-Heart's Dream, eel. 
G. B. Harrison (London: John Lane, the Bodley Head, Ltd., 1923), p. 6); and 
there is uncertainty as to just what share Greene had in the work. 

<2<<i Dr. McKerrow wrote (Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare (Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1939), p. 38, n. i) : "The point may perhaps be made clearer by an 
imaginary example. Supposing that in an edition of a farce or a pantomime written 
about 1920 there occurred the phrase 'Yes, we have now bananas', a press corrector 
of the present day in charge of a reprint would at once recognize the meaningless 
popular phrase intended, and correct 'now' to 'no'. An editor of a hundred years 
hence, reprinting the play as a monument of Georgian literature, would (unless we 
suppose that editors of the twenty-first century will have a far better knowledge of 
the popular locutions of our own day than we have of those of Shakespeare's time) 
be far more likely to retain the text as it stood and to add a note on the populariza- 
tion of the banana in England in the early years of the century." 

24 A pencil with a thin lead should be used, and one should keep a pencil sharpener 
at hand; a sharp point is necessary if the recording of variants is to be clear and 
sharply denned, especially when, as in the Grosart editions, the paper of the working 
copy has a somewhat rough texture. 

bought with a| Million of 

f Describing the follie of youth, the fa] (hood/ of ma k (bug fP\ 

8 L \ flatterers, the mifcrie of the negligent, and mifchiefc* P%^ 

I of decciuing Courtezans. 

fore Ais death/and publ fed tU A is ( 


futjTe tnfattjlum. 

Vir fffet inilntre veritas. 


Printed by Thomas Creede, for Richard Olme^S 
dwelling in^ long Lane, and are there 
~~ be folde. 1596. 


Figure 13. The T*'tle Page of Greenes Groatsworth of Wit (from The Life and 
Complete Works of Robert Greene y ed. the Rev. Dr. Alexander B. Grosart 
(n.p.: privately printed, 1881-83), XII, 142). The variants shown in blue 
(1592) are indicated by fine lines, those in red (1596), by heavy ones. 

[ 104 ] 

Methods of Research: Editing 105 

copy being collated, and the entry number assigned to this edition 
in the Short Title Catalogue. Beginning with the title page, one 
should then indicate in red all the respects in which the original 
edition differs from the working copy all the respects, in this 
instance, in which Grosart did not follow his basic text. 

On the title page one would put the signature- -[A], the brackets 
indicating that the signature does not actually appear on the printed 
page in the original. The doubling of "before" and of "long" in the 
original are indicated as shown in the illustration opposite ; likewise 
the fact that "Written" was originally "Written" and "publifhed" 
was "published". The printer's device is identified as that numbered 
299 in McKerrow's Printers' and Publishers' Devices . . . 1485- 
1640. The comma after "Oliue" in the imprint is also shown. The 
numerals "XII" and "7" representing signature 7 of Volume XII 
belong to Grosart's book and, of course, have nothing to do with the 
original ; hence they are marked for deletion. The fact that the verso 
of the title page is blank would be indicated on the next page of the 
working copy (p. [98]): "|Ai v j blank". This page also furnishes 
convenient space for the recording of running titles : "Greenes (on all 
verso pp. from A4 V to Fi v ) ; groat fworth of wit. (Hi), same with cap 
G (132, B4, Ci, C2, C4, Di, D2, Dj, Ei, E2, 3, Fi, Fa), with wt, 
instead of wit. (B3, 03, D4, 4)". 

One would then go through the book page by page, recording each 
variant found ("prouided" instead of "promifed" on CV, for exam- 
ple), and mentioning such things as the factotum on A2, the orna- 
mental initial on A2 V , the tailpiece on A3, the catchword "furely" for 
"fure" on E4 V , and the fact that F2 V is blank. If there are ornaments 
that cannot be identified, they should be measured and described, or, 
better still, sketched or traced. Headpieces and tailpieces should be 
similarly treated, unless they are made up of combinations of type 
ornaments, in which case it will suffice to give the dimensions. If a 
leaf is missing from the original, that fact is, of course, to be noted ; 
it may later be possible to collate that leaf in some other copy of the 
same edition. If a leaf is damaged, the extent of the damage may be 
indicated by outlining in the working copy that portion of the text 
which cannot be read in the original because of the damage. Errors in 
position or alignment of type should be indicated. When the collation 
has been completed, the date of completion should be noted in red in 

106 An Introduction to Research 

the working copy. The collation should then be checked for accuracy, 
preferably by another person. If no other person is available, the edi- 
tor should allow some time a few days at least to elapse before 
doing this checking; otherwise he is likely to miss on the second 
occasion the same things that he missed the first time. 

Having finished with the 1596 edition, the editor is ready to collate 
the 1592 edition either the British Museum copy or the White copy 
in the Folger Shakespeare Library. Since I used the Museum copy, 
my collation shows the notation this time in blue pencil "92 BM 
C.57.b.42 (STC 12245)"; this is placed above or below the "96 Hunt- 
ington 61157 (STC 12246)" on the page preceding the title page of 
the working copy. The fact that the first leaf of the original is blank 
is recorded by a notation in blue, in the upper left-hand corner of the 
title page: "Ai and Ai v blank". Differences in spelling, in line 
arrangement, and in type, in the first four lines are shown. "BL" fol- 
lowed by a bracket indicates that the lines so bracketed (lines 5-7 in 
Grosart) are in Black Letter type. Since the device of the original is 
not represented in McKerrow's Printers' and ^Publishers' Devices 
. . . 1485-1640, a sketch or tracing of it must be made, or it may be 
described: "A snarling mask". Variations in spelling, punctuation, 
and typography are indicated; and finally the original imprint 
"Imprinted for William Wright. 1592." is given in place of the 
Creede imprint. 

On the verso of the title page, the notation in blue "[A2 V | blank" 
is put above or below the red "[Ai] and [Ai v ] blank"; and the 1592 
running titles are recorded in blue: "Greenes (small roman ] (on 
versos Bi, 64, 2, 4), [large roman] (on versos Ci, 3, Di-F3) ; 
groats worth of wit. [small roman] (B2-B4, C2, C3), groats-vvirth 
of wit. [large roman] (Ci, 04), groatfworth of wit. [large roman] 
(Di-F4)". The collating then proceeds as with the 1596 edition. 
Wherever the '92 edition varies from both Grosart and '96, the varia- 
tion is shown by a note in blue pencil ; wherever '92 agrees with '96 
against Grosart, a tick or check mark in blue placed beside the cor- 
rection in red will serve to indicate the agreement. 

As a specimen page, Grosart's page 142 which contains most of 
Fi of the 1592 edition and 3 of the 1596 is represented with the 
necessary corrections. Grosart's variations from his basic text are few 
and doubtless intentional: in line 6 the word "left" in the original 

Groatfworth of wit. 

fete in tri* heart, JCbertt* neCea, 
glotfe Ditto ft* grtadteOSe : fo; pemfrattng t* bt0 poto* 
cr, t)( fcano I us ftemtie tjpon mi, te fcatfc fpohcn frnf 9 
me Uiit^aDoiceoeibtiiiocr^anDBl^aueleft^etoa^oD 
ftat can pumflj emmfaMKBi)? tyouto tbp excellent trnt, 
1 15 gif t,be ft bUttt0,t(fat tfjou tyasfoff giae no glo;? to 
f be glue r?Jfl it ptttUerit ^ac#utttan poltitie tfct ttym 
lattttutrieo? ^DpumftjifeUte! Mlbat arc W rules buC 
iwareconfufcompcterie*, able to extirpate in fmall 
time,tbe generation of oumtunoe, jtwit Stcvtiofoi*. 
fat bolt in tbofe tfcat are able to commons : ano if it be 
latDfoll^/^^/^ to Doe' art? tying tbat ifbentVci* 
all; pnelB Chants OjottlD potTcCTe t^e cartf) ,anD tbt? 
ffrtumg to w*oe in twaiing, Opulo cacf) to ot&er b* a 
flaugbfermanj till tbe niig&ttcff outlining all, one 
frohe focraleftfojJDeatb, tbatin owe age mans lift 
tyonlo en&e.Cbe bjotfcer of tftto {Dtabolirall flt&ctfmc 
if teat, ana in bu lift bat) neuer t&e felicttie Je mmco 
at : but a0 be began in craft,!iuc& in tarr,an& rnfieo in 

oerer ofmawt bjetbaen, bao b<0 confcience feareo libe 
Cainc : tbis betrayer of ftm tbat gane |i0 lift fo; bim, 
inberiteb tfee wtion tfludas ': tb<0 apoffata periffteB 
a0 ill a0 luhan ; no mitt tfeoa m^frieno be bt0 )B)tfci^ 
pie? i,ohe btrto m e,b^ bint perftoa&ea to tbat libertie, 
anttbou Halt finoeitaninfernalltonoage.3 bnotuc 
tbe leaft of m^oewerits merit tb<0 miferable eeat^bul 
tDtlfnll arintttg agatnff bnotone trutfcr rcoetb al tbe 
terror of m^ toule. iDcfec not (toitb we) till tbi0 laft 
point of ertremitie ; f$> little kratoeft ttjou goto in (be 

e 3 

Page 3 of the 1596 edition of Greene's Groitsworth of 
Wit; the readings of this edition are recorded on the work- 
ing copy in red, as shown on the page to the right. Repro- 
duced by permission of the Henry E. Huntington Library 
and Art Gallery, San Marino, California. 


begin), thou famous gracer of Tr^edians, that 
Greene, who hath faid with theeJike^tJhe^o^e^m 
his heart, There is no God, mou|3jnow giue^lorie/ 
^t^hTs_greatr(e{Te): for penetrating Ts~ Tns~p owy r/ 
his hand lies Heauie"vpoli^me, he Kath fpolcen vnto/^ 
me/with a voice of thunder, and I haue (teltjlie 
is a God/that/can punifh enfmics. Why lHouTd~ 
thy excellent wityhis/gifr, be"To blinde7r,lTiaFlh^ur" 
fhouldft giue no glory to/the giuei(?r~TsTt pefti- 
lenF~MachIuilian pollic|e) that thoiyhaft ftudiedjh 
O gunifh follie ! What are his rules but^meere 
confufed mockeries, able to extirpate in fmall/time^ 
the generation of mankind?. For if Sic volo^sic 
ijfbeOy hold in thofe that are able to comn|Jtt^T"ancT 
if i^/be/lawfull Fas s? fief as to doe^ any thing that is ^ 
benefyj(all onely Tyrants fhould poTTeTIertTie eartK^ 
and thej^ftriuing to exceed<r1inTyratiny,lTioulcl each 
to other bee a/ftlaughter man ; till ^KeT^mitghtieft 
outFiuing all, oneAftrolce were left^?br^eath,^tTiat 
In one age~ man's lifo^fhould endeT" The brother oF^ 
this Diabolical! Atheifme^s dead, and in his lire~hTd~ 
neuer the felicitie hg) ajmec^t : but as he began in 
craft, liued in feare, and ended iii^defpaire. Qifttfh 
infcrutabilia JuntJ)ei indicia ? This/muyflerer of 
many ^Frethren, had his confcience feared/ like/ 
{tffity: this betrayer of him that gaue his life for/ 
him/inherited the portion of ludas \ this Apoftata 
perifhecj^as ill as hlian: and wilt thou my friend 

A page of Greenes Groatsworth of Wit from Robert 
Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, XII, 142. This reproduction 
was furnished through the courtesy of the Yale University 


g1o}ie bnto I;is o^rcatncs : foi penetrating te hi^ potof r," 
l)ts IjaiiD Ipes b^tuc upon mc^ee fjatb fpokmtwto inre 
Uttb a tooicc of tl;utUKr,ami J tj.tue felt j?e tg a 6oD t^ac 
can pimifb enemies;* Ca^p fijoute tip trcdlent ttit, t>i& 
5tft , bee To bliuDeft, tl^at tbou 0>oulo0 gtuc no glo^ie ta 
tbc giucr': Js it pelhlcnt ^cljiailianpolltcp tbat t^u 
Ijatt ftunico *: 2) pcruiflj follie / t&btt are IJIB rulc0 but 
wecre coafufco mocKcnrs, able to mtrpatetnfiUall 
ttmctl)e gcncratimtof manKmo* oj tf Sicvolo,ficic* 
bco, Ijob in tfafe tljat arc able to commauitt : ano if it 
be laiofull FJS S: ncfasto &o anp tljtng; tfjat 10 benefict- 
Ml ; onclp Cv^antg fyoulo poCTcffe tije eart^, ant> tbcp 
ttruting to ercceu in tpjannie, (boitto eaclj to otljer be a 
fiaugtjtcr man^ till t^e micftuctt outltums nil, one 
arokctocrclcftefo^Dcatl), tfeat moncasemnnjBlifc 
fi)culo eno tfy b)oct)er of t^is Diaboitcall 3itbcifir.e 
ts or at,ano in fyi* life baD neuer the felicitie !)ce avmeD 
at : but as IK began in craft; liuea in feace,anu enocD in 
Of ipail'f (^uam infcrutabilia funt Dei iudicia ? !)i$ 
vauruerer of manp biet^en , !)au bis eonfcience fearfU 
like Caiac : tl)i0 betraper of Ijim tljat gaue bis life fo^ 
i;un,inberitentbe potion of ludas : tljisapottataperi- 
fl;e& as ill as lu 'iarr : ano Doilt thou mp fricnD be fjia Dif* 
ciplc ? Lookc but to me,bp ^pcrfujarjeD to that Ubrr- 
tie,ano t^ou fyalt finu tt aninfemall bonoacje. J Knotoe 
tijc lead of nip ucments merit tbis ir.tferable oeatb,but 
Uiilf nil ff riuiiig a^aind knotone true b,crceclrttl) all tfje 
tcrro^ ofmp (oule Defer not(U)ul) me)till tlnslaft 
pomt of fttrc nucif ; faj litle knolod tijou ijoU) in tl;e enD 

^Clitlj cfjee 3! topuc pong; Tuucnall, t^nt bptinj &a- 
tpjift, tfjatlaftlpujitlj meetog;et!;crUJjitaoucuie, 

Page Fi of the 1592 edition of the Groiitsworth. The read- 
ings of this edition are recorded on the working copy in 
blue, as shown on the page to the left. Reproduced by 
permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, 
D. C. 

Methods of Research: Editing 107 

was corrected to "felt" ; the comma following the parenthesis in line i 
was omitted; and the semicolon in line 16 was changed to a comma. 
The only other red marks are those indicating line endings, 25 the 
signature "3", and the indications of irregularity in type. 26 The blue 
check marks accompanying the changes of punctuation show that the 
original editions both have the comma in the one case and the semi- 
colon in the other ; thus Grosart was modernizing punctuation that 
he thought might be confusing to a modern reader as it was per- 
fectly proper that he should. After the words "giuer" in line 9, and 
"ftudied" in line 10, the 1592 edition has the old Black Letter mark 
of interrogation, which looks like a colon with an acute accent mark 
above it. In line n, the word which Grosart, misled by his basic text, 
took to be a hortatory subjunctive, is discovered to be in the first 
edition merely a descriptive adjective, "peeuifh". Another misreading 
due to the compositor of the '96 edition is cleared up by substituting 
the '92 reading "brocher" [broacher] for "brother" in line 20. 

When all the versions that must be considered i.e., all those in 
which the author may have intervened have been collated, it should 
be possible to decide which of them is to be chosen as the basic or 
copy text. No attention is to be paid, in determining the authorita- 
tiveness of a text, to such corrections as might easily have been made 
by someone other than the author; these include: (i) the correcting 
or normalizing of spelling, punctuation, or grammar, (2) the correc- 
tion of meter, in poetry, by adding or removing syllables, and (3) cor- 
rections such as a compositor or proofreader could make by referring 
to the context. 

It is generally not very difficult to determine whether changes 
made in a later edition are an author's revisions or a compositor's 
mistakes. In the page just discussed, no one would be likely to take 
the substitution in '96 of "punifh" for "peeuifh" or "brother" for 
"brocher" as the work of the author ; of some fifty other changes, not 

25 The fact there is a mark before and one after the word "foole" in line 2 shows 
that "foole" is used as the catchword that is, it is the last word on page E2 V and 
the first word on 3. 

26 In most of the Black Letter original editions, roman type is used for proper 
names and for expressions in a foreign language. Italic type is generally used for 
passages in verse and for prefaces. Grosart substitutes roman for Black Letter and 
italic for both roman and italic. Hence the italics of ludas (line 27) and Mian 
(line 28) represent roman type in the original, and a note must be made of the fact 
that the Latin phrases are in italics. 

108 An Introduction to Research 

one can be taken as a likely case of revision, and about half are 
obvious errors. 27 Hence, there would be no good reason for supposing 
that Greene had anything to do with the edition of the Groatsworth 
printed in 1596; and the edition of 1592 would be the obvious choice 
as the basic text. 

Let us now see how the problem of choosing a basic text has been 
approached in some other instances. Dr. McKerrow, in editing the 
works of Thomas Nashe, was confronted by five texts of Pierce 
Penilesse II is Supplication to the Diuell, three of 1592, which Mc- 
Kerrow designated A, B, and C; one of 1593; and one of 1595. 

27 The obvious errors include such changes as: (p. 101) "I commend this to your 
fauourable c?nfures, that like an Embrion without fhape, I feare me will be thru it 
into the world." ('92) ". . . cenfures, and like . . ." ('96); (p. ro^) "In an Hand 
bounded with the Ocean, there was fomtime a Cittie fituated, made riche by 
Marchandize, and populous by long peace, the name is not mentioned . . ." ('92) 
"... Hand bound with . . . populous by long (pace, the *name . . ." ('96) ; 
(p. 138) ". . . . be deplorde? . . ." ('92) ". . . then deplore? ..." ('96) [the 
passage is in verse and the change destroys the rhymej ; (p. 145) "The fire of my 
light is now at the laft fnuffc, and for want of wherewith to fuftainc it, there is no 
fubltance left for life to feede on. . . ." ('92) ". . . fnuffe, and the want of . . ." 
('96); (p. 116) "I am very forie that our rude entertainment is fuch, as no way 
may worke your content, ..." ('92) "... our rude enterment is fuch . ." ('96) ; 
(p. 129) "What meant the poets in inuectiue verfe, To fing Medeas {harm 1 , . . ." 
('92) ". . . Poets to inuectiue . . ." ('96). The two cases which look most like 
revision are these: (pp. 111-12) "You muft not think but fundrye marchants of 
this Cittie expect your company, fundry Gentlemen defire your familiarity, . . ." 
('92) ". . . thinke but certaine Marchants . . ." ('96) ; and (p. 1,48) "My rauifht 
fence of wonted furie reft; Wants fuch conceit, as fhould in Poems fit. . . ." 
('92) ". . . in Poims fit . . ." ('96). In the first of these instances the problem 
involves a question of taste or of literary style. I think it would be impossible to 
show that Greene, having used sundry twice, would later have found the repetition 
objectionable and have substituted certain; moreover, the change could have been 
made, either intentionally or unintentionally, by the compositor. As for the fit and fit, 
although the most recent editor of the work (G. B. Harrison in the Bodley Head 
Quarto edition, p. 40) takes fit to be correct, it seems to me more likely that fit is 
what Greene wrote; like other Elizabethans he was fond of conceits. However, the 
chance of confusing / and /, either in type or in handwriting, is so great that the 
substitution of one for the other in such a case as this cannot possibly be taken as 
evidence of revisJDn. The story is told of an eminent scholar who once wrote an 
erudite commentary, citing numerous examples which he had gone to great lengths 
to discover, to explain a passage in which flaying was mentioned as a means of 
punishing criminals. The note proved to be superfluous, however, when it turned 
out that the word in question was not "flaying" but "flaying". 

Methods of Research: Editing 109 

McKerrow demonstrated, by the evidence of the Epistle prefixed to 
all of the other editions, that A was the first. The latter part of B 
corresponds, page for page, with A and hence must have been printed 
from a copy of A. Textual evidence 2<s shows that C was printed from 
B, '93 from C, and '95 from '93. There are a good many differences 
between A and B : Manibctter is changed to Swm-snout, iymiams to 
guegawes, lack-dropper to I nek-drop per, the most Artists to all 
Artists for the most part, and musical I to misticall. Some of these 
changes may represent the printer's corrections, but others show 
clearly the author s intervention. In C there is even stronger evidence 
of authorial correction ; - !) but the only changes in '93 and '95 are 
such as might well have been made by the printer. Thus Dr. McKer- 
row concluded that C was the last text corrected by the author. He 
continued : 

At the same time C is often inferior to A, being much less carefully 
printed; . . . 

There were therefore two alternatives, to print from A, adopting the 
corrections of C, or to print from C, correcting where necessary from A. 
T have chosen the latter as being on the whole more consistent; but bear- 
ing in mind Nashe's own statement as to the carelessness with which this 
book was printed (Have with You to Saffron-Waldcn, sig. FT), and the 
evident truth of it, I have used somewhat more freedom in restoring to 
the text from earlier editions words which seem to have been merely 
accidentally omitted in C, than would have been justifiable if we had 
reason to think that the author himself had read the proofs/ 

Professor Kaye, in editing Bernard Mandeville's Fable of the 
Bees f f< Part I, had to consider two editions of 1714, and others of 

28 For example (Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, I, 189) frantick in A becomes 
jran-tick in B, the fran- coming at the end of a line, and remains fran-tick in C, 
'93, and '95. 

29 There are two especially interesting examples: (Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, 
I, 170) melancholike course in his gate and countenance, and talke as though in A 
becomes melancholy in his gate & countenance, course & talke, as though in B, and 
melancholy in his gate and countenance, and talke as though in C; (ibid., p. 174) 
wil scarse get a Scholler bread and cheese in A becomes wil scarse get a paire oj 
shoos and a Canuas-dublet in B, and scarse get a sc holler a pair of shoos and a 
Canuas-dublet in C. In both instances it seems clear that an attempt to make a 
change in the reading of A was misunderstood by the printer of B and finally 
corrected in C. 

110 An Introduction to Research 

1723, 1724, 1725, 1728, 1729, and 1732 eight in all. He found 
evidences of authorial revision in the editions of 1724, 1725, and 
perhaps 1732. Of Part IT there were editions in 1729, 1730, and 
1735. Collation of these various editions led Professor Kaye to make 
this statement : 

The text used in volume one is that of the 1732 edition, which was the 
last edition during Mandeville's life of the first part of the Fable. Tt is 
impossible to be sure whether this edition or that of 1725 is closer to 
Mandeville's final intention. ... I have preferred the text adopted, 
because, other things being equal, the last authorized edition seemed to 
me preferable to an intermediate one and because the orthography of the 
1732 edition is more modern. 31 This edition has, moreover, a certain 
further interest in that it was from this issue that the French translation 
was made. 32 The text used in volume two is that of the 1729 edition 
the first edition of Part TI. The only variations in the editions of Part II 
were apparently, as may be seen from the variant readings, due to the 
printer, so that the first edition is nearest to Mandeville's text. 5 

Dr. McKerrow's problem in determining the relationship of the 
Pierce Penilesse editions was a comparatively simple one ; but to dis- 
cover the filiation, or relationship, of a considerable number of texts 
as in the manuscripts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, for example 
is sometimes a matter so difficult and so complex as to be beyond 
the province of this book. 33 One suggestion as to method that may 
appropriately be made here, however, is that no reliance is to be 
placed upon the agreement of two texts in a correct reading as an 

30 "The 1732 edition was authorized; it was by Mandeville's publisher and was 
acknowledged by Mandeville (Letter to Dion, p. 7)" | Kayc's note]. 

31 "There is no reason to suppose that this modernity was removed from Mande- 
ville's intention, for the conflicting practices in his various books and the evidence 
of his holograph (see facsimiles) indicate that he left orthography largely to his 
printers" [Kaye's note]. 

32 "According to the French version, ed. 1740, i.viii; ed. 1750, i.xiv" 1 Kaye's notel. 

33 The Canterbury Tales problem is discussed at length in The Text of the Canter- 
bury Tales, ed. Manly and Rickert, Vol. II; see also Germaine Dempster, "Manly's 
Conception of the Early History of the Canterbury Tales", PMLA, LXI (1946), 
379-415. Any ont interested in such problems should read: W. W. Greg, The Cal- 
culus oj Variants (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1927) ; William P. Shepard, 
"Recent Theories of Textual Criticism", MP, XXVIII (1931), 129-41; and W. W. 
Greg, "Recent Theories of Textual Criticism", MP, XXVIII (1931), 401-4. 

Methods of Research: Editing 111 

indication that one of them is derived from the other ; an editor, a 
compositor, a proofreader where manuscripts are involved, a scribe 
may easily hit upon a right reading in attempting to correct a mis- 
take, and may do so quite independently of any text containing the 
proper reading. Only when two texts have errors in common and a 
convincing number of such errors ;{4 can one say with assurance 
that there is a textual relationship. 3 -"' The fact that A, B, C, and D 
whether editions or manuscripts or both have correct readings in 
common proves nothing ; but the fact that, out of thirty errors in C 
and twenty-five in D, twenty are common to both C and D, would be 

Among problems in textual criticism, the puzzle afforded by the 
three versions of Shakspere's Hamlet has perhaps attracted most 
attention ; a recent contribution on that subject is a book by G. I. 
Duthie. 6 Similarly, many attempts have been made without yet 
completely satisfying everyone to work out the filiation of the texts 
of Henry VI, Parts II and Til, and related plays. 7 Other studies to 
be mentioned here deal with the texts of The Twelve Profits of 
An&cr? the Sacrificium Cayme and Abell, 9 the Canterbury Tales, 10 
The Taming oj the Shrew, 11 the "Bad Quartos"/ 1 * and Comus. 1 -* 
There is also a study of the relationship of cancels found in the 1800 
edition of Lyrical Ballads. 1 ' 1 

* * * 
One other aspect of the matter of choosing a basic text should be 

M4 When I found two examination papers both containing the rather startling 
information that Thomas a Recket was a young monk of the seventeenth century 
whom the pilgrims in Chaucer's Canterbury Tale* were on their way to Canterbury 
to kill, I had very little doubt that one of those papers was derived from the other. 

35 Even then one cannot say that A is copied from B or B from A; both may be 
derived from an earlier text X, or Y may have been derived from A and B from Y, 
or A may have been derived from X and B from Z, which latter was derived from 
either A or X. And of course other combinations are possible. Dr. McKerrow sug- 
gested (Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare, p. 13): "It would, I think, be 
convenient if we could use some such word as 'monogenous' and 'polygenous' to 
designate the two groupings of texts . . . : 'monogenous' standing for those which 
derive from a single extant edition and 'polygenous' for those which have at their 
head two or more extant editions none of which derives from another substantive 
texts, as I have called them . . ." 

112 An Introduction to Research 

considered before we leave the subject. In explaining his choice of 
the second edition of The Unfortunate Traveller Dr. McKerrow 
wrote : 

. . . fortunately it is not now considered to be the duty of an editor to 
pick and choose among the variant readings of his author's works those 
which he himself would prefer in writings of his own, but merely to 
present those works as he believes the author to have intended them to 
appear. Whether, from a literary point of view, the first or the second 
edition of The. Unjortttnatc Traveller is the better, is perhaps open to 
question. But with this I have no concern whatever, at any rate here, for 
if an editor has reason to suppose that a certain text embodied later 
corrections than any other, and at the same time has no ground for dis- 
believing that these corrections, or some of them at least, are the work of 
the author, he has no choice but to make that text the basis of his 
reprint. I have therefore whenever possible, though sometimes, T own, 
not without regret, followed that edition which was said by the publisher 
to be * Newly corrected and augmented' 7J 

In view of this clear statement, I cannot agree t with Professor 
Morize when he writes : 

These few examples show: 

(1) That it is impossible to give a rule, or even a general suggestion, 
as to the choice of a text as the foundation for an edition. 

( 2 ) That in a great number of cases it is well to choose the first form 
of an important work. 

(3) That, after all, the editor's endeavor should be to select and 
reproduce the text that has the greatest historical significance. 76 

It seems to me that these statements are at variance, not only with 
McKerrow, but also with another statement by Professor Morize: 
"When dealing with manuscripts and printed editions we should 
choose the text that brings us closest to the author's definitive and 
complete thought". 77 There may often be difficulty in deciding which 
of several versions best represents "the author's definitive and com- 
plete thought" ; but once that version is determined, it is that version 
which should be presented in a critical edition. 78 That is not to sa> 
that there is no room in the world for reprints of other versions ; one 
has a perfect rif;ht to print if he is not purporting to offer a critical 
edition one of the stories of Henry James in its unrevised form, or 
the first edition rather than the fourth of FitzGerald's translation of 

Methods of Research: Editing 113 

the Rubdiydt. But the editor of a critical edition has done his duty 
only when he presents the text that best represents the author's final 
intention, together with textual notes that make it possible for the 
reader to reconstruct for himself the earlier forms of the work. 


When a basic text has been chosen, the problem of treatment 
arises: how closely must the new edition adhere to that basic text? 
When may the editor depart from his basic text without making note, 
in the critical apparatus, of that departure, "silently correcting", as 
editors say ? When may he introduce a reading not in the basic text, 
provided he gives the reading of the basic text in a footnote? There 
are really two problems involved here : first, the policy to be followed 
in emending or correcting the text ; and second, the policy to be fol- 
lowed in reproducing the typography of the original edition. Tn solv- 
ing both problems we are thrown back upon the cardinal principle 
of all editing : we should strive to present the work as the author 
wanted it to be read. 

Dr. Greg opens an interesting discussion of emendation 19 thus: 

The Professor of Latin in the University of Cambridge f A. E. Housman] 
has said what is perhaps the last word on the subject of emendation, in a 
passage that runs as follows: 'A textual critic engaged upon his business 
is not at all like Newton investigating the motion of the planets; he is 
much more like a dog hunting for tleas. If a dog hunted for ileas on 
mathematical principles, basing his researches on statistics of area and 
population, he would never catch a flea except by accident.' 30 I do not 
believe that this is a fair account of textual criticism in general, but so 
far as emendation is concerned it comes extraordinarily near the truth. 
The fact is that there is only one general principle of emendation, which 
is that emendation is in its essence devoid of principle. At its finest it is 
an inspiration, a stirring of the spirit, which obeys no laws and cannot 
be produced to order. In other words, emendation is an art. Yet even as 
such there should be some conditions which by its very nature it must 
obey, for it is surely no idle dream of scholars to be 'learned in searching 
principles of art'. And if we can do nothing to help great critics in making 

30 "A. K. Housman, 'The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism', a paper 
read before the Classical Association, 4 Aug. 1921: Proceedings, xviii" (Greg's note). 

114 An Introduction to Research 

brilliant emendations, we may at least hope to discover some rules that 
should prevent little critics from making foolish ones. 20 

Dr. Greg then goes on to observe that an acceptable emendation 
is "one that strikes a trained intelligence as supplying exactly the 
sense required by the context, and which at the same time reveals to 
the critic the manner in which the corruption arose". 2 ' 

Tf one were editing Nashe's Pierce Penilesse, he would encounter 
this strange reading in the first edition of that work: "If he be chal- 
lenged to fight, for his delaterie dye-case, hee obiects that it is not the 
custome of the Spaniard or the Germaine, to looke back to euery dog 
that barks". Finding u dye-case" in a context which calls for "excuse", 
one would naturally investigate Nashe's handwriting to see whether 
a compositor might have misread "ex" as "dy" and "u" as "a"; 37 
fortunately, the necessity for a speculative correction is removed by 
the fact that the second and later editions all have the word "excuse". 

A famous passage that demanded emendation occurs in Shakspere's 
King Henry the Fifth (Act II, scene iii). The Hostess, describing the 
death of Falstaff , says : 

Nay, sure, he's not in hell: he's in Arthur's bosom, if ever man went to 
Arthur's bosom. A' made a finer end and went away an it had been any 
christom child; a' parted even just between twelve and one, even at the 
turning o' the tide: for after I saw him fumble with the sheets and play 
with flowers and smile upon his fingers' ends, I knew there was but one 
way; for his nose was as sharp as a pen, and a Table of greene fields. 

The comment in Malone's edition of Shakspere on the last phrase 
in that passage so well illustrates the best and the worst in emenda- 
tion that it deserves quotation in full : 

and 'a babbled of green fields.] The old copy [i.e., the First Folio] 
reads "for his nose was as sharp as a pen, and a table of green fields." 

These words, "and a table of green fields," are not to be found in the 
old editions of 1600 and 1608. This nonsense got into all the following 
editions by a pleasant mistake of the stage editors, who printed from the 

37 I do not mean to imply that the mistake could have occurred only in this way, 
but such confusion between "ex" and "dy" and "u" and "a" would not have been 
unlikely in a sixteenth-century hand. 

Methods of Research: Editing 115 

common piece-meal written parts in the play-house. A table was here 
directed to be brought in, (it being a scene in a tavern where they drink 
at parting,) and this direction crept into the text from the margin. 
Greenfield was the name of the property-man in that time, who furnished 
implements, &c. for the actors, A table of Greenfield's. Pope. 

So reasonable account of this blunder, Mr. Theobald could not 
acquiesce in. He thought a table of Greenfield's, part of the text, only 
corrupted, and that it should be read, "he babbled of green fields," 
because men do so in the ravings of a calenture. But he did not consider 
how ill this agrees with the nature of the knight's illness, who was now 
in no babbling humour; and so far from wanting cooling in green fields, 
that his feet were very cold, and he just expiring. Warburton. 

Upon this passage Mr. Theobald has a note that fills a page, which I 
omit in pity to my readers, since he only endeavors to prove what I think 
every reader perceives to be true, that at this time no table could be 
wanted. Mr. Pope, in an appendix to his own edition in 12 mo. seems to 
admit Theobald's emendation, which we would have allowed to be un- 
commonly happy, had we not been prejudiced against it by Mr. Pope's 
first note, with which, as it excites merriment, we are loath to part. 

Had the former editors been apprized, that table, in our author, 
signifies a pocket-book, I believe they would have retained it with the 
following alteration: u for his nose was as sharp as a pen upon a table 
of green fells." On table-books, silver or steel pens, very sharp-pointed, 
were formerly and still are fixed to the backs or covers. Mother Quickly 
compares Falstaffs nose (which in dying persons grows thin and sharp) 
to one of those pens, very properly, and she meant probably to have said, 
on a table-book with a shagreen cover or shagreen table \ but in her usual 
blundering way, she calls it a table of green jells, or a table covered with 
green skin\ which the blundering transcriber turned into green fields', 
and our editors have turned (he prettiest blunder in Shakspeare, quite 
out of doors. Smith. 

Dr. Warburton objects to Theobald's emendation, on the ground of 
the nature of Falstaff's illness; u who was so far from babbling, or want- 
ing cooling in green fields, that his feet were cold and he was just expir- 
ing." But his disorder had been a ''burning quotidian tertian." It is, I 
think, a much stronger objection, that the word Table, with a capital 
letter, (for so it appears in the old copy,) is very unlikely to have been 
printed instead of babbled. This reading is, however, preferable to any 
that has yet been proposed. 

On this difficult passage I had once a conjecture. It was, that the word 
table is right, and that the corrupted word is and, which may have been 

116 An Introduction to Research 

misprinted for in, a mistake that has happened elsewhere in these plays: 
and thus the passage will run "and his nose was as sharp as a pen in a 
table of green fields." A pen may have been used for a pinfold [a pen for 
animals], and a table for a picture. . . . 

The pointed stakes of which pinfolds are sometimes formed, were 
perhaps in the poet's thoughts. Malone. 

It has been observed (particularly by the superstition of women) of 
people near death, when they are delirious by a fever, that they talk of 
removing; as it has of those in a calenture, that they have their heads 
run on green fields. Theobald."-' 

It may be difficult to decide which is the worst of those proposed 
emendations, but that Theobald's is the best is proved by its almost 
universal acceptance. The clause "and 'a babbled of green fields" fits 
the context perfectly, and thus the emendation satisfies the first of 
the two criteria ; we may look to Dr. Greg for an explanation 2S that 
satisfies the second : "babbled" would very probably have been written 
"babld", and "b" and "t" and final "d" and 
distinguish in an Elizabethan hand. 

The editor's attitude with respect to emendations should be a most 
conservative one. Puzzling passages should be pointed out and dis- 
cussed, suggestions for emendations should be freely offered in foot- 
notes; but no reading should be introduced into the text unless there 
is proof, or very strong reason to believe, that the proposed reading, 
rather than that of the original, represents the author's intention. 
When an emendation is adopted, the reading of the original should, 
of course, be given in a footnote. 

Dr. McKerrow was wholly justified in changing "running" to "cun- 
ning" in the line "Tt fareth with the as it did with Calchas that run- 
ning soothsayer, . . ."^ This emendation fully satisfies the criteria 
of acceptability : it transforms nonsense or what approaches non- 
sense -into good sense; and it explains how the mistake may have 
occurred, since some forms of "c" are very like some forms of "r" in a 
sixteenth-century hand. But to insist that "solid" must be "sullied" 
in Shakspere's famous line 

"O that this too too solid flesh would melt" * 5 
is, I believe with all due respect to Dr. Greg and others who have 

Methods of Research: Editing 117 

insisted that an emendation is necessary here * 6 going much too far. 
It may be explained how "sullied" could have been misprinted 
"solid" ; but that is a case of getting the cart before the horse, since 
there is nothing inherently senseless about the line as it stands. 
"Sullied" may be right and "solid" wrong, and certainly there should 
be a note in any edition of Hamlet calling attention to this possibility 
or probability, if you like ; but to substitute any other reading for 
the "solid" of the Folio would, it seems to me, be going beyond the 
proper province of an editor. 

Emendation is not, of course, the only means of "cleaning up" a 
text making it conform with the author's intention. Collation, in 
addition to enabling one to choose a basic text, may help in the re- 
moving of textual errors. Where the basic text is corrupt, another edi- 
tion may provide the correct reading. Even when two readings are 
obviously both wrong, in different ways, a comparison of the two 
errors may enable one to emend with considerable assurance. Thus 
if one text contained a reference to someone's "flaunting a gray 
bear", it would be difficult to determine whether the correct reading 
would be "beard" or "head" ; but if there were two texts printed from 
the same manuscript, and one had "bead" where the other had 
"bear", it would be reasonable to suppose that the author had made 
an "h" that looked like 4k b" and that the correct reading is "head". 
When a variant reading serves thus to help in correcting the text, it 
should, of course, be printed in the textual, or collation, notes. 

We may, however, collate various editions of a work in the hope of 
getting help in the interpreting of a passage in which there is no error, 
no necessity for an emendation. W T e may have no doubt, for example, 
that the Queen, in Act V, scene ii, of Hamlet, speaks of her son as 
being "fat"; but we may properly seek variant readings in the hope 
of getting some light on the meaning to be attached to the word "fat" 
as the Queen uses it. 3s When such variants are collected merely as 
possible aids to interpretation, they should be recorded if at all in 
the explanatory notes, not in the collation notes. 

At best, however, textual criticism is far from being the "science" 
that some of its champions would seem to make it. Dr. McKerrow, in 

as For a possible explanation of this crux, see bilow, p. 218. 

118 An Introduction to Research 

a passage that should be read by every student of literature, 27 points 
out that the physical scientist, who can repeat an experiment as many 
times as may be necessary, can arrive at a much higher degree of 
certainty than can be achieved by the textual critic, for whom experi- 
ment is generally impossible : 

In most cases all that we can show is that if the parties concerned in the 
transmission of a text behaved as we should expect them to have behaved, 
the copyist or compositor working with reasonable, but not excessive, 
attention to what was before him, the printer's reader bearing in mind, 
more or less constantly, that what he read was supposed to make such a 
partial kind of sense as could be looked for from poetry, and all other 
persons by whom the text could be affected behaving in a similarly 
normal manner, then such-and-such a theory of the history of the texts 
and their interrelationship is, on the evidence at present available, more 
probable than any suggested alternative. 28 


Turning now to the other problem involved in the reproducing 
of the text, we shall find many opportunities for choosing one or the 
other of two courses, and hence as many decisions to be made. One 
might choose to reproduce the original edition with scrupulous exact- 
ness, to provide, in other words, a facsimile reproduction. Such an 
edition would best serve the purpose of the student who is interested 
in bibliography, in printing, in orthography ; it would not do for one 
who is interested in the paper or the watermarks of old books, and it 
would not be convenient for the average scholar. The specialist in 
paper or watermarks we need not take into account ; for him, nothing 
will suffice but the original copy. It is possible, however, to cater to 
the needs of the average scholar and, at the same time, meet most of 
the requirements of the specialists in bibliography, in printing, and 
in orthography. 

The principle to be kept in mind in the reproducing of a text is to 
follow the basic text exactly. However, an editor may, and should, 

39 Dr. McKerrow, in the "Note on the Treatment of the Text" in his edition of 
Nashe's Works (I, [xil-xvi), has a full and excellent statement of correct editorial 
practice. Other gord statements are to be found in John Archer Gee, The Life and 
Works of Thomas Lupset (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928), pp. f2Oi]-2, 
and J. C. Ghosh, The Works of Thomas Otway (Oxford- Oxford University Press, 
1932), I, 89-94. 

Methods of Research: Editing 119 

silently that is, without in each instance providing a footnote giving 
the original reading make such changes as these: (i) correct turned 
letters which, when turned, do not resemble other letters ; (2) substi- 
tute letters of the right font when the original has types of the 
wrong font; (3) shift marginal notes to bring them nearer to the 
material to which they refer; (4) separate words run together which 
do not, when run together, form a new word; (5) supply necessary 
hyphens carelessly omitted in the original; (6) correct such obvious 
mistakes in punctuation as a comma at the end of a sentence or a 
period in the middle of one. There should be somewhere preceding 
the text a statement that such corrections have been silently 

Certain other changes are to be left to the editor's taste. The sub- 
stitution of "w" for "vv", of u s" for "f", of "from' 1 for "fro", and the 
adoption of the modern practice in the use of u u" and "v" and "i" 
and "j" will to some extent destroy the atmosphere present in the 
original. It may be argued that the gain in ease of reading makes 
such substitutions desirable, and perhaps it does; but it must be 
remembered that most of the people who use critical editions are 
sufficiently familiar with the literature of a period or should be-- 
that they are not bothered by any archaisms characteristic of that 
period. At all events, these are matters in which an editor may please 
himself, though it may turn out to be his publisher whom he will 
have to please. 40 If it be decided that contractions are to be expanded, 
another decision will have to be made : Is it to be indicated that there 
was a contraction in the original ? Such indication can be made by 
printing the letters which constitute the expansion in type of a 
different font from that used for the rest of the word. 41 

So much for the silent corrections ; now for the changes that are to 
be made, but with a note in each instance acknowledging the change. 
These errors should be thus corrected : ( i ) The turned letters b and 
q, d and p, n and u, and (in Black Letter) a and e\ hence McKerrow, 
in the second line of Nashe's The Anatomie of Absurditie, prints "the 

40 When I asked Dr. McKerrow why he did not use the long "f " in his edition of 
Nashe, he said that Mr. Bullen who was the publisher of the first four volumes 
would never have permitted it; in Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare Dr. 
McKerrow wrote (p. 20, n. 4) : "In deference to current (though, 1 think, wrong) 
opinion s is substituted for f". 

41 See below, pp. 309-10. 

120 An Introduction to Research 

Agrigentine Maydes", with the footnote "2 Agrigentiue Q". 42 (2) 
Obvious mistakes in spelling, such as "wich" for "which" (Nashe, 
Works, ed. McKerrow, I, 32), "Setmons" for "sermons" (ibid., p. 
270), and "wiehall" for "withall" (ibid., p. 283). (3) Incorrect word 
divisions which form new words; McKerrow prints: "Thou hast 
wronged one for my sake (whom for the name I must love) . . .", 
with the footnote "27 wronge done 93" (ibid., p. 197). (4) Mistakes 
in punctuation, changing of which may affect the meaning, as in this 
passage: ". . . and if so you vnderstand that I alleadge no Author 
but the Asse, for all Authors are Asses, why T am for you; . . ." 
where in the original there was a semicolon after "Asse" (ibid., p. 

In all changes, silent or otherwise, the editor must keep his guiding 
principle in mind : he is to present the text as its author wanted it to 
be read. He should therefore correct any mistake that is obviously 
the error of a copyist or a compositor, or a lapsus calami of the 
author. Difficult readings that are not the result of obvious errors 
should be discussed and possible emendations suggested in footnotes : 
but no change is to be made in the text unless it is practically certain 
that the change fulfills the author's intention. 48 


Having settled all the questions involved in the presentation of the 
text, we are now confronted by one final problem: How shall the 
apparatus criticus be arranged? There can be no doubt, I think, that 
the notes giving textual variants should be on the same page with the 
readings to which they correspond; and some authorities insist 4 * 
that the notes of explanation and interpretation should also be on the 
same page with the material to which they refer. That would mean 
that almost every page would be divided into three parts and would 
have three kinds or sizes of type one for the text, another for the 
textual notes, and a third for the other notes. It is, of course, a con- 
venience to the reader if such comment as may be necessary to the 
understanding of the text is contained on the same page with the 

42 McKerrow used "Q" to indicate that all the early editions- -whether actually 
quartos or not agreed in the reading given. 

43 An interesting comment by Dr. Johnson is contained in James M. Osborn, 
"Johnson on the Sanctity of an Author's Text", PMLA, L (1935), 928-29. 

44 Professor Morize, for example; see Problems and Methods, pp. 57 and 65. 

Methods of Research: Editing 121 

passage to which it refers ; and where the text is of such nature that 
the notes do not out-bulk the text, such an arrangement is most 
desirable. 4 * But where the text is such that the triple division results 
in many pages containing but one or two lines of text and many lines 
of annotation a circumstance which might make the reader think of 
Prince HaFs complaint : "O monstrous ! but one half-pennyworth of 
bread to this intolerable deal of sack !" it may be better to put the 
commentary notes at the end of each text, or, better, at the back of 
the volume. In an edition which consists of more than one volume, it 
is likely to be most helpful for the reader if the commentary notes 
are brought together in one volume, as in McKerrow's Nashe. Then 
one may keep both volumes the text and the commentary lying 
open before him ; and it is just as easy to glance from one volume to 
the other for an explanation as it is to move the eyes from the top to 
the bottom of the page. 

Textual, or collation, notes may conveniently be put in this form : 
the number of the line in which the variation occurs; the lemma (the 
word or phrase for which there is a variant, followed by a bracket) ; 
the variant, followed by the siglum (or sigla) of the edition (or edi- 
tions) containing that variant. Thus we might have: 

21 men] man 96 

If, in an edition of Hamlet, the First Folio has been adopted as the 
basic text, we should have this note on Act I, scene iii : 

115 I, Springes) I om. Qi: fprings Q2 

Woodcocks. I doe know) woodcocks, Qq: I doe know om. Qi 46 

In a line in which the reading of the basic text is obviously incorrect, 
we should have a note such as this (Hamlet, Act II, scene ii) : 

442 vallanced] Qi valanct Q2: valiant Fi 

The reference in the next line: "Com'st thou to beard me in Den- 
marke?" makes it clear that valanced "provided with a short, 

45 Where an occasional extended commentary is demanded, it is sometimes pos- 
sible to put such material in an appendix. 

40 We should then be able to reconstruct the lines. 
First Quarto: Springes to catch woodcocks, 
Second Quarto: I, fprings to catch woodcocks, I doe know 
First Folio: I, Springes to catch Woodcocks. I doe know 

122 An Introduction to Research 

decorative fringe", as the dictionary says is the proper reading. The 
Q2 reading might have been ignored as a mere difference in spelling, 
and the note might have been : 

442 vallanced] Qq: valiant Fi 

Since, however, the spelling of Q2 may serve to explain the error in 
Fi- the Folio compositor apparently failing to recognize the word 
and substituting the word most like it that seemed to him to make 
sense it seems worth while to record it. 


Most of what has been said in this chapter has had to do with the 
editing of Elizabethan works, though the principles involved are 
valid for all periods. Professor John Robert Moore points out that 
the editing of eighteenth-century works is often more difficult than 
the editing of books earlier than 1642. 

There is no Short-Title Catalogue; 47 the bibliography of the period is 
far less completely worked out, so that the catalogues of even the best 
libraries are full of errors, and some printed bibliographies are more 
misleading than informative; and many problems are involved which do 
not appear so prominently in earlier books. 

The increased circulation of some periodicals, or the immediate sale 
of some books, led to the practice of running off the same work on more 
than one press, with a great increase in variant readings. The practice 
of issuing some periodicals in more than one form (like the ''imperfects" 
of Defoe's Review, the Edinburgh issues of that journal, and the annual 
bound volumes of many of the periodicals) led to many more variations. 
The great increase in piratical publishing confuses our knowledge of 
some of the more popular works. The fairly common practice of issuing 
some works in quarto for subscribers and in octavo for the general sale 
may be a difficulty at times. Likewise the custom of making up new 
books more or less at random from unsold sheets (sheets perhaps printed 
on different presses and taken from different warehouses) presents end- 
less possibilities of confusion. 

There are, of course, many relatively easy things to edit, for which 
there are few editions, each clearly related to the others in date and in 

47 Since Profesos Moore wrote, announcement has been made by the Index 
Society that A Short-Title Catalogue of English Books, 1641-1700, compiled by 
Donald Wing, is to be published in 3 vols., the first of which appeared in 1945. I 
believe that an eighteenth-century catalogue is also in prospect. 

Methods of Research: Editing 123 

the dependence of one upon another; but such works as Gulliver's 
Travels and Robinson Crusoe, with their infinite varieties of "points" 
and their problems of priority such things as the controversial 
pamphlets, in which the title pages were often meant primarily to deceive 
the reader into reading something very different from what he thought 
he was getting such things as The School for Scandal, in which the 
author refused to commit himself to a definitive text these are enough 
to drive an editor crazy. 29 

It might be thought that the editing of books written since 1800 
would be relatively simple ; and in general that is perhaps true. But 
some of the difficulties just mentioned enter into the editing of more 
recent works. The existence of a manuscript or more than one manu- 
script may lead to complications. The greater attention paid by 
modern authors to the correcting and revising of their works should 
simplify the task of achieving a definitive text, but it may instead 
bring about confusion. 

In addition to works mentioned previously in this chapter, there 
are, for the sixteenth century, good critical editions of The Mirror for 
Magistrates, 90 the English works of Sir Thomas More, 51 and the 
works of Michael Drayton, 52 Christopher Marlowe, and Edmund 
Spenser. 54 For the seventeenth century there are the plays of Roger 
Boyle, 5 ' 5 and the works of George Herbert, 56 Ben Jonson, 57 and John 
Milton. 58 For the eighteenth century we have Addison's letters, 55 
Boswell's Life of Johnson, 40 Chesterfield's letters, 47 the critical works 
of John Dennis, 42 Pope's poems, 45 Swift's poems ** and prose 
works/- 1 and Walpole's letters.'' 6 The Romantic Movement may be 
represented by editions of the poetry of Keats 47 and of Words- 
worth.* 8 In American literature there are editions of the works of 
William Byrd/' 9 Benjamin Franklin, 50 and Sidney Lanier, 51 the 
American notebooks of Hawthorne, 52 and the poems of Poe 5S and 
Melville/* This list is, of course, by no means complete. 


Among writers for whom critical editions are much needed may be 
mentioned Nicholas Breton, Samuel Daniel, Robert Greene, Thomas 
Lodge, Sir Walter Ralegh, Colley Gibber (the plays only), Oliver 
Goldsmith, and Richard Steele. In American Literature some of the 
desiderata are editions of Charles Brockden Brown, James Fenimore 

124 An Introduction to Research 

Cooper, Jonathan Edwards, Washington Irving, William Gilmore 
Simms, and Royal Tyler. 

As a final word of advice to prospective editors, let me say what 
has been implied throughout this chapter: study McKerrow you 
could have no better master. 



OF the writing and the reading of biographies there is no end. 
The normal human being is interested in knowing other human 
beings ; and the only way to become acquainted with a person from 
whom one is separated by time or space is to read biography. 

Tf, then, the object of the biographer is to make the reader ac- 
quainted with the subject of his work, obviously his writing must be 
characterized by truthfulness. Dr. Johnson 1 and after him Boswell 
rightly protested against biographies that were all panegyric. As 
Boswell put it : 

And he will be seen as he really was; for I profess to write, not his 
panegyrick, which must be all praise, but his Life; which, great and good 
as he was, must not be supposed to be entirely perfect. To be as he was, 
is indeed subject of panegyrick enough to any man in this state of being; 
but in every picture there should be shade as well as light, and when I 
delineate him without reserve, I do what he himself recommended, both 
by his precept and his example. 2 

It may be that the Doctor and his disciple both lacked the impar- 
tiality and the detachment requisite for fulfilling their intention to 
tell the exact truth ; but no one can quarrel with the intention. To the 
biographer, the saying De mortuis nil nisi bonum does not apply. 

It is impossible, to be sure, that any individual should ever be 
able to learn the whole truth about another individual ; hence the 
perfect biography can never be written. All that we can ask of the 
biographer is that he discover as much of the truth concerning his 

[ 125 ] 

126 An Introduction to Research 

subject as it is humanly possible to learn, and then present that truth 
as clearly and as interestingly as possible. But there are different 
ways of discovering and presenting biographical truth. 

One method of writing biography is often considered to be the 
invention of Lytton Strachey, though credit for it might more justly 
be given to Gamaliel Bradford, whose Lee the American was com- 
pleted in 1912; whereas Strachey's Eminent Victorians did not ap- 
pear until 1918. In this kind of biography the writer is not greatly 
concerned with the day-to-day activities of his subject ; his object is 
to convey to the reader an understanding of the subject's mind and 
personality. Hence the biographer does not hesitate to invent a scene 
or situation that never happened (or is not known to have happened), 
or to quote words that may not have been spoken, if such a scene 
or situation or conversation helps to complete the psychological por- 
trait. The success of such a biography depends, of course, upon the 
author's ability to achieve rapport with his subject, dnd no less upon 
his power to convey vividly and convincingly his impression to the 

The weakness of the type is that the reader is at the mercy of the 
biographer. Fact is so mingled with fiction that the reader is unable 
to distinguish one from the other, to separate what did happen from 
what the biographer thinks should have happened or may well have 
happened. Even when the conversation is taken from the subject's 
own writings, utterances may be given a false interpretation by being 
transposed in time or by being deprived of their context. 1 Hence such 
biographies, though they may serve admirably the purposes of the 
ordinary reader, are not satisfactory to the scholar, because they give 
him no opportunity to weigh the evidence, to make use of his knowl- 
edge and his judgment; he must take the biographer's word for 
everything that is said. The student, in his capacity as reader, or 
even as student of the period, may find both pleasure and profit in 
the psychographic works of such men as Strachey and Bradford, and 
in other biographical works in which interpretation carries the author 

1 One could make Pope express an enthusiasm which he may not have felt, for 
biography or psychology or sociology by quoting "The proper study of mankind is 
man. . . ." (Essay on Man, Epistle II, 1. 2) without the concomitant "presume not 
God to scan, . . ." (1. i). 

Methods of Research: Biography 127 

far beyond but not counter to established fact. But for the student 
qua scholar, the only satisfactory biography is one that is fully docu- 
mented, one in which a reference citing chapter and verse is given 
to substantiate every fact set forth. Only such biographical studies 
will be considered in the remainder of this chapter. 


The student who seeks information concerning the life of an 
author must look to one or more of five kinds of evidence : ( i ) data 
contained in official records; (2) information in records of a semi- 
official nature; (3) statements to be found in the writings of persons 
acquainted with the subject; (4) material derived from the subject's 
own writings; and (5) what may for want of a better term be 
called plastic evidence. 

We have a good deal of information about the life of Chaucer. 
The fact that the poet was connected with the court, that he was 
ransomed, given pensions, appointed to posts involving fees or salary, 
even involved in what sounds like though it may not have been 
an unsavory lawsuit : all these things led to frequent occurrences 
of Chaucer's name in public records which can still be read. All that 
we know of Chaucer's life we owe to the fact that he was a courtier, 
no thing-- beyond what can be learned from his own writings to the 
fact that he was a great poet. And thus it is that we know nothing 
at all, aside from a dubious name, of Chaucer's gifted contemporary 
who produced Piers Plowman ; we do not even know whether "Wil- 
liam Langland" was one man or more than one. In earlier times, 
circumstances involving the receipt or expenditure of money were 
generally noted, and the record may exist even now ; but the writing 
of a poem or the performing of a play is likely to have gone un- 

It is not surprising, then, that we know no more about Shakspere 
despite the fact that he lived two centuries closer to our own times 
than we know about Chaucer. 2 If one looks into the evidence for 

2 Much of our knowledge of Shakspere's life results from the fact that he, like 
Chaucer, was connected with the court; there is a difference, however, in that 
S % xakspere's connection with the court was the consequence of his being a writer, or 

128 An Introduction to Research 

our knowledge of the events of Shakspere 's life, he will find that it 
exists in records such as these: various parish registers (for dates of 
christenings, 3 marriages, and burials) ; records of the College of 
Arms; inventories, wills, tax-lists, and other records of property; 
licenses to carry on the profession of acting ; accounts containing 
allowance of payment for liveries ; and records in various provincial 
towns of payments to the company of which Shakspere was a mem- 
ber, for performances given when the actors were on tour. 1 With all 
these records of one kind and another dealing with the life of 
Shakspere, it may seem that we have abundant knowledge ; but such 
an impression is erroneous. We do not know where or how Shakspere 
was educated, where he lived in London (except that at some time 
he lived in St. Helen's parish, Bishopsgate ; at another time in the 
Bankside, Surrey; and in 1604 at the corner of Silver and Monkwell 
streets 3 ) ; or many other things that would help us to know Shak- 
spere, the man, as well as we can know Shakspere, the dramatist and 

If the records concerning Shakspere are scanty arid often difficult 
to interpret/* those dealing with the lives of his contemporaries are 
even fewer and frequently more puzzling. For Thomas Nashe we 
have a record of a christening in November, 1567 (the day of the 
month is not given), and certain college records; 5 aside from the 
information contained in these, we know of Nashe only what he tells 
us himself in his works and what other people such as Gabriel 
Harvey- wrote about him. Concerning Christopher Marlowe there 
is a good deal of material available in various records ; 6 many of 
these references result from Marlowe's difficulties with the authori- 

3 It may be worth noting here that the early records give dates of christenings, 
seldom if ever of births Many scholars have assumed that christening customarily 
took place three days after birth, but Sir Edmund Chambers (William Shakespeare, 
II, 2) casts doubt on this tradition. In view of the belief that baptism was essential 
to salvation, and in view, too, of the high rate of infant mortality, we may fairly 
assume that parents would take pains to have children baptized as soon after birth 
as was convenient; but it seems likely that baptism may have occurred on the 
fourth or even a later day as often as on the third. We may assume, too, that a 
sickly child who seemed unlikely to survive would have been christened before the 
third day, probablv within a few hours or even minutes after birth, as in the classic 
example of Tristram Shandy. 

4 It should be noted that these last records do not give the names of the actors ; 
hence we can not be sure that Shakspere was in Oxford on 9 October 1605 just 
because the King's Men were given ten shillings for performing there on that day. 

Methods of Research: Biography 129 

ties, few if any are consequent upon his having been a poet and 
dramatist. What we know of Robert Greene's life aside from the 
fact that he produced certain literary works could be put in three 
or four sentences. 

It is true that many records exist that have not been studied, and 
from these there may in the future be derived much significant in- 
formation. Even those that have been published or calendared 5 may 
contain information that has been overlooked. The records by means 
of which Professor J. Leslie Hotson cleared up the strange and con- 
flicting notions of the circumstances of Marlowe's death 7 had been 
available to students for more than three centuries; only the fact 
that Professor Hotson had a "hunch" when he ran across the name 
"Ingram Frizer" in a document that had nothing whatever to do 
with Marlowe and knew how to follow up his "hunch" made the 
discovery possible. 

The largest and most important collection of official documents is 
that contained in the Public Record Office. A guide to these docu- 
ments exists * and is exceedingly valuable ; but those who have 
worked with English records, either in the Public Record Office 
or in other repositories, are generally agreed that no matter how 
well equipped one may be, with knowledge of languages, hand- 
writing, English history and government, and all that can be learned 
from books, one must still learn to use the records by using them 
nothing will take the place of such apprenticeship. 

In citing official records for purposes of biography one should be 
on fairly safe ground, though sometimes, because of carelessness or 
for some other reason, mistakes do occur. The records of Shakspere's 
marriage, one document giving the bride's name as Anne Hathwey 
of Stratford and another as Anne Whateley of Temple Grafton, offer 
a case in point ; 9 and the mystery concerning the death of Marlowe 
remained a mystery for so long a time because the vicar of the 
Church of St. Nicholas, Deptford, erred in recording the name of 
Marlowe's slayer as "ffrancis (instead of Ingram] ffrezer". 10 

Let us consider now some pieces of biographical research based 

5 A calendar is "A chronological register of documents with a brief summary of 
the contents of each, made to serve as an index to the documents of a period." 
(Webster's New International Dictionary, s.v. "Calendar" 4a.) For England, the 
most important calendars are those published by the Historical Manuscripts Com- 

130 An Introduction to Research 

upon official records. Professor A. C. Baugh in 1932 printed a cal- 
endar of legal documents ll pertaining to Thomas Chaucer, thought 
to be the son of the poet, and brought out in the next year an article 
on Thomas Chaucer. * 2 The latter article is supplemented by a note, 
likewise based on legal and ecclesiastical records. The same sort 
of evidence is used in articles that throw new light on Sir Thomas 
Malory, 1 * Sir Thomas More/ 5 and the Earl of Surrey. 16 Official docu- 
ments also form the basis for articles on Spenser/ 7 Marlowe/ 8 and 
Emerson.' 9 A good deal of information concerning the actors of the 
first part of the seventeenth century has been gleaned from the 
registers of the churches of St. Giles Cripplegate 20 and St. Botolph 
Aldgate. 2 * Legal records provide new facts about Andrew Marvell 22 
and De Quincey. 23 

In addition to such records of church and state as we have been 
considering, there are certain documents that might be called "semi- 
official". They are not public records in the same sensf that a parish 
register and the Acts of the Privy Council are, but they are not to 
be placed in the same category with ordinary letters and personal 
diaries. The household diary or account book of a family 2ft would 
be a document of semi-official nature, as would the minutes of a 
society or a history of the society based on such minutes. 25 Hens- 
lowe's Diary * 6 would also be a document of this class ; the informa- 
tion contained in it has been of inestimable value in dating the plays 
of the period covered by it. 27 Mistakes do occur in these documents, 
but most of them are of such nature that they can be, and have been, 
corrected. Anonymous items, such as advertisements, in periodicals 
might be placed in the same category. 28 The unofficial documents 
do not, of course, have quite the same credibility as that inherent 
in the more formal public records. There is even more opportunity 
for error than is to be attributed to the human fallibility of parish 
priests and clerks of court. A book is announced as "This day pub- 
lished" ; but circumstances unforeseen may delay the actual appear- 
ance for days or weeks. Notice is given that a celebrated actress will 
that night perform in her favorite role; but illness or some other 

6 Moreover, once the book was published, the same "This day published" heading 
was often used for weeks to come. 

Methods of Research: Biography 131 

circumstance makes it impossible for her to appear, and an under- 
study takes her place. Nevertheless, the quasi-official nature of this 
class of documents the fact that mistakes in accounts may be 
caught by a steward or auditor, that errors of the secretary may be 
corrected at the reading of the minutes, and that false statements in 
a periodical are likely to be the subject of an explanation or apology 
in a subsequent issue gives such records more reliability than can 
be granted to ordinary diaries and letters, which are likely to be 
colored by the prejudice or the ignorance of the writer. 

Thus we come to the third kind of source of biographical material : 
what other people have to say about the subject. In using material 
of this sort we must, as has just been suggested, be on guard against 
two possibilities: (i) the information may be wrong because the 
writer was ignorant of the truth and, though he wrote in good faith, 
was mistaken in his facts; and (2) the writer may make a misstate- 
ment with the intention to deceive. With respect to the first of these 
possibilities, the student must determine as best he can, from his 
knowledge of the circumstances of the writer's life, whether the 
writer was likely to know the truth ; with respect to the second, it 
must be determined, if possible, what motive he may have had for 
an attempt to deceive. Thus in the matter of Kyd's famous letter 
to Sir John Puckering * <J it may be taken as certain that Kyd knew 
whether the heretical documents referred to were in his handwriting 
or not, and as probable, at least, that he knew whether, if not in his 
hand, they were in Marlowe's. But Kyd was trying desperately to 
extricate himself from a dangerous situation ; as Professor Bakeless 
puts it: 

If we could be quite sure that Kydd was not trying to lie his way out 
of a predicament, we might regard these notes as genuine examples of 
Marlowe's own handwriting. But Kydd is so evidently in an agony of 
anxiety to save himself that his statements are almost worthless. He is 
telling a good deal of the truth but he is also obviously lying whenever 
he thinks it likely to be useful/ 

Perhaps it is going a bit too far to say that Kyd is "obviously 
lying"; but the fact that, if guilty, he had so much reason to lie, 
and may have done so, invalidates his evidence. 

132 An Introduction to Research 

There has been a good deal of loose thinking, of credulous accept- 
ance of what has been said, about writers in whom we are interested, 
especially, I think, those of the Elizabethan period. The older writers 
exist for us almost wholly in their works ; we are content to leave 
them except for Chaucer disembodied spirits. We are not likely 
to spend much time in speculating on the name or the complexion 
of the author of Beowulf, or in seeking to invest the life of Csedmon 
With more details than Bede gives. Although more information about 
such men would be interesting and valuable, we accept uncom- 
plainingly the fact that such information is apparently not to be had. 
But the Elizabethan age is so vivid, its writers are so colorful, that 
we try to know them better than we can ; there is a strong tendency 
to accept as true every hearsay detail that conforms with the con- 
cept of these men that we have gained from their works and from 
the little that we do know about them, and to reject whatever does 
violence to that concept. Robert Greene provides a good example of 
this tendency. Gabriel Harvey's account of the circumstances of 
Greene's death 31 has been universally accepted because it fits so well 
the popular idea of Greene as a profligate wastrel upon whom poetic 
justice was finally visited. Nashe's denial of that account 3 ' has been 
discredited or ignored. 

I have already observed that what is known of Greene's life could 
be set forth in few words. Grosart quoted Professor J. M. Brown 
as saying: "Little is known of Greene's life, and that little we know 
only through his enemies and his own too candid confessions. . . ." S3 
Whereupon Grosart proceeded to add enough to what Storojenko 
had already written to make something like a hundred pages of 
alleged biography ! 

Of the details in that biography derived from Greene's "own too 
candid confessions" we must speak later ; let us consider here the 
contributions of Greene's enemies and friends. A single issue will 
illustrate the point involved. What Henry Chettle said of Greene has 
seldom been questioned. More than forty years ago Churton Collins 
wrote : "There is no reason to doubt the truth of what Chettle says, 
for, though he was a poor man, he had the reputation of being both 
respectable and honest." A!t Twenty years later Professor G. B. Harri- 
son wrote of Chettle as one "who was likely to know the truth 
about Greene's affairs, . . ." S5 Henslowe's Diary furnishes ample 

Methods of Research: Biographij 133 

evidence- of Chettle's poverty; but proof of either respectability 
or honesty or knowledge of Greene's affairs is lacking. Harold 
Jenkins sums up our knowledge of Chettle thus : 

Present-day knowledge of Chettle's life and career is extraordinarily 
scant for a man so prolific in writing and so closely in touch with most 
of the important literary personages of his day. He is a stationer's 
apprentice in London, and passes on to become a printer; he associates 
with literary men of the town, and gradually abandons the printing for 
the writing art. He is good-natured and placable, the respected friend of 
Greene [there is no evidence, aside from Chettle's own assertion, that he 
had any acquaintance with Greene | and Nashe, of Munday and Dekker. 
He suddenly comes clearly before us in the records of Henslowe, always 
miserably poor, struggling against poverty, turning his hand to any sort 
of hackwork for any meagre reward, resorting to various devices to 
obtain the most insignificant sums of money, yet repeatedly in trouble 
and sometimes in prison for debt. 37 

Nevertheless, Mr. Jenkins elsewhere asserts that Chettle's "honesty 
is not to be called into question . . ."/ 

Certainly it cannot be proved in the light of present evidence 
that Chettle lied when he said of the Groatsworth of Wit that "it 
was all Greenes" ; J9 but it must be admitted that he may have lied 
or have been mistaken in his assertion, and in view of that possi- 
bility the acceptance of the Groatsworth as being everything that 
Chettle alleges it to be is not sound scholarship. Chettle may have 
known all about Greene's affairs and hence have known that Greene 
wrote the Groatsworth but there is no proof, or even good evidence, 
that he did. Chettle may have told the truth; but in view of a 
possible motive for misrepresentation the desire to make the 
Groatsworth more salable by completing it himself it is not safe 
to assume that he did. Consequently the biographical details con- 
tained in the Groatsworth cannot be accepted as facts in Greene's 
life unless they are confirmed by something more than Chettle's 

Let us consider now some biographical researches in which in- 
formation is derived from the writings of persons other than the 
subject. Professor Tatlock found in several references a number of 
details concerning an eleventh-century nun, whose own writings have 
disappeared.* Letters form the basis of articles on Swift ** and 

134 An Introduction to Research 

Pope ; ** and letters, in one case, and reminiscences, in the other, 
provide the basis for articles on Hawthorne 4 * and Whitman. 4 * 

The fourth kind of evidence for biographical research is that sup- 
plied by the subject himself. It may be generally assumed that an 
author knows the truth about the details of his own life ; 7 but one 
may, for one reason or another, indulge in more or less flagrant 
misrepresentations, as Pope apparently did when he said that he 
wrote his Pastorals at the age of sixteen.^ Morever, there is always 
a danger of mistaking for autobiography especially in works of fic- 
tion that which is not autobiography at all. Even in works allegedly 
or admittedly autobiographical, it is not safe to assume the truth 
of every detail. No one could read Look Homeward, Angel, by 
Thomas Wolfe, without realizing that the autobiographical element 
in that book is very pronounced; but no modern reader would be 
likely to make the mistake of assuming that every detail in the 
hero's experience must have had its counterpart in the life of the 
author. We give the writer credit for having the capacity to imagine 
details or borrow them from the experience of someone else and 
the power to present those details so realistically that it seems as 
if they must have been a part of his own life. 

The older scholars seem hardly to have been aware of the danger 
just mentioned. Grosart reveals his attitude in these words: "Storo- 
jenko says he has extracted the autobiographical matter of the Works 
fof Greene | . A quick-eyed reader will easily treble, at least, such 
autobiographical matter, and often in unlikely places." >l6 Every 
detail in Greene's so-called "repentance pamphlets" is accepted by 
Grosart- and by many others 8 as a fact in Greene's life; these 
"facts" are used to confirm apparently related "facts" in other works, 
and those to confirm still others in a long chain of sophistical reason- 
ing. Thus Grosart accepts Storojenko's assumption that Greene's 
wife came from Lincolnshire and was named Dorothy/' 7 and assumes 

7 However, one writing from memory in old age might easily be mistaken about 
some of the events of his youth. 

8 I have set forth ikewhere ("Robert Greene and His 'Editors' ", PMLA, XLVIII 
( i 39^-417) reasons for being skeptical of these details; here let it suffice to 
say that to write in the first person is the most obvious method of achieving 

Methods of Research: Biography 135 

further that her marriage to Greene is not likely to have taken place 
in London ; J ' 8 when, as a matter of fact, there is no valid evidence 
that Greene was ever married. 

It is not, however, professedly or allegedly autobiographical works 
alone that may convey information about the life of the writer. A 
man may write a book in which he apparently or obviously identifies 
himself with one of the characters in that book. If, then, that char- 
acter in the course of the book makes a trip to Paris, it may be 
argued though not without confirmatory evidence that the author 
himself must have made such a trip. But the same author may, in a 
book which is in no sense autobiographical, reveal by describing 
Paris in terms that could not have been derived from a guide book 
or from any source other than personal experience, that he had been 
in Paris. 9 If there were in the novel Of Human Bondage no character 
identified with the author, we should still know that Somerset 
Maugham must have sojourned in Paris and in Germany. 

Let us turn now to some examples of biographical research in 
which the evidence is drawn from the subject's own writings. Allu- 
sions to ecclesiastical music as well as to the music of the court 
and the hunt in the Pearl and Purity suggest that the author of 
those poems had been trained in a choristers' school. 4 - 9 Differences 
in the apparent knowledge of law displayed in the three texts of 
Piers Plowman suggest that the author studied law between the 
writing of the A-text and that of the B-text, or, if there was more 
than one author involved, that the author of the C-text knew more 
law than the author of the B-text, and the latter more than the 
author of the A-text. Skelton's own words are used to support the 
hypothesis that there was a reconciliation between Skelton and 
Wolsey before the composing of the poet's last works. 51 A reference 
to Southampton in one of Hey wood's poems suggests that the Earl 
had lent his name to a company of players, and that the dramatist 
had at some time been a member of that company. 52 Two articles 
on Milton make use of the poet's own works: a letter adds to our 
knowledge of Milton, the public servant, 55 and passages in his pub- 
lished writings especially the History of Britain are interpreted as 

9 One must, of course, be sure of his ground here ; Defoe achieved, in Captain 
Singleton, remarkably accurate descriptions of the interior of Africa, without ever 
having visited that continent. 

136 An Introduction to Research 

indicating that Milton's failure to produce much poetry between 
1640 and 1658 was due rather to a disinclination for poetic compo- 
sition during those years than to lack of time. 5 * 

Charlotte Bronte's juvenile writings have very generally been 
ignored by students, but a good deal can be learned from them that 
helps in understanding the author's character/ 55 Similarly, light is 
thrown upon the young Emerson by a poem which the poet and 
essayist wrote during his freshman year at Harvard. 5 * It has long 
been supposed that Longfellow met Wordsworth on one of his trip? 
to Europe; but previously unpublished extracts from Longfellow's 
Journal make it appear doubtful that such a meeting ever took 
place. 57 By the correcting of errors in the dating of a score of letters 
written by Browning to Miss Isabella Blagden a good bit is added 
to our knowledge of Browning's life between 1858 and 1868. 5S 

Other articles using this kind of material deal with the English 
writers John Donne, 59 Charles Dickens, 60 Robert Browning, 61 and 
Oscar Wilde ; r>2 and the Americans Washington Irving, 65 Margaret 
Fuller, 6 '' Herman Melville, 65 Samuel Clemens, 66 BretHarte, 67 H. C. 
Bunner,"' 8 Stephen Crane, 6 - 9 and Robert Frost. 70 

A study may be devoted to the minimizing or negativing of such 
evidence as we have been considering. Thus an interpretation of 
Sidney's sonnets as conventional would make the autobiographical 
elements in Astrophcl and Stella of doubtful significance. 71 

We come now to the fifth and last kind of biographical evidence 
the kind that I have called plastic evidence. If we know that an 
author spent a part of his formative years in a certain environment 
a still-existent house, or a college at Oxford or Cambridge to 
achieve some familiarity with that environment will certainly add to 
our capacity for understanding the author. To know what books an 
author read is an obvious essential to the understanding of him; 
to know the copies that he used their format and their bindings 
adds something more. Thus the suggestion that the Ayenbite of Inwit 
is not a translation of Cottonian MS Cleopatra Av, but of another 
version derived *rom that and owned by the author of the Ayenbite, 
will add if the hypothesis can be confirmed to our knowledge of 
Dan Michel of Northgate ; it will stamp him as the owner of a book. 

Methods of Research: Biography 137 

or manuscript, in a time when such a distinction was unusual. 72 
Milieu might be thought of as the sum total of plastic evidence ; a 
recent article studied the relationship between Samuel Rogers and his 
environment. 73 


We have been considering articles wholly or almost wholly 
based upon one kind of evidence. It is time now to consider how two 
or more kinds may be combined to furnish biographical information. 
Letters and petitions appealing to Queen Elizabeth for rewards for 
literary labors, and official documents showing that such appeals gen- 
erally went unheeded, bring out graphically the Queen's nigardli- 
ness. 7 '' Court records and letters are brought together to provide 
information about Arthur Gorges, information which throws some 
light upon Spenser and Ralegh, whose friend Gorges was. 7 ' 7 Similarly, 
public records and letters provide the basis for an article of interest 
to students of Pope. 76 ' Official records of H.M.S. Chichcster, together 
with a private journal kept by one of the ship's officers, help us to 
determine how much of Smollett's Roderick Random is genuine 
autobiography. 77 Official documents and letters are combined in an 
article on the dates of the birth and the death of Keats. 78 Records 
also are used in an article on Herman Melville 7>J and one involving 
Lowell and Emerson. 80 

Two studies consider information drawn from public records alonj, 
with material contained in the subject's own writings : We may 
learn something about Thomas Bancroft by studying what he wrote, 
in conjunction with certain records, especially wills.* ' And a study 
of newspaper notices and Emerson's engagement book makes it pos- 
sible to compile a list of the dates, places, and subjects of Emerson's 
lectures in England and Scotland during the tour of i847-48.* 2 

The larger part of our biographical studies, however, combine what 
others have said or written, with material drawn from the subject's 
own writings. Thus the writings of Spenser and of Sidney have been 
examined in an attempt to discover whether or not the two Eliza- 
bethans were intimate friends.*-* Communications between Dryden 
and his publisher, Tonson, make it possible to estimate Dryden's 
share of the profits from the publication of his translation of the 
/Encid. sit Letters form the basis for two articles in Congreve.* 5 

138 An Introduction to Research 

Two studies concerning Edmund Burke are based on a combination 
of Burke 's own testimony and that of others. In the first of these, 
a notebook kept jointly by Burke and his friend William Burke, to- 
gether with some other material, supplies details in a decade of 
Burke's life about which little or nothing had previously been 
known. 86 In the other, information from Burke and others is brought 
together to determine the extent of Burke's contribution to the Annual 
Register. 87 In the first of two articles on Burns, the Burns-Dunlop 
estrangement is explained by a study of the letters exchanged be- 
tween the poet and his friend ; HS in the other, the testimony of 
various people concerning Mary Campbell is compared with Burns's 
portrait of Highland Mary to bring out the fact that the girl was 
very different from the poet's conception of her. Letters exchanged 
between Byron and Coleridge add to our knowledge of both writers. 90 
New light is thrown on Keats by a study of references -his own and 
those of others to his interest in world affairs/ 97 The relations 
between Charlotte Bronte and George Henry Lewes are revealed in 
their letters. 9 ^ Other articles making use of this kind of evidence 
deal with Robert Mannyng of Brunne, 93 Thomas Percy, 97 ' and Shelley 
and Southey. 95 

Several studies in this group all of them based on letters or jour- 
nals or both deal with American writers. References in Washington 
Trving's journal and in Motley's Correspondence prove that Irving 
and Tieck were acquainted. 96 Two studies presenting conflicting 
views of the relationship between Hawthorne and Margaret Fuller 
are based largely on the writings of the two persons involved ; y7 a 
study of the relationship of Miss Fuller with Emerson depends 
chiefly upon the former's letters and the latter 's Journal. 98 Letters 
provide the material for a discussion of Hawthorne as a critic of 
poetry " and for a study of the friendship between Whittier and 
Hayne. 1 

Some articles make use of evidence of three kinds. Thus an article 
on John Cleveland utilizes public records, allusions that Cleveland 
makes in his own works, and material contained in satiric attacks on 
him. 101 Similar combinations of material provide studies on George 
Wither, 10 * William Congreve,' 03 and Aphra Behn. 1 "* An article on 

Methods of Research: Biography 139 

the life of Smollett is based on the same kinds of evidence, 105 as is 
one on the publication of Lord Chesterfield's Letters to His Son. 106 
Other studies making use of more than two kinds of evidence deal 
with Thomas Morton of Merry Mount/ 07 Byron,' 08 and Walt Whit- 
man. 109 In an article on Sterne, evidence furnished by Sterne himself 
and that provided by others is combined with plastic evidence in 
this instance bibliographical evidence to prove that the first edition 
of Tristram Shandy was printed at York by Mrs. Ann Ward." 

Despite the difficulty a biographer encounters in trying to collect 
a sufficient body of established facts to provide material for a com- 
plete portrait of his subject, there are numerous biographies in which 
interpretation and speculation are minimized and always differen- 
tiated from fact. Among such biographies of recent years may be 
mentioned studies of the English writers Spenser, 1 " Marlowe, 17 * 
Shakspere/ 75 Pepys/" Pope, 775 Johnson, 116 Richardson, 117 Gib- 
bon, 118 Sheridan,' 70 Shelley, 1 * Keats, 7 - 7 and Ruskin; 12 * and the 
Americans Jonathan Edwards, 725 Emerson, 72 '' Bronson Alcott/ 25 
Hawthorne, 1 - 6 Longfellow/ 27 Griswold/ 28 Thoreau," 9 Emily Dick- 
inson/* "Mark Twain"/'* 1 Edward Eggleston/- 1 - and Lafcadio 
Hearn. 7 - And, of course, there is Carl Sandburg's great work on 
Lincoln. 15 '' 


By way of recapitulation let it be said that public records, where 
they exist, are as good evidence in problems of biography as can 
be had. Thus we have no doubt that Christopher Marlowe was born 
in Canterbury and William Shakspere in Stratford-on-Avon in 1564, 
or that Shakspere was married in 1582 ; but the fact that one record 
names Shakspere's wife as Anne Whateley and another as Anne 
Hathwey shows that public records are not infallible. Since Norwich 
is mentioned by the author himself as the birthplace of Robert 
Greene, Collins considered *** that the entry referring to a christen- 
ing there in 1558 may be taken as establishing the author's birth- 
year; 10 but the conclusion is only probable, not certain. Robert 
Greene, unlike Christopher Marlowe, was a common name. 

10 In the entry the infant is spoken of as Robert Greene, the son of Robert Greene, 
and Collins has an ingenious argument for determining whether the father was 
Robert Greene the saddler or Robert Greene the innkeeper; but his argument rests 
upon an assumption which cannot safely be made. 

140 An Introduction to Research 

In using public records one must learn to know if he is to make 
the most of them their possibilities. Professor Hotson, when he 
was balked by finding nothing about Tngram Frezer in the records 
of Criminal Inquests, or the Queen's Bench Controlment Roll, or the 
records of the South-Eastern Circuit, still had another string to his 
bow : he looked for the story of Marlowe's murder in the Patent Rolls 
of the Chancery, and found it there. 136 ' 

In using the evidence of what others have said about one's subject, 
one must make sure that the person making any statement (i) was 
in a position to know the truth, and (2) was certainly telling the 
truth ; if these two things cannot be established, the statement repre- 
sents at most a probability. The fact that two witnesses agree on a 
detail does not make it certain, or necessarily more probable; the 
two may be equally ignorant of the truth, or they may have the 
same, or an equally pronounced, bias. 

Even what a subject says about himself must be treated with 
care. An individual may actually not know the truth about himself. 
I have a good deal of doubt that Poe went about the writing of 
The Raven just as he said he did, but I am not at all sure that he 
was guilty of any conscious misrepresentation when he wrote The 
Philosophy of Composition. Or one may exaggerate, perhaps with 
intent to deceive, as Pope seems to have done when boasting of his 
precocity, or jestingly, as perhaps Shaw did when he compared him- 
self with Shakspere, to Shakspere's disadvantage. 

It is especially dangerous to put too much stock in apparently or 
avowedly autobiographical material contained in works of fiction. 
Critics have said 137 that the autobiographical details in Greene's 
Repentance are so vivid and so realistic that they must be true; 
that is to say that fiction cannot be so written as to seem like fact. 
To argue that the Dark Lady of Shakespere's Sonnets must have 
existed in the flesh is to deny Shakspere the power to imagine an 
emotion and then express it convincingly. One might almost as well 
say that Shakspere must have had a murdered father and an in- 
cestuous mother because Hamlet's emotion seems so genuine. 

Plastic evidence is, like bibliographical evidence, perfectly valid if 
rightly used. It must not be assumed that King's College Chapel at 
Cambridge, or Magdalen Tower at Oxford, would have had the same 
effect on an English boy arriving to begin his university studies that 

Methods of Research: Biography 141 

it has on one of us coming fresh from twentieth-century America. 
But if we can come to know that English boy well enough, we may be 
able to appreciate the effect on him of his Oxford or Cambridge 
environment, and familiarity with that environment will certainly 
deepen our understanding of the individual exposed to it. 

One must, above all, in biographical studies learn not to force the 
evidence and then call the result a biographical fact. The biographer 
should be eternally dissatisfied with what he knows of his subject 
until he has learned all that there is to know if such a time can be 
said ever to come. He should search the records until he has ex- 
hausted their possibilities ; he should pore over the books written by 
his subject -and every other scrap of writing that can be attributed 
to him until he knows the subject matter almost by heart ; he 
should master the background- -literary, philosophical, political, 
social, economic, and religious of his subject's period. But let him 
keep aware at all times of the sharp line of demarcation between that 
which is established fact, and that which is merely probable, or pos- 
sible. And when the time comes to write, let him present facts alone 
as facts, and everything else as probability, or possibility. 

Or, if one prefers, let him write fiction. Then he may endow his 
subject with a wife named Elizabeth or one named Doll, or with no 
wife at all ; with children legitimate or illegitimate ; with a house in 
the country or one in town. So long as he keeps his material true to 
the psychology of the subject and the atmosphere of the period, and 
presents it in effective prose, the result will be good as fiction. It 
will not be biography. 



THERE are those who believe everything they see in print; and 
an even larger number of persons are but little less credulous. 
Hence the fourth- or fifth-century Dares Phrygius and D'ictys Cre- 
tensis were for centuries accepted as genuine eyewitness accounts of 
the Trojan war because they contained details that purportedly could 
have been known only to contemporaries of Helen and Paris and the 
rest. "How", people said and among them were some who should 
have known better "could any one have known, except through per- 
sonal acquaintance, that Hector had a squint, or Helen a mole on her 
right cheek?" What they did not take into consideration are the 
facts that such details are not known to be true, and, if true, might 
have been learned in some way other than by personal acquaint- 

It is not ignorant folk alone who are credulous. M. Chasles, a 
French mathematician of international reputation, paid 140,000 francs 
to an adventurer named Vrain-Lucas for hundreds of letters from 
various worthy personages. They bore such signatures as those of 
Lazarus, Vercingetorix, Cleopatra, and St. Mary Magdalene; but 
they were all written in modern French on nineteenth-century note 
paper. Literary men as well as mathematicians may be taken in by 
the forger. Trelawney was accepted as genuine by Scott and Macau- 
lay ; and, though the Reverend Mr. Hawker admitted in 1832 that he 
was the author, the ballad was later printed by J. H. Dixon in 
Ancient Poems and Ballads. 1 Most eighteenth-century collectors suc- 
cumbed to the temptation to "improve" without acknowledgement 

( 142 ] 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 143 

the ballads that they printed, thus drawing down upon their heads 
the vitriolic wrath of Joseph Ritson. 2 

Though problems of authenticity are not altogether the same as 
those of attribution, the two overlap to such an extent that it will be 
most convenient to deal with them together. We must keep in mind, 
however, the fact that a problem of attribution is solved if we can 
answer the question "Who wrote this work?" But authenticity de- 
mands an affirmative answer to three questions : "Was this work 
written by the person who is purported to have written it? Was it 
written at the time alleged to be the date of composition? Was it 
written under the circumstances and for the purpose alleged?" 

The evidence upon which we must rely in attempting to solve prob- 
lems of authenticity and attribution may be classified as external, 
internal, and bibliographical. We could hardly ask for better evidence 
of a man's authorship of a work than to have a copy of the work in 
the man's own handwriting ; and yet, strictly speaking, such biblio- 
graphical evidence proves only that our author wrote the work out in 
his own hand not that he was the original composer of the piece. 
Thus if we had a copy in Chaucer s handwriting of the Tale of 
Gamclyn, the reasons for rejecting that poem from the Chaucer canon 
would still exist ; and we could say only that our manuscript proves 
what has already been suspected *- that Chaucer had made a copy of 
an older work, presumably with a view to rewriting it for inclusion 
among The Canterbury Tales. 

William Henry Ireland l fell afoul of the handwriting test. His 
imitations of an Elizabethan hand were convincing enough to deceive 

1 William Henry Ireland (1777-1835) forged a great variety of Shaksperean docu- 
ments leases, contracts, a profession of faith, and a letter to Anne Hathaway, with 
an accompanying lock of hair. Many people were deceived; Boswell knelt in rapture 
and kissed the alleged relics. Becoming more ambitious, Ireland brought forth a 
Shaksperean play Vortigern and succeeded in having it produced at Drury Lane 
with Kemble in the leading role. But Malone had already published evidence that 
the documents were all forgeries; and, though many people continued to believe 
young Ireland's protestations, the audience at the Drury Lane performance seems 
to have been pretty sure that Shakspere had had nothing to do with Vortigern. 
Eventually Ireland published a confession of his guilt. The whole story is well told 
in John Mair's The Fourth Forger (New York: Macmillan, 1939). See also William 
T. Hastings, " 'The Fourth Forger/ A Supplemental Minority Report," Shakespeare 
Association Bulletin, XIV (1939), 248-51. 

144 An Introduction to Research 

the untrained and prejudiced eyes of his father; they were good 
enough to impose upon men like James Boswell, Henry Pye (the 
Poet Laureate), and the Prince of Wales. But even in the eighteenth 
century there were scholars who recognized them for what they were, 
and they would not for an instant deceive a modern handwriting 
expert. If an inscription consists of only a word or two, there may 
be some difficulty in determining its genuineness ; - but modern ex- 
perts, with their microscopes, their cameras, their measuring instru- 
ments, and all the rest of their scientific equipment, would make 
short work of a forgery of any length. 

The ink used- or the substitute for ink may also serve to trap the 
unwary forger. As is well known, ordinary ink turns brown with age; 
hence one cannot very well execute an allegedly old inscription with 
modern ink. Ireland used a combination of marbling dyes ; * this gave 
the proper appearance but would not have withstood analysis. 
Collier 4 tried to get around the difficulty by using brown water color 
paint, but his stratagem was easily discovered. The appearance of the 
ink enters into the controversy between Dr. Greg and Dr. Tannen- 
baum over the U T. Goodal" inscription in the manuscript of The 

2 The genuineness of "T. Goodal*' in Sir Thomas More was, I believe, still in 
dispute between Dr Greg and Dr. Tannenbaum at the time of the latter's death: 
that there should be such a disagreement between experts is as disconcerting to othei 
scholars as a disagreement among physicians is to their patient. 

3 Colors used by bookbinders in decorating the edges of books or in producing 
marbled paper for lining papers. 

4 John Payne Collier (1789-1883) was a brilliant and learned scholar. His early 
work is sound; but in 1852 he published Notes and Emendations in the Text of 
Shakespeare, based on corrections made in a copy of the Second Folio by someone 
whom Collier called the "Old Corrector". After some controversy, the entries in the 
Folio were shown to be spurious; but Collier, to the day of his death, denied 
responsibility for them. One point of signiiicance is the fact that Collier admitted 
making certain pencil marks in the Folio, tracing, he said, the inscriptions to see 
how the letters were made; it was found, however, on microscopic examination, 
that the pencil marks lay beneath, not above, the ink marks. The discovery of other 
forgeries attributable to Collier in documents at Dulwich College leaves little doubt 
that Collier himself was the "Old Corrector". It is exceedingly difficult to understand 
why a mature scholar, with an established reputation, should have stooped to 
forgery; the best explanation seems to be that he was so anxious to have certain 
readings many of which had been suggested by earlier scholars universally 
accepted, that he succumbed to the temptation of providing confirmatory evidence. 
An account of the affair is given in C. M. Ingleby, Complete View of the Shake- 
speare Controversy (London: Nattali, 1861). See also Hazelton Spencer, "The Forger 
at Work: A New Case Against Collier", PQ, VI (1927), 32-38; and William Ringler, 
"Another Collier Forgery", [London! Times Lit. Sup., October 29, 1938, pp. 693-94. 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 145 

Booke of Sir Thomas More '' ; the fact that a controversy arose is an 
indication that evidence of ink, handwriting, and condition of paper 
all of which factors are involved is not always as clear as we 
might wish to have it. 

The paper of which a book or manuscript is composed may pro- 
vide confirmatory evidence that a work is authentic or positive evi- 
dence that it is not. Ireland executed his forgeries upon genuine 
paper of the period to which the documents were supposed to belong ; 
thus his productions so far as the paper is concerned were authen- 
tic, and proofs of fraud had to be sought in other directions. Tt was 
largely by means of the watermarks in the paper that Dr. Greg 
was able to show that three Shakspere quartos dated 1600 and two 
dated 1608 were actually printed in i6i9. 5 And when Messrs. Carter 
and Pollard 5 found that ten pamphlets dated between 1842 and 1858 
were printed on paper containing esparto, and thirteen pamphlets 
dated between 1842 and 1873 were printed on chemical wood paper, 
they had proof of misdating, since esparto paper was first used in 
England in 1862, and chemical wood paper was not used for books 
until after 1873.* 

It is true, of course, that the paper test cannot always be applied. 
We have seen in the Ireland case that the paper may be genuine 
when the work is not ; the converse is also true. Most of the manu- 
scripts of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are of the fifteenth or sixteenth 
century; none can be dated earlier than 1400. Thus, so far as the 
paper is concerned, the tales now ascribed to Chaucer are no better 
authenticated than those which have been rejected from the canon. 

The type with which a book is printed may furnish evidence bear- 
ing on the authenticity of a work. We may be able to determine when 
a particular font of type was designed and first cast; if a book 

5 Some fifty years ago, there began to appear, at one time and another, in the 
market, editions seventy or more of them of various works by Victorian authors; 
they were of interest to collectors because they were ostensibly earlier than the 
recognized first editions, and hence they commanded a good price, although they 
were not particularly rare. It was noticeable that they appeared in what philatelists 
call "mint" condition; moreover, none of them contained a signature or inscription, 
though it might have been expected that, if they were what they purported to be, 
many of them would have been used as presentation copies. The fraud was exposed 
by John Carter and Graham Pollard in An Enquiry into the Nature of Certain ipth 
Century Pamphlets. See also Roland Baughman, "Some Forged Victorian Rarities'*, 
Huntington Library Bulletin, IX (April, 1936), 91-117. 

146 An Introduction to Research 

printed with that type bears an earlier date, the date must be wrong. 
In studying the typography of the nineteenth-century pamphlets 
with which they were concerned, Messrs. Carter and Pollard picked 
out two letters in this instance / and ; which had distinctive char- 
acteristics ; thus they could determine almost at a glance whether or 
not a given book was printed with the font in question. 7 

Bibliographical evidence may be negative as well as positive. 
When one professes to be in possession of some lost or hitherto un- 
known document, and offers to the world a copy of the document, 
the world at once insists on seeing the original ; failure to produce 
the document is generally interpreted as inability to produce it, and 
the whole thing is likely to be dismissed as a fraud. When Macpher- 
son 6 published his English translation of ancient Scottish poetry, 
every one wanted to see the original manuscript. Macpherson refused 
to make his manuscript available for inspection ; and it was this 
refusal, more than anything else, that led to suspicions that the 
Works of Ossian were not what they purported to be. 


When the possibilities of bibliographical evidence have been ex- 
hausted, we may look to see what internal evidence of authorship or 
authenticity the work provides. A work may contain a statement 
by the author testifying to its genuineness. Such, for example, is 
Shakspere's reference 7 to Venus and Adonis as the "first heir of my 
invention"; and many like instances might be mentioned. In the 
absence of any suspicious circumstances that would lead one to 
doubt the author's words, such evidence is valid, it being assumed, 
of course, that the style, subject matter, and other characteristics 
are not incompatible with the alleged authorship. 

6 James Macpherson (17^6-1796) published in 1760 Fragments of Ancient Poetry 
Collected in the Highlands of Scotland. This was followed by Fingal (1761 ), Temora 
(1763), and a collected edition, The Works of Ossian (1765). Dr. Johnson and 
others were suspicious of the works and a controversy arose. The exact truth will 
perhaps never be known. It is now generally believed that Macpherson did have 
Gaelic, or Erse, originals upon which he built, but that much of his work represents 
creation rather than translation and is, to that extent, fraudulent. For a concise 
summary of the controversy, see Encyclopaedia Britannica, i4th ed., s.v. "Scottish 
Literature". 7 In the Dedicatory Epistle. 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 147 

A special form of claim has sometimes annoyed readers. When 
Defoe asserted that the Journal of the Plague Year was written 
"by a Citizen who continued all the while in London", the real author 
having been about six years old at the time of the plague, he doubt- 
less hoped that his pretense would promote the sale of the book ; and 
those who bought the Journal in the belief that it represented the 
first-hand observations of a mature observer, had some reason to 
complain against the author. Likewise, those who were led to be- 
lieve in Robinson Crusoe, and those who were deceived by Swift's 
elaborate devices for making Lemuel Gulliver convincing, may have 
had just cause for complaint. 8 But it is difficult to see how a modern 
reader, knowing the facts, can find such tricks anything but amusing. 9 

Literary style constitutes another kind of internal evidence, which 
may contribute to arguments about authenticity or authorship. The 
older scholars put great reliance too much, doubtless in their abil- 
ity to distinguish one man's style from that of another. Tyrwhitt, 
mainly on subjective grounds, had by 1778 rejected most of the 
non-Chaucerian pieces that had previously been accepted as genuine. 
But, as Professor Crane wrote: "The days of dogmatic attributions 
grounded merely on a general impression of manner or personality 
are happily long past." 8 Tyrwhitt's intuitiveness gave Chaucer schol- 
arship a good start ; but the Chaucer canon was not truly established 
until the more scientific efforts of Wright, Morris, Skeat, Lounsbury^ 
Furnivall, and other scholars had borne fruit. 

It is perhaps true that some individuals have such a keen aware- 
ness to rhythms that they could recognize a literary style as in- 
fallibly as the musician possessed of "absolute pitch" can recognize 
a tone. Unfortunately, that conviction can not be conveyed to other 
people ; and the student who, from the style of a work, makes up his 
mind as to its authorship, must seek other evidence if he wishes to 
make his argument convincing. 

It is true that there are some writers whose style is so distinctive 

8 The ancient mariner who is said to have insisted that he knew Captain Gulliver 
well was probably a publicity-seeker rather than a victim of deception. 

9 For a violent reaction against all such practices, see H. M. Paull, Literary Ethics, 
PP. 153-59- 

148 An Introduction to Research 

as to be almost unmistakable ; Professor Balderston argues convinc- 
ingly, mainly on the evidence of the style, that Dr. Johnson wrote the 
Dedication for Dr. Burney's History of Music and offers an expla- 
nation for the apparently deliberate concealment of Johnson's author- 
ship of the pieced Largely on the evidence of style and subject mat- 
ter certain book reviews in Dodsley's Annual Register have been 
attributed to Edmund Burke ; 10 another article assigns three con- 
tributions to the New York Mirror to Charles Dickens ; 11 and a 
third claims for Walt Whitman three letters printed in the National 
Era in 1850.^ 

Certain enthusiasts, having already proved by tests of style 
or something that Bacon wrote the works of Shakspere, decided to 
apply their tests to the works of other Elizabethans. To their infinite 
joy, they discovered that Bacon was also responsible for the works 
of Lyly, Greene, Marlowe, Nashe, Spenser, and almost any one else 
you care to mention. Most of us would interpret their findings as 
proof that their tests of authorship, if they were tests at all, were 
tests of something else. Professor Manly once said-^and he was an 
expert on cryptograms, ciphers, and all the other paraphernalia of 
which Baconians are so fond that by the same tests that were 
used to prove that Bacon wrote Shakspere, he could demonstrate that 
Bacon wrote the works of Chaucer. But there are tests that do throw 
light on authorship. 

Given sufficient material several thousand lines of poetry or as 
many pages of prose --known to have been written by one person, 
it would be possible to apply tests that would prove conclusively 
whether or not another piece of some length could have been written 
by the same author. 10 It would not be enough, however, to prove 
that the author in question could have written the piece; for com- 
plete proof it would be necessary to apply the same tests to the work 
of all his contemporaries who might have produced such a work, and 
thus prove that no one else could have written it. The necessity for 
such extensive testing brings up a paramount difficulty. There is a 
subjective element in tests of imagery, of rhythm, of inflection, which 
makes it doubtful that one investigator could well make use of the 
results achieved by another. Thus if Jones were working on an 

10 A system of tests to be applied to prose is explained in Edith Rickert's A Scien- 
tific Analysis of Prose Style (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927). 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 149 

analysis of the style of Dickens, and Smith were working on Thack- 
eray, Jones could use some of Smith's results counting the number 
of words in a sentence and of sentences to a paragraph, and so on 
but some of the tests Jones would have to apply to Thackeray, and 
not to Thackeray alone, but to George Eliot, and Kingsley, and 
Reade, and all the rest. 

Similarities in language between a doubtful work and the known 
works of an author may provide a basis for attribution. Inasmuch, 
however, as an author uses the language of his time, or of a literary 
tradition (such as Euphuism), or of a school (such as that of Spenser 
or of Donne) one must be careful not to mistake a common practice 
for an individual characteristic. Only when a form or construction, 
which is frequent in the works of our writer and in the suspected 
work, rarely or never appears in the works of his contemporaries, 
can we consider that we have any reliable evidence of authorship. 

Fraudulent works, however, are often betrayed by their language. 
Constructions and forms which would not have been used by the 
historical Phalaris or ^sop provided part of the evidence by means 
of which Dr. Bentley proved that the Epistles and the Fables are not 
what they purport to be. 13 And Thomas Chatterton's ll handling ot' 
Middle English was too crude to deceive any one who had even \ 
slight knowledge of fifteenth-century language or literature. 

Verse tests have been relied upon perhaps too heavily to deter- 
mine the share of each collaborator in those Elizabethan plays which 
are the work of more than one author. When the application of such 
tests shows a positive and striking result as when a pseudo-Chau- 
cerian piece contains frequent occurrences of a rhyme that appears 
nowhere in Chaucer's known works the test seems valid and is 

11 Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770), beginning at the age of twelve, wrote a great 
many imitations of fifteenth-century literature, most of which he pretended to be 
the work of one Thomas Rowley, an imaginary monk of the time of Edward IV. 
In addition to his pscudo -mediaeval works, he produced a great variety of other 
pieces, brilliantly written in a dozen different veins, which publishers were eager to 
accept but for which they were little inclined to pay. Facing starvation, the boy 
committed suicide three months before his eighteenth birthday. 

150 An Introduction to Research 

likely to be confirmed by other evidence. Other tests the number 
of feminine rhymes, the proportion of run-on lines, and so on are 
likely to provide less convincing results; 12 in using them it will be 
wise to keep in mind the possibility of "individual variation" in 
poetry as well as in prose. 

Professor Jones found that Massinger used of and to at the end 
of lines of verse, whereas his contemporaries pretty consistently 
avoided that practice.** But, as Professor Jones observes, "Alone, 
such evidence can never be convincing; with other metrical tests, 
qualities of style, ideas, and methods of phrasing, the data of the of 
and to test may be found useful as corroborative proof." 1S 

Peculiarities of an author's vocabulary may furnish a means of 
establishing an attribution. The presence of words found in the works 
of Tindale and not in those of his contemporaries, led to the sugges- 
tion that Tindale was responsible for the 1533 translation of the 
Enchiridion of Erasmus ; 16 and the frequent appearance of the word 
hath in An Apology for the Life of Airs. Shamela Andrews is a bit 
of evidence supporting the attribution of that work to Henry Field- 
ing. 17 

Striking similarities of phrase in a doubtful work and in the work 
of a possible author may offer a suggestion as to the authorship. 78 
Such evidence is usually combined with other signs of common 
origin ; by itself it has merely corroborative value, since it is as likely 
that one author borrowed from another the phrases that struck his 
fancy as it is that an author repeated himself. 

Peculiarities in spelling when there is reason to think that they 
represent an idiosyncrasy of the author rather than the vagary of 
a compositor may provide evidence for attribution. The suggestion 
that Munday rather than Spenser was the translator of the Axiochus 
was based partly upon spellings thought to be peculiar to Munday. 19 
The ascription of the anonymous life of Milton to John Philips, based 
in part upon the spelling of their as thir, is objected to on various 
grounds, the spelling being considered not conclusive.* 

12 In such details an author will change as he iratures. 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 151 

Chatterton's spelling was one of the things that gave him away. 
The orthography of the alleged Rowley is no more characteristic of 
the fifteenth century than that of Orm is like that of the period 
circa 1200. 

Similarities in technique may point to identity of authorship. The 
use of conceits or of an unusual type of sonnet, a peculiar construc- 
tion in drama, or a special method of characterization or of plot 
development in a novel or short story any of these or other technical 
devices may help to provide evidence for the attribution of a work. 
To Godwin, hermit of Kilburn assuming that he was the author oi 
the Ancren Riwle certain sermons have been attributed because 
of parallels in technique between them and parts of the Ancren 
Riwle. 21 Technique in plot structure as a test of authorship is dis- 
cussed in an article on George Peele. 2 * A similarity between the 
organization of the poem To the Memory of Mr. Congreve and that 
of four memorial poems written by James Thomson, leads to the 
suggestion that Thomson is the author of the Congreve poem. 23 

Literary technique might provide evidence for tests of authen- 
ticity. We have a pretty good idea of the date at which various 
literary devices were introduced into English literature. A work in 
which some device appears a hundred years or so before it is found 
in other works would certainly be open to suspicion. We should look 
iskance upon a five-act mystery play, or a Petrarchan sonnet dated 

An article supporting the theory that Spenser wrote the glosses 
signed "E. K." makes a point of the similarity between the ideas 
of "E. K." and those expressed by Spenser in the Shephearde's 
Calender and elsewhere. 24 Identity or similarity of thinking must 
not be counted upon too heavily, however, as evidence of authorship. 
It is as easy to borrow ideas as phrases. Indeed, friends may be more 
alike in the way they think than in the way they express themselves. 

* * * 
What has just been said of specific ideas is true of subject matter 

152 An Introduction to Research 

in general. The fact that Mamillia deals with much the same 
material as that of Euphues, and deals with it in much the same way 
does not prove that Lyly wrote both pamphlets or that Greene wrote 
both of them. But, in view of Greene's habit of using the same kind 
of material in more than one work (as in his prodigal son pamphlets), 
the fact that the subject matter of the Defence of Canny-Catching 
is much like that of the other conny-catching works is one reason, 
though not the only one, for thinking that Greene wrote the Defence, 
despite its purporting to be an attack upon him. 

A fraudulent work may be betrayed by discrepancies in its subject 
matter. If we turned up an alleged mediaeval romance and found 
that its histories persona? included Roland, Oliver, and Ganelon 
along with Arthur, Lancelot, Gawain, Guinevere, and other dwellers 
in Camelot, we might well be suspicious of it. A somewhat similar 
confusion in Macpherson's Ossianic poetry was partly responsible for 
the doubts that arose concerning its genuineness/' 1 

We come now to textual evidence as a basis for determining ques- 
tions of authenticity or attribution. Professor Cargill, before offering 
William Rokayle as a candidate for the authorship of Piers Plowman, 
explains away by means of textual evidence the passage in which the 
poet apparently gives his name as William Langland/' ; Textual evi- 
dence provides the basis for the attribution to Bannatyne rather than 
to Lindsay of certain changes made in the Satire of the Three Es- 
tates.- 7 The theory that the actor who played the part of Marcellus 
contributed to the pirating of the First Quarto of Hamlet rests 
largely upon textual evidence,* 8 as does Professor Moore's theory 
that the songs in Lyly's plays were not in the early quartos from 
which the later printed editions were taken, and hence were probably 
not by Lyly. 29 

Textual evidence may also furnish proof of fraud. If there should 
appear a copy dated 1587, say of the lost Ur- Hamlet, 13 and we 

13 Ur-Hamlet* a play no longer extant, of the existence of which there is con- 
siderable evidence. It was apparently a pre-Shaksperean version of the Hamlet story 
and is generally thought to have been the work of Thomas Kyd. The German prefix 
ur- means "that which commences". 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 153 

should find in it a number of readings which appear in the 1623 
Folio version of Shakspere's Hamlet but in neither the 1603 nor the 
1604 Quarto, we should need a great deal of other evidence to quell 
our suspicions concerning the "discovery". Similar evidence was help- 
ful to Messrs. Carter and Pollard in some of the nineteenth-century 
pamphlets they studied. A Ruskin work dated 1852 omits the foot- 
notes written by Ruskin for the publication of the essay in 1852 but 
contains an emendation made in the edition of 1880 and hence must 
have been printed after the latter date ; '" a poem by Tennyson, 
ostensibly printed in 1862, actually follows the text of the Collected 
Works of 1889, and could not have been printed until after that 

The date of a work if it can be established may throw light 
on its authenticity or its authorship. If a work was written before 
1 200, it may have been written by some one who died in 1199; but 
if chronology demands a later date of composition, then the attribu- 
tion becomes an obviously impossible one. A case was made out for 
Gilbert Pilkington as the "Wakefield Master' 1 ; 14 it depended partly 
upon the identification of Gilbert as the author of the Northern 
Passion: 12 An objection to the theory insists that the date of the 
Northern Passion (early fourteenth century) makes it impossible 
that the same person could have written both the Northern Passion 
and the Second Shepherds' Play. 33 

The date of composition also enters into the problem of the 
authorship of the Owl and the Nightingale-, by presuming a date 
earlier than 1189, one may argue for one Master Nicholas, who 
signed as witness to a charter of 1141-71, as the author/'* But there 
are objections to so early a date. 17 ' 

The significance of the date in matters of authenticity is, of course, 
obvious. If a deed is written on paper manufactured in 1620, it can- 
not have been signed by Shakspere, no matter who witnessed the 
document, and no matter what the handwriting experts say as to the 

14 The "Wakeficld Master": the unknown author who put into their present form 
the plays of the Wakefield or Townelcy cycle. 

15 See below, p. 201. 

154 An Introduction to Research 

genuineness of the signature. If a volume of poems dated 1865 con- 
tains a poem that was not written until 1870, the book is evidently 
misdated and is, to that extent at least, a fraud. 10 

If one is basing an argument concerning authenticity or attribu- 
tion on internal evidence, it is, as may well be imagined, an advan- 
tage to be able to combine different kinds of evidence. Thus the 
ascription of a passage in the Christ is strengthened by the fact that, 
in addition to parallel passages, there are similarities in themes and 
in meter to other works of Cynewulf.* 5 Professor Brown, because of 
Chaucerian rhymes, phrases, and spirit, thinks that An Holy Medi- 
tacioun is the Wrecked Engendring mentioned in the Prologue to the 
Legend of Good Women. 36 On the strength of various similarities- 
moral earnestness, abhorrence of licentiousness, knowledge of the 
Vulgate, condemnation of the same sins, and parallel examples drawn 
from the Bible between the two poems, The Pearl has been ascribed 
to the author of John of Bridlington. 37 

On the basis of parallel passages and similarities in ideas and 
technique, two plays, The Trial of Chivalry and Look About You, 
have been claimed for Henry Chettle; 38 but the similarities to 
Chettle's known works are not convincing. 59 To take a single ex- 
ample: a point is made of the similarity of the Clown in The Trial 
of Chivalry to the clowns in Chettle's Hoffman, but the characteristic 
mentioned would apply equally well to Dogberry in Much Ado about 

Because of their phraseology, themes, and technique, Professor 
Dunkel has argued for the ascription to Middleton of Anything for 
a Quiet Life/' The Puritan,'* 1 and The Revenger's Tragedy, Jf2 Pro- 
fessor Dunkel would also give to Middleton rather than to Rowley 
the chief share in the authorship of A Fair Quarrel, The Changeling, 
and The Spanish Gipsy. ff3 

Professor Day, on similar evidence, attributes Hey for Honesty 
largely to Thomas Randolph, and explains the presence of allusions 
to events that occurred after Randolph's death as due to a collabo- 
rator/'* A controversy arose over another ascription to Randolph. 

10 A book which is, and purports only to be, a facsimile reprint, should, and 
generally does, have that fact made plainly evident. 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 155 

Professor Day suggested that Randolph wrote The Drinking Acad- 
emy,* 5 and Professor Moore Smith accepted the attribution and 
added more evidences of Randolph's authorship.* 6 But after an edition 
of The Drinking Academy was published, bearing Randolph's name 
as author/' 7 Professor Moore Smith changed his mind and suggested 
Robert Baron as a more likely person to have written the work.* 8 
Professor Rollins carried on the discussion, championing Randolph 
and arguing that one so lacking in a sense of humor as Baron was, 
could never have written a work so humorous as The Drinking 
Academy. 1 * 9 

A combination of bits of internal evidence led Professor Ham to 
suggest that the Dedication to The Music of the Prophetessc, though 
signed by Purcell, was actually written by Dryden. 50 Various simi- 
larities to Falkland, Pclham, and other of Bulwer s works, make it 
seem likely that Bulwer was also the author of Mephistophiles in 
England/' 1 In the article making that ascription there is, however, 
a statement that should be challenged. In connection with the fact 
that Mephistophiles in England was attributed to Robert Folkstone 
Williams, a professor of history and author of a Historical Sketch 
of the Art of Sculpture in Wood, Professor Bangs wrote: "Two 
works of so great contrast, even in the titles, could not have been 
written by the same author." 5 * If this statement were true, it would 
imply that Charles Lutwidge Dodgson could not have written An 
Elementary Treatise on Determinants or Curiosa Mathematica and 
Mice in Wonderland, and that Stephen Leacock cannot be the author 
of both The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice and Behind the Be- 


We may now consider the third kind of evidence to be used in 
problems of authenticity or attribution external evidence. Some- 
times historical or biographical circumstances will provide significant 
data. To take an extreme case, if we knew that a Latin work was 
written in a certain village at a certain time, the fact that only one 
person living in the village at that time knew Latin, would be prima 
facie evidence of his authorship of the work. On the other hand, if 
a work displaying an intimate familiarity with Oxford or Paris pur- 
ports to have been written by one who was never in Oxford or Paris, 

156 An Introduction to Research 

we may rightly suspect the attribution, though we must consider 
whether the knowledge revealed could have been gained in some way 
other than by direct experience. 

If too many works are ascribed to one month or one year of a 
writer's life, we may suspect either that he is not the author of all 
of them, or that he did part of the work at some other time. Thus 
it seems to me unlikely that Robert Greene wrote three -or even 
two moderately long pamphlets during the last days or weeks of his 
life, especially since during some part of that time he must have 
been too ill to write. 

The theory that made Gilbert Pilkington the "Wakefield Master" 
depended partly upon his being a native of Lancashire and also the 
author of the Turnament of Totenham ; to show that the author of 
the Turnament was not a resident of Lancashire would destroy the 
validity of that line of argument.- 7 -' 

The fact that Shakspere and the composer Alorley were for a time 
neighbors in St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, helps to support the suggestion 
that the songs in As You Like It were the result of* a collaboration 
in which Shakspere supplied the words and Morley the tunes/' 1 Be- 
cause a ballad was issued from a certain address, it has been thought 
that the printing must have occurred more than twenty years before 
the ballad appeared in Congreve's Love for Love, and that the ballad, 
consequently, was not written by the playwright; the discovery that 
other books were issued by the same publisher from the old address 
after 1695 seems to invalidate this argument. 1 ' 7 An event in the life 
of Richard Steele provides the basis for the attribution to him of the 
Prologue and Epilogue to Nicholas Rowe's Tamerlane. Similarly, 
biographical circumstances suggest the attribution of certain sonnets 
to William Michael Rossetti rather than to his brother Dante 
Gabriel/ 77 and of Adventures of Alonso to Thomas Digges/ 78 

A second kind of external evidence is a statement by an author in 
one work that he is also the author of another work. Twice in the 
Prologue to The Legend of Good Women and at the end of the 
Parson's Tale Chaucer gives us a list of his writings; neither list 
is necessarily complete, but for the works mentioned we have 
Chaucer's own testimony that he is the author. We must be sure, 
of course, that the "book of Troilus" named in the Parson's Tale 

Methods of Research: Authenticitij and Attribution 157 

is the Troilus and Criseyde printed under Chaucer's name; but in 
most instances the identification is unquestioned. Tn some cases the 
writer's statement may take the form of asserting or confessing that 
he is the author of a work attributed to someone else. William Combe 
is cited as having admitted that he perpetrated certain letters osten- 
sibly written by Laurence Sterne. >7 " 

Sometimes the author's claim may be implicit rather than direct. 
When Professor Crane found that the fourth of a series of four essays 
by "The Indigent Philosopher", which had appeared in Lloyd's 
Evening Post in 1762, was selected by Goldsmith himself to be in- 
cluded in the 1765 collection, Essays by Air. Goldsmith, he was en- 
titled to assume that Goldsmith, by claiming the authorship of one 
of the essays, was in effect claiming all four. 6 " 

The form of external evidence most frequently used in matters of 
authenticity or attribution is a statement by John Doe that the work 
in question is indeed the work of Richard Roe. I have elsewhere 
pointed out 17 the danger of accepting such statements blindly, as 
they have too often been accepted in the past. It is not enough to 
know -if it can be known that John Doe was telling the truth as 
he understood it ; it is equally important to prove that John Doe 
was in a position to know the truth. The attribution to John Halsam 
of a poem used by Lydgate, on the strength of a statement by the 
scribe, John Shirley, 6 '' is made probable by the fact that similar 
statements made by Shirley have been confirmed by other evidence. 62 

An inscription on the title page of a copy of George a Greene, 
the Pinner of Wake field 1H was accepted by Grosart as proof of Rob- 
ert Greene's authorship of the play ; 6tJ a second inscription on the 
same page 1{) was interpreted as evidence that Greene was at some 
time a clergyman.- Jt may be that Greene was the author of George 

17 See above, pp. 131-^3. 

18 "Ed. Juby faith that y" play was made by Ro. GrceFne]"; there is a facsimile 
reproduction in Greene, Work*, ed. Grosart, XIV, [117]. 

19 "Written by a minifter, who acClcd] the piiiers p* in it himfelf. 

Tefte W. ShakefpeafreJ." 

20 Grosart found confirmation for his belief in a reference in Marline Mar-Sixtus 
to "every red-nosed minister", apparently alluding to Greene; but Grosart misread 
the line, since the word is not "minister" but "rimester" [A3 V ], See Nashe, Works, 
cd. McKerrow, IV, 8. 

158 An Introduction to Research 

a Greene ; 6 * but the attribution cannot be accepted on the strength 
of the inscriptions. As Professor Gayley pointed out : 

... it must be remembered that both inscriptions are hearsay; that 
both notes are anonymous; that one or both may be fraudulent; 21 that 
there is no certain proof that they were written by contemporaries; and 
finally that, unless their contents are shown to be accurate as well as 
authentic, and to refer to the same author, they do not connect any 
Robert Greene with the ministry. 65 

The story that Swift acknowledged the authorship of A Tale of a 
Tub by remarking, as he was glancing at a copy of the book, "Good 
God ! What a genius I had when I wrote that book ! " has been re- 
garded as probably apocryphal. The discovery of an extract from a 
letter written by the author's young kinsman, Deane Swift, telling 
the story in substantially the traditional version, provides new evi- 
dence. Deane Swift, as the son-in-law of Mrs. Whiteway, Swift's 
cousin and companion, was in a position to know what he was talk- 
ing about. And as he tells the story on the authority of Mrs. White- 
way, who heard Swift's ejaculation, we have better reason than ever 
before for believing the story to be true. 66 

Another attribution to Swift has to do with The Day of Judgment. 
Lord Chesterfield, in a letter to Voltaire, refers to a poem by Swift 
called The Day of Judgment as being in his possession. In a letter 
to the Bishop of Waterford the Earl paraphrases a line of the poem 
as it was later printed, thus, apparently, indicating that the poem in 
his possession was essentially the same as that which later got into 
print. 67 

The authors of literary articles that appeared in the Quarterly 
Review between 1826 and 1853 are identified in two articles, in one 
on the strength of statements in the publisher's "Contributors' 
Book", 68 in the other by evidence contained in letters by Lockhart, 
the editor. 69 


A statement by the author and a statement by some one else are 
combined in an effort to prove that Hogg, rather than Shelley, wrote 

21 See W. W. Greg, "Three Manuscript Notes by Sir George Buc", The Library, 
4th Series, XII (1931-32), 307-21; S. A. Tannenbaum, Shaksperian Scraps and 
Other Elizabethan Fragments (New York: Columbia University Press, 1933) ; and 
R. C. Bald, "The Locrine and George-a-Greene Title-Page Inscriptions", The 
Library, 4th Series, XV (1934-35), 295-30?. 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 159 

the first draft of The Necessity of Atheism, and hence is primarily 
responsible for the piece. Hogg, in a letter to Shelley, refers to his 
own "systematic cudgel for Christianity"; and Shelley writes to 
Hogg of "your little Essay". 70 The case would be strengthened if 
there were some positive evidence, as there is in the article on The 
Day oj Judgment just mentioned, to link these allusions with The 
Necessity oj Atheism. 

An attack on De Quincey is attributed to Dr. William Maginn 
largely on the strength of allusions in De Quincey's own writings and 
references by Carlyle and others. 71 

In connection with a review of Jane Austen's Emma, which has 
long been attributed to Scott, an interesting problem arose. Some 
allusions in a later review, known to have been written by Whately, 
to the earlier, gave rise to the suggestion that Whately was the author 
of both. 72 There is a record of payment to Scott, however, apparently 
for the Emma review. 75 Since the records concerned are somewhat 
informal and not too clear, that evidence was not wholly convinc- 
ing. 7 * Fortunately, other evidence was forthcoming. A reviewer said 
in 1835, n what was apparently good authority, that Scott wrote the 
review of Emma. Correspondence between Scott and Murray, the 
publisher, indicates that Murray suggested that Scott write such a 
review and that Scott did so and sent the review to Murray. Allu- 
sions in Whately 's review which make it appear that the same person 
wrote it and the Emma article are explained as being due to Gifford, 
who seems to have wielded the editorial hand extensively in both 
articles. Whately himself says that Scott wrote the earlier review. 75 

Many studies involving authenticity or attribution will combine 
internal and external evidence. A comparison of the manuscript and 
published versions of Sidney's Arcadia, in conjunction with the 
Countess of Pembroke's expressed attitude toward her brother's 
writings, throws light on the nature and extent of the Countess's 
alterations in the work. 76 Another combination of internal and ex- 
ternal evidence provides material for an article on The Life and 
Death of Hector] in this instance doubt is thrown on Heywood's 
authorship by the fact that nowhere in his other works does Hey T 
wood refer to The Life and Death of Hector, though such allusions 
were his common practice. 77 In similar fashion, internal and external 

160 An introduction to Research 

evidence are both employed to demonstrate that Arbuthnot rather 
than Swift was the author of The History of John Bull. 78 

Internal and external evidence are also combined in the attribution 
of certain essays that appeared in the Pennsylvania Journal; and 
the Weekly Advertiser in 1768 to John Dickinson 79 and in the iden- 
tification of Thomas Green Fessenden as the American Mun- 
chausen. 80 

Let us consider now how one is to set about conducting an in- 
vestigation into a matter of authenticity or attribution. First of all 
comes the collecting of every possible bit of evidence. Even if one 
is privately convinced that Smith is or is not the author, or that the 
work is or is not what it purports to be (and such convictions, 
unscholarly though they are, cannot always be shaken off), he must 
be as careful to collect evidence against his theory as for it. Tt may 
go against the grain to be very assiduous in searching for ammunition 
to destroy one's own case ; but it must be remembered that the over- 
looking of a single detail may be fatal to one's whole argument. 
Moreover, it is the business of the scholar to seek the truth, and the 
satisfaction of having found it should be ample recompense for hav- 
ing to give up a cherished but untenable theory. 

Having collected the data, one should study it to find which is the 
stronger side of the case. Let us suppose that the weight of the 
evidence indicates that Smith is not the author, or that the work is 
not genuine. One should then set forth, in some logical fashion, all 
the evidence supporting the attribution to Smith, or the authenticity 
of the work. Each bit of this evidence must then be explained away, 
so that the ground is cleared for the presentation of evidence on the 
other side. If there is some one bit of strikingly conclusive evidence, 
it may be a good idea to offer that first ; the weaker points may have 
a greater confirmatory effect if a prima jade case has already been 
established. In some instances, however, it may be more effective to 
build to a climax, starting with the lighter ammunition and reserving 
the heaviest fire for the end. 87 

The investigator who can find, as Messrs. Carter and Pollard did, 
evidence that is absolutely convincing, is fortunate indeed. More 
often one has to do what he can with insufficient data, like a person 

Methods of Research: Authenticity and Attribution 161 

trying to make bricks without straw. In such circumstances it is 
almost possible to sympathize with John Payne Collier in his des- 
perate attempt to manufacture the evidence that he lacked. But the 
true scholar will do the best he can with what evidence he has, and 
hope that later discoveries, or the reworking of old material in a new 
light, will at last reveal the truth. 



FOR a number of years source study has been in bad repute among 
scholars. Many pages have been devoted, especially by German 
writers, to the pointing out of sources which, in many instances, are 
not sources and, in some instances, are not even parallels. Hence 
any study based upon "parallel passages" came to be looked upon 
askance. Nevertheless, source study is important and, rightly carried 
out, may be extremely valuable. It should not be confined to the dis- 
covering of such plagiarisms, conscious or unconscious, as are to be 
seen in parallel passages ; but rather it should involve the analyzing 
of a piece of literature with a view to discovering whence came the 
inspiration, the material, and the technique whereby the work came 
into being. 

It is, of course, important that plagiarisms should be pointed out 
wherever they may be found, though at the same time it must be 
remembered that the attitude of writers and of the reading public 
toward such borrowings has not always been what it is now. The 
stealing of Harington's epigrams l or of Purcell's songs 2 was un- 
doubtedly looked upon as less reprehensible in the seventeenth cen- 

1 Franklin B. Williams, Jr. ("Henry Parrot's Stolen Feathers", PMLA, LII 
(1937), 1019-30) shows that Parrot "borrowed" epigrams from Sir John Harington 
and others. 

2 Roy Lamson, Jr. ("Henry Purcell's Dramatic Songs and the English Broadside 
Ballad", PMLA, LUI (1938), 146-61) points out that Purcell's songs were used by 
writers of ballads, who sometimes expanded the original song by adding new stanzas 
or used the tune as a setting for a new ditty, sometimes by way of answer to the 
words of the original song. 

[ 162 ] 

Methods of Research: Source Study 163 

tury than we should now regard it, but the fact that such thefts 
occurred is a matter to be taken into consideration by all students 
of the period. 

The discovery of plagiarism is important to keep us from bestow- 
ing admiration upon one author for something that properly belongs 
to another. We should not, for example, give credit to Goldsmith or 
to Isaac Disraeli for ideas that originally appeared in James Ralph's 
The Case of Authors by Profession, 1 or to Thomas Warton for what 
was taken from Isaac Reed.* 

Even when plagiarisms are not particularly reprehensible, the fact 
that they occur may throw considerable light upon the person who 
is responsible for them. Perhaps Robert Greene had a perfect right 
to repeat, in a later work, passages sometimes pages in length 
which he had already used in an earlier work,* provided, of course, 
that his readers and his publishers had no objection. But the fact 
that he did so suggests either that he had a notebook in which he 
jotted down material for future use and did not always cross off 
passages as he used them, so that he would not repeat himself, or 
else that he deliberately copied out passages from works already in 
print to save himself the trouble of working up new material. In the 
one case he was certainly careless; and in the other, inexcusably 

Light may be thrown upon an author's erudition or lack of it 
by a knowledge of his borrowings. The euphuistic details that seem 
a bit surprising when we encounter them in the novels of Thomas 
Deloney, the ballad-writing silk-weaver, become less anomalous when 
we learn that they were derived, not from Plutarch, Cornelius Nepos, 
and Pliny, but mainly from a single book, Fortescue's The Forest.* 

Other borrowings, whether of the nature of plagiarisms or not, 
may reveal something of the working methods of an author. It has 
been suggested, 6 for example, that the close parallelism between the 
earlier sonnets in Sidney's Astrophel and Stella and Greville's Cadica 
points to consultation between the two authors and an agreement 
to write upon the same themes perhaps in a spirit of friendly com- 
petition rather than to imitation or plagiarism on the part of either 
poet. If that suggestion represents what happened, we have learned 

164 An Introduction to Research 

something about the literary practices of Sidney and Greville which 
we are not likely to have discovered in any other way. 

Another detail of literary practice comes to light in connection 
with Milton's De Doctrina Christiana ; it is suggested, 7 because of 
parallel passages, that Milton was indebted to Wolleb's Compendium 
Theologm Christiana. Then this comment is made : 

The comparison, moreover, would seem to throw some light on the 
manner in which Milton wrote his treatise. The appearance of two close 
parallels in widely separated portions of Book I of the DC Doctrina from 
two equally separated places in the Compendium suggests notes in a 
commonplace book. The continued similarity of Book II seems to 
indicate elaborate notes or constant consultation of the Compendium 
while this portion of the De Doctrina was being written. * 

From a study of the sources of The Rivals another interesting fact 
crops out : 

The value of ferreting out these heretofore unnoticed sources is that 
they focus attention on Sheridan's relations to his contemporaries. . . . 
Sheridan adopted the broad outline of the main plot for The Rivals from 
Garrick, and that of his sub-plot from Colman. To one familiar with 
Sheridan's habits of composition, it is significant that he appropriated 
most from Garrick, the more celebrated of the two managers. . . . Gar- 
rick and Colman were not only skilled producers, but were also favorite 
playwrights. They knew from experience what popular taste demanded 
of the stage. It is futile, therefore, to ransack Shakespeare or the Restora- 
tion Dramatists for sources of The Rivals. The more natural approach 
to a study of Sheridan's plays would be to take first into account his 
indebtedness to those of his contemporaries who were playwrights as well 
as managers. Garrick and Colman sensed the type of character and situa- 
tion which were relished by the diverse, and sometimes contradictory, 
interests of their audiences; they were also in a position to reject or stage 
the offerings of a young dramatist struggling for recognition^ 


But it is not in the discovery of plagiarisms and obvious borrow- 
ings that the chief value of source study lies. We must learn and 
then study the sources of a Chaucer '* or a Shakspere in order to ap- 

3 A most valuable work is Sources and Analogues of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, 
ed. W. F. Bryan and Germaine Dempster (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 
1940), which supplants Originals and Analogues of Some of Chaucer's Canterbury 
Tales (London: Chaucer Society, 1872-88). 

Methods of Research: Source Study 165 

predate the nature and extent of his originality. If we did not know 
the source of Troilus and Criseyde, we should in one sense, give 
Chaucer more credit than he deserves ; for we should attribute to 
him all that was his own plus that which was the contribution of 
others. But in another sense we should be doing him less than jus- 
tice ; for we should be unaware of the peculiar genius that enabled 
him to take a story (which was ready at hand for anybody to use) 
and, recognizing its possibilities, to develop them and thus to create 
a unique masterpiece. Or if we read Antony and Cleopatra, knowing 
nothing of Sir Thomas North's translation of Plutarch's Lives, we 
should not be aware that Shakspere sometimes takes North's very 
words and turns them into magnificent poetry ; 4 thus we should never 
recognize in Shakspere that power which was one of his special gifts. 
Let some writers make the plots or invent the techniques, and let 
them have full credit for their imagination and their ingenuity ; then 
let us give to the later writers who used those plots or those tech- 
niques, credit only for what they contributed, but full credit for that. 
It should be pointed out here, perhaps, that source study may 
sometimes have the effect of establishing originality where it was not 
expected. William Dunbar has long been classed among the Scottish 
imitators of Chaucer ; but a study of Dunbar concludes that : 

1. The Scottish poet was an original genius who showed a marked 
independence of predecessors in all his work. . . . 

2. The vast majority of those poems by Dunbar which lack originality 
are strongly influenced, if not dominated, by non-Chaucerian elements 
in the work of Lydgate. 1 * 

We have been looking upon source study as necessary in deter- 
mining the extent of an author's originality; but it is no less impor- 
tant, to view the matter from another angle, to study the sources of 
the literature of a given period in order to discover what that period 
inherited from the past. Thus Professor Loomis traces Gawain and 
the Greene Knight, the Carl of Carlisle, and certain episodes in other 
romances to Irish traditions of the eighth century. 7 ' Similarly, the 
sleep-walking scene in Macbeth is thought to be derived from an oral 
tradition going back at least as far as the Gesta Romanorum, 1 * and 

4 As in the famous passage describing the meeting of Antony and Cleopatra (Act 
II, scene ii). 

166 An Introduction to Research 

the appearance of a ghost at a feast is a device as old as the Old 
Testament. 5 It may be shown, too, that however much Smollett 
drew upon the events of his life as material for his stories, his novels 
would not have been what they are if the author had not been 
familiar with Elizabethan drama.'* 

Source study is also important in that it may serve to reveal some 
obscure writer who acted as the inspirer of a greater writer. Our 
purpose in such studies should not be to drag anyone from the depths 
of a well-deserved obscurity, but rather to give credit where credit is 
due and, more than that, to seek to discover how the perhaps com- 
monplace ideas and pedestrian language of a John Doe or a Richard 
Roe are transformed into the glorious drama of a Shakspere or the 
magnificent poetry of a Milton. 1 * 

Still another value of source study is to be found in the light it 
may throw upon an author's purpose or upon the real meaning and 
significance of a work. Robert Greene's pamphlets about conny- 
catchers swindlers have generally been taken for documents of 
real sociological import. Greene's words have been taken at their face 
value, and it has been assumed that he betrayed the secrets that had 
come to him through his intimate knowledge of the underworld in 
order to put the provincial visitor on his guard and to arouse Lon- 
doners against the criminals in their midst. If it should be discovered 
that Greene's stories were taken from literary sources and the Sta- 
tioners' Register contains titles of many works not now extant that 
might have provided such material then it might be concluded that 
Greene had no more knowledge of crime and vice than any of his 
fellow-writers; and the conny-catching pamphlets would lose their 
sociological significance. We should then know what now can only be 
suspected that Greene's object was entertainment rather than social 
reform. After the source of Defoe's The Apparition of Mrs. Veal 

5 This is not, of rourse, to say that Shakspere got the idea for Banquo's ghost 
from the story of Belshazzar ; that kind of post hoc, ergo propter hoc reasoning has 
been one of the banes of source study. The point is to show that Shakspere need not 
have invented hence probably did not invent a device so old and so familiar. 

Methods of Research: Source Study 167 

was discovered, the work could no longer be held the great display 
of creative imagination that it had been considered; but it looms 
just as large as an extraordinarily fine piece of reporting of fact, or 
alleged fact. 

An author's purpose may affect his treatment of a source. Herman 
Melville deliberately altered material that he took from Life in a 
Man-oj-War in order to strengthen his attacks on objectionable 
practices in the United States Navy in White-Jacket. 15 


Professor Morize rightly calls attention 76 to certain dangers that 
confront anyone who undertakes the study of sources. These are, 
first, the danger of assuming that for every passage in a work there 
is a specific, identifiable source ; second, that of succumbing to the 
"hypnotism of the unique source"; third, that of mistaking a mere 
resemblance for a direct dependence; and fourth, that of thinking 
that for every work or for every passage in a work there must be 
a written source. 

Of course, in one sense, every line and every word of a piece of 
literature has its source somewhere in the author's experience, 
whether it be in his reading, in his conversation with other people, 
in his emotional reactions, in some other element of living, or in some 
combination of these things. But that source is, in many instances, 
so complex or so obscured by the author's treatment of it, that no 
method of research now available however diligently or brilliantly 
applied will serve to bring it to light. Coleridge furnishes a case 
in point. Professor Lowes succeeded in tracing, with satisfaction to 
himself and conviction to most, if not quite all, of his readers, the 
sources of the Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan ; /7 but 
he confessed 18 that the problem presented by Christabel seemed in- 

Another situation which proves baffling to the student of sources 
is that in which a work is traced to a source now lost or at least 

A solution to the Christabel problem was offered by Arthur H. Nethercot in 
The Road to Tryermaine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, [1939]). See also 
Nathan Comfort Starr, "Coleridge's 'Sir Leoline' ", PMLA, LXI (1946), 157-62. 

168 An Introduction to Research 

unstudied. It has been suggested 19 that a lost play, which "was based 
principally on Hall and revised from Holinshed, was the source of 
both Folio and Quarto texts" * of Shakspere's Henry VI. It can be 
shown that Chaucer's Melibeus in some instances follows Lc Mena- 
gler de Paris and in others MS 1165 in the Bibliotheque Nationale ; 2/ 
hence it appears that neither of these versions represents Chaucer's 
real source. The version that Chaucer followed may be no longer 
extant, or it may be one of several manuscript versions not yet 
studied in relation to Chaucer. 

The second of Professor Morize's four dangers besets everyone 
who specializes to any considerable extent in the work of a single 
author. The student of Gower, Greene, Gay, Gray, or Galsworthy 
is likely to see the influence of his hero in the work of any or all 
later writers. Professor Kaye told me that at one time- -some ten 
years before he published his edition of Bernard Mandeville's Fable 
of the Bees he could see, or thought he could see, Mandeville's 
influence cropping out here, there, and everywhere in the writings 
of Mandeville's successors. But, as he broadened his knowledge of 
the field, he discovered that there were sources other than Mandeville 
for most of the ideas and expressions in question. 

It is the failure to avoid the third danger that of arguing from 
a resemblance to a dependence that makes many articles based on 
parallel passages unconvincing. In a discussion 2 * of Marlowe's 
translation of Ovid's Amores as a source of Hero and Leandcr t nine 
parallels are mentioned. One of these 

"Beautie alone is lost, too warily kept." 

(Hero and Leandcr, I, 328) 

"Unmeete is beauty without use to wither." 
(Elegies, II, 3, p. 33) 

is a parallel only in idea, and the idea is admittedly a commonplace. 
Of the four others quoted not so large a number, surely, as to bar 
out accident or coincidence many people would say, on first thought, 
at least, that there is a resemblance, but no clear evidence of de- 

Methods of Research: Source Study 169 

pendence. We should have to know how often and in what other 
contexts Marlowe used the words "spotless", "youth", "naked", 
"simplicity", and "truth" in order to feel confident that 

"My words shall be as spotlesse as my youth, 
Full of simplicitie and naked truth." 

(Hero and Leander, I, 207-8) 

was necessarily derived from 

"Accept him that wil serue thee all his youth, 
Accept him that will loue with spotlesse truth .... 
My spotless life, which but to God gives place, 
Naked simplicitie and modest grace." 

(Elegies, I, 3, p. 4) 

Nor are the other parallels quoted much more convincing. This is 
not to say that the author of the article is wrong in his assumption 
that Marlowe borrowed from his translation of the Amores when he 
was writing Hero and Leandcr ; such a conclusion may very well fit 
the facts in the case, but it cannot be convincingly demonstrated by 
the resemblances cited. 

Another article involving Marlowe * A attempts to date a group of 
Elizabethan plays by showing, through parallel passages, which play 
is indebted to which ; but a reply ** to that article clearly shows the 
impossibility in many instances of determining whether Marlowe 
was the borrower or the "borrowee". 

Professor Fred L. Jones claimed The Trial of Chivalry for Henry 
Chettle on the strength of forty-one passages which were cited w, 
being parallels of passages in one or more of Chettle's works.' 5 Oi" 
this claim Mr. Harold Jenkins wrote: 

The attempt is one of the most flagrant examples of the futility of judg- 
ing by so-called "parallels" of phrase. Not only are parallels drawn 
extensively with plays of which Chettle is not known to have been sole 
author and with Look About You, a play outside the accepted canon, but 
the parallels themselves are of the most ordinary kind. Sometimes the 
resemblance goes no farther than the general idea; in other instances 
similar phraseology is used in totally different connections. Mr. Jones 
appears to find special significance in single words like "shallow- wit ted" 
or "underlings"; in such ordinary phrases as "close his eyes" or "swell- 
ing floods"; in such well-worn notions as those expressed by the meta- 

170 An Introduction to Research 

phors "to dim the lustre" and "to nip in the bud". He is especially con- 
vinced of Chettle's authorship by references to Tarquin, Tereus, and 
Philomel, as if those mythological figures were not among the stock-in- 
trade of rhetoric throughout the whole Elizabethan period. ... An 
accumulation of forty-one parallels of no greater consequence than these 
can prove nothing. . . . 7 

If one were to judge by the occurrence or non-occurrence of parallel- 
isms of thought or phrase, one might safely take the feebleness of those 
set forth presumably the best that can be found as ample evidence 
that Chettle could not possibly have written The Trial of Chivalry. And 
indeed its style has no very close resemblance to his. ... In fairness it 
should be observed that the quarto has no fewer than five examples of 
the dash denoting broken speech which we believe to have been habit- 
ually used by Chettle; but texts like Law Tricks, Humour out of Breath, 
and The Roaring Girl are sufficient proof that it was not Chettle's alone; 
while in The Trial of Chivalry itself two of the five instances of it occur 
in a scene which even Mr. Jones is confident is not by Chettle. 26 

An attempt to prove, by means of parallel passages, that Keats 
took various details in Lamia from John Potter's Arch&ologia 
Grceca, or The Antiquities of Greece 27 is likewise unconvincing. It 
may very well be that Keats did make use of Potter ; some though 
not all of the details in Lamia could have come from Potter. But 
the parallels do not prove that these details could not have come 
from some other source. 

A writer on Shakspere sums the matter up thus : 

But ... to build up an elaborate theory of literary "influence" upon 
the evidence of parallel passages alone is unsound unless coincidences in 
ideas and wording are unmistakable, and unless such agreements in 
thought and phraseology are not to be found in other accessible sources 
than the supposed "influencing" author. . . . Ordinarily, to assign 
"sources" and to trace "influences" on the evidence of correspondences 
in thought and expression is especially unsafe in the Renaissance, and 
particularly for matter presumably of classical provenance. The wise 
sentences and fitting similitudes of the ancients were in every one's 
mouth. Essays, sermons, treatises, the interminably long moral disquisi- 

7 According to Professor Jones this number could be doubled. It should be 
observed, however, that little would be gained by increasing the number; the 
validity of arguments based on parallel passages depends upon the convincingness 
of the parallels, not on their number. 

Methods of Research: Source Study 171 

tions so popular in the period, abound in them. The learned no doubt 
sought this material in the original sources. But educated and half-edu- 
cated alike could help themselves from those reservoirs of ancient wisdom 
which were known to all, the books of commonplaces. Certain striking 
correspondences between Montaigne and Shakespeare do not prove that 
Montaigne formed Shakespeare's style, nor even that the dramatist used 
the Essays as a store-house of material. 28 

The fourth danger to be avoided in source study is that of assum- 
ing that there must have been a written source for every part of a 
work. Professor Tatlock's article "St. Cecilia's Garlands and Their 
Roman Origin" 29 traces an element in Chaucer's "Second Nun's 
Tale" back to the fourth or fifth century, and shows that the original 
source probably lies deep in some legend of even earlier date. An 
article on Synge points out that The Shadow of the Glen is based, 
not on The Widow of Ephesus, but on authentic Irish folk-lore. 

Even when one has discovered an undeniable written source, there 
are still pitfalls to trap the unwary. The fact that an author used a 
literal quotation from another work does not prove that he has read 
the work; he may be quoting from some intermediary and may 
know nothing more of Cicero or Quintillian than the passage he 
quotes. Professor Manly's lecture in 1926 on "Chaucer and the 
Rhetoricians" st was followed by a number of studies of the re- 
lationship suggested in the title of the lecture. One of these studies S2 
concludes that Chaucer did not know Horace and Juvenal at first 
hand but took his quotations from them out of Matthieu de Ven- 
dome's Ars Versificatoria and Geoffrey de Vinsauf's Documentum de 
Arte Versificandi. Similarly, most of the classical "learning" of Fran- 
cis Meres could have been acquired second-hand from the Officina 
of J. Ravisius Textor." 

Even when an author is shown to have been thoroughly familiar 
with a classical writer or some other source in a foreign language, 
it is still possible that he has made use of a translation. Thus it is 
suggested that Chaucer derived his "Clerkes Tale" from an Old French 
translation of Petrarch as well as from the Latin original ; s * and 
another writer concluded that Chaucer, in Troilus and Criseyde and 
the Legend of Good Women, made use of an Italian translation of 

172 An Introduction to Research 

Ovid. 8 Another article expresses the belief that Swinburne used as a 
source for Laus Veneris an English translation of an old German 
ballad. 5J An article on T. S. Eliot concluded that the poet used 
Mrs. Garnett's translation of Crime and Punishment in writing "The 
Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and hence must have composed 
the poem after October, 1914.^ Mr. Eliot, however, says that the 
poem was conceived in 1910 and completed by the summer of the 
following year ; his knowledge of Dostoevski was gained through a 
French translation. 37 

Sometimes the intermediary between an author and his source is 
an edition rather than a translation. Efforts have been made to de- 
termine whether the 1577 or the 1587 edition of Holinshed's Chroni- 
cles was used as a source for Shakspere's Henry VI plays/* The 
importance of such studies lies in the fact that, wherever translations 
or editions are involved as sources, the translator or editor, rather 
than the original author, is the real source; hence the user of the 
source should not be unduly blamed for errors that result from 
mistranslations or from editorial notes or emendations. 


Professor Morize recognizes seven kinds of sources : ( i ) direct 
sources, (2) documentary sources, (3) sources of detail, (4) com- 
posite sources, (5) oral and indefinite sources, (6) sources of in- 
spiration, and (7) graphic and plastic sources. Jy 

Direct sources are what the name implies ; but they may be ver- 
batim repetition, such as are Greenes borrowings from himself or 
Barnabe Riche's from Painter's Palace of Pleasure, '' n or they may 
be borrowings transformed in thought 10 or expression, as are Shak- 
spere's borrowings from Plutarch or Herman Melville's from The 
Picture of Liverpool 1 * 1 and from Captain Delano's account of his 

8 This article (Sanford Brown Meech, "Chaucer and an Italian Translation of the 
Heroides", PMLA, XLV (1930), 110-28) makes an interesting point: "It is a 
significant testimony to Chaucer's familiarity with Italian that he, the translator 
of Boethius and certainly a fair Latinist, should have turned to Filippo to help him 
with Ovid; . . ." (p. 128). 

9 See above, p. 163. 

10 See below, pp. 167, 185. 

Methods of Research: Source Study 173 

adventures. 11 Other examples of direct sources are to be found in 
studies of the author of Gawain and the Green Knight, 1 ' 2 Spenser,* 5 
Bacon/''' Edward Taylor/' 5 Cooper/' 6 and Emerson. 47 

What Professor Morize means by documentary sources he explains 

More often than not the source is some reading undertaken by an 
author to gain information on a detail of his subject, and summed up in 
a note such as we all make when we are verifying a doubtful point. For 
a historical work the sources are the documents that the historian dis- 
covers, studies, criticizes according to scientific methods, and cites either 
in his footnotes, appendixes, or bibliography. Tn the case of a literary 
work, a work of art, the scaffolding, thanks to which we can follow and 
'check up 1 the investigations of the historian, have been torn down. The 
documents, the sources, are cleverly absorbed into the texture of the 
work.'' 8 

Tt has been shown that when Chaucer was in need of medical in- 
formation -as in the description of Arcite's illness in the "Knight's 
Tale" L - he turned to the Speculum Majus of Vincent of Beauvais. //y 
There is evidence that Drayton went to Speed and perhaps Hall 
rather than to Holinshed to get material for the Battaile of Agin- 
court ; '" and that Middleton similarly turned to the Merrie Con- 
ceited Jests of George Peele to get material for The Puritan, Your 
Five Gallants, and A A fad World, My Masters/' 1 

Dr. Johnson, for all the originality he displayed in devising defini- 
tions for his Dictionary, must nevertheless have had a number of 
documentary sources for that work; among them was, apparently, 
The Gardener's Dictionary, by Philip Miller. 7 *' Before Bulwer- 
Lytton undertook the writing of Richelieu, he seems to have studied 
Hugo's Cromwell and DeLavigne's Louis A7. 7i Wilkie Collins is 

11 Harold H. Scudder, in "Melville's Benito Cereno and Captain Delano's Voy- 
ages", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 502-32, wrote: "Captain Delano in this chapter 
I Chapter XVIII of Amasa Delano, A Narrative of Voyages and Travels in the 
Northern and Southern Hemispheres, . . . (Boston, 1871)] sets down the actual 
facts of his thrilling and unforgettable experiences in the deserted bay at the island 
of Santa Maria, February 20, 1805; Melville has transformed them into a Gothic 
masterpiece." (p. 529) 

ia Ll. 1885-1902. 

174 An Introduction to Research 

thought to have made use of the reports of a French criminal case 
in his The Woman in White. 5 * Documentary sources are also pointed 
out in articles on Shakspere's Antony and Cleopatra,* 5 on Jonson's 
Alchemist and on Cooper's Homeward Bound. 57 

The details for which sources may be found are, of course, of many 
kinds; they may be details of plot, of characterization, of setting, 
of description, of figures of speech, even of technique. The source 
of a plot detail in Swift's Gulliver's Travels may be found in the 
voyages of Jacques Masse rather than in Rabelais. 58 The characteri- 
zation of Tom Jones seems to owe something to Edward Moore's The 
Foundling. 59 There are details of description in the Blickling Homi- 
lies that point to a "direct reminiscence" of Beowulf', there are also 
echoes of Beowulf in the Battle of Maldon. 60 The solemn anathema 
of the Church is thought to have furnished details in Chaucer's Hous 
of Fame and in the Friar's tale and that of the Wife of Bath.*' Pro- 
fessor Emerson traced details of symbolism in Chaucer's "Second 
Nun's Tale" to St. Ambrose ; 2 and another writer thought St. Cyprian 
a more likely source. 6 * Pindar's seventh Olympian ode is suggested 
as the source of a metaphor in Milton's Epitaphium Damonis. 61 * A 
poem ascribed to Friar Nicholas Bozon is thought to be the source 
of the allegory of the Christ-Knight in Piers Plowman, 65 and a ser- 
mon by Bishop Brunton may be the source of the fable of the rat 
parliament in the B-text of Piers. 

Part of Spenser's story of Timias and Belphebe has been traced to 
an Old French romance, Violette, 67 and some of the details of the 
description of Belphebe are thought to have been derived from Vir- 
gil. 68 The name Duessa in the F eerie Queene may be a compound 
of the Irish Dub (black) and Esa (a woman's name). 69 

The borrowed detail may be an idea. Shelley is thought to have 
taken from Cabanis the notion that a mild and equable climate is 
essential to the best development of intellect and morality. 

Doubtless the most difficult, and at the same time the most inter- 
esting, kind of source study is that which involves composite sources. 
A classic example of this kind of work is the study of Coleridge 

Methods of Research: Source Study 175 

made by Professor Lowes ; 13 and more and more, I think, it is being 
recognized that other studies should be carried out along the lines 
laid down in that work. The student of literature, working on the 
relationship of source to completed work and keeping pace with the 
psychologists as they study the way the human mind functions- 
may eventually learn enough about the operation of the creative 
imagination to be greatly helpful to those who seek to produce good 
literature. No such knowledge, no formula, will take the place of 
experience; but it may be possible to eliminate some of the trial- 
and-error practices of literary apprenticeship. 

The study of composite sources such as lie behind most specimens 
of great literature is equally valuable as an aid to appreciation , the 
true merits of a piece, the greatness of an author's work, cannot be 
realized until all the sources are identified and disentangled from 
one another. 

The Owl and the Nightingale seems to have been derived from 
a German proverb, the Fables of Alfred, and Persian poetry. 7 * Pro- 
fessor Baugh says of the Middle English romance Athelstan: "The 
evidence that has accumulated over the last twenty years sug- 
gests . . . that the author has made his story out of elements derived 
from a faint and confused historical tradition, from ballad motives, 
from the Emma legend, and from the story of the enraged king as 
told by Walter Map." 72 Chaucer is thought to have used French 
sources other than the Ovide Moralise in his adaptations from 
Ovid ; 7S and his knowledge of preachers and preaching is thought 
to combine an acquaintance with preachers' manuals and a keen ob- 
servation of preachers in real life. 7 '' 

Professor Lowes, turning his attention this time to Keats, points 
out the composite nature of the sources of a single passage in The 
Fall of Hyperion, A Vision ; 75 and the composite source of a bit of 
symbolism in Shelley's Ode to the West Wind is discussed by another 
writer. 76 Professor Bradner calls attention to the composite source 
of Wuthering Heights ; 77 and Swinburne's The Leper is found to 
contain details drawn from a number of mediaeval stories. 78 

An article on Washington Irving 79 shows how milieu, language, 
folk-lore, and literary sources combined during his travels in Ger- 
many to influence Irving; and a study of Hawthorne mentions a 

13 See above, p. 167. 

176 An Introduction to Research 

whole galaxy of sources, including Cotton Mather, Increase Mather, 
Felt, Sewall, Winthrop, Spenser, Milton, Shakspere, Bunyan, Scott, 
Southey, Browne, Beckford, Maturin, Walpole, and others. 80 Two 
articles deal with the origin of The Turn of the Screw* 1 

A comment on the sources of Spenser's Red Cross Knight may 
serve to conclude this discussion of composite sources : 

The stanzas which tell the story of the infant George are full of 
reminiscences of often-recurring romantic enfances the shreds and 
patches gathered by an eclectic imagination and fused, as was Spenser's 
habit, into a new whole, coherent, convincing, true, yet none the less 
suggestive of those tales of other foundlings from Romulus and Remus, 
Valentin and Orson, down to Libeaus Desconus and the young Perceval 
which were Spenser's unrealized literary inheritance. It is only as we 
are aware of this unconsciously eclectic temper that such considerations 
as these have any importance in the study of a poet's 'sources'. For if by 
that may be implied only the conscious adaptation, into a consistent 
parallel, of material carefully scrutinized and deliberately selected, 
only the making over of a Rosalyndc into an As You Like It, -if 
Sources' may include that process only, then indeed we must admit 
this sacred river to be flung up momentarily from no source what- 
ever. But there were caverns through which it ran, and though perhaps 
they are, to our sorrow, measureless to man, they are, after all, surely 
worth our remarking. 82 

The next category of sources is that made up of oral and indefinite 
sources, which are likely to have a considerable part in any literary 
work. Who can doubt that much of the inspiration and not a little 
of the subject matter of the Elizabethan drama were derived from 
convivial conversations, whether in the Mermaid as tradition has 
it or in some other tavern? Or that Fielding altered, from time to 
time, his plans for Tom Jones as he learned, presumably from his 
sister Sarah, what Richardson had in store for Clarissa? 85 Unfor- 
tunately, these sources are, by their very nature, difficult if not 
impossible to demonstrate conclusively. However, if one can make 
himself master of a period, steeping himself in its background and 
exploiting to the fullest degree such letters, journals, periodicals, 
and other ephemerides as may exist, he may hope to achieve reason- 
ably satisfactory results in the study of oral and indefinite sources. 

Methods of Research: Source Study 177 

Professor Smith suggested that the river names which Spenser is 
geneially thought to have invented, were actually derived from Irish 
place-names. 8 * It has been plausibly argued 85 that the fake behead- 
ing in the Arcadia was suggested by Sidney's witnessing such a trick 
at Bartholomew Fair in 1582 rather than by reading of the device 
in Reginald Scott's Discoverie oj Witchcraft. 

Among the interesting studies which point to sources in life rather 
than in literature is that of Professor Kathryn Huganir, 86 who shows 
that the fine of 100 levied against the knight in The Owl and the 
Nightingale was not excessive in view of the fact that in punishing 
his wife, the nightingale, by quartering, the knight was usurping the 
king's "highest prerogative ; i.e., use of equine quartering to dispatch 
a traitor." 87 Professor Nichols sees in Fielding's attacks on Panto- 
mime in Pasquin the literary man's reaction against the popularity 
of such performances ; * 8 and it can be shown that Smollett's own 
experiences are reflected in the naval scenes in Roderick Random* 9 
Another study of an author's life as a source is that of Ruth C. Wal- 
lerstein, "Personal Experience in Rossetti's Home of Life". 90 The 
milieu of eastern Tennessee is thought to contribute much to the 
setting, characters, and plot of Sidney Lanier's Tiger-Lilies 91 as does 
that of London to The Dynasts. 92 

Such studies as these may, of course, lead to the opposite conclu- 
sion, i.e., that the source is in literature or literary tradition rather 
than in personal experience. Thus Professor Banks studied Astro phel 
and Stella and concluded : 

Astro phel and Stella is a series of Petrarchan love sonnets. Sidney's 
purely artistic impulse was the chief motivating force, the emotion of joy 
in the creation of a thing of beauty. I read the series as a Renaissance 
production which follows the fashion of the time. I think that it was 
accepted by contemporaries without question simply as an unusually 
skillful example of courtly compliment; and I think that this very skill 
of Sidney's in dramatic imagination, and the fact that the Petrarchan 
convention has become obsolete, have misled some critics into judging 
Astro phel and Stella by the standards of the twentieth rather than of the 
sixteenth century. 93 

If one might, without being considered irreverent, reach the same 
conclusion concerning Shakspere and his sonnets, the enigma of the 
Dark Lady would cease to be the puzzle that it long has been 

178 An Introduction to Research 

Public opinion often operates as a source. An author, unless he be 
as strong-minded as Samuel Richardson, gives a novel a happy end- 
ing though he may have preferred to write a tragic one if the 
reading public insists on happy endings. Romeo and Juliet and Mac- 
beth to name two plays among many were butchered to make a 
Restoration holiday. In the eighteenth century Garrick and Colman 
were guided in their revisions of Shakspere by the desire to give the 
play-going public what it wanted ; and it often happened that the 
versions which did the most violence to their originals were the most 
popular. 9 * 

Time was when an American author could characterize his villain 
by the mere mention of cigarette-stained fingers ; in these days ab- 
stinence from tobacco might be more suspicious. The writer of a 
moving picture scenario follows a code whether written or unwrit- 
ten which is designed to keep film plays from giving offense to 
public taste, not only in the United States, but in any country in 
which the film may be shown. 

In Gascoigne's Adventures of Master F. J. public opinion operated 
as a source in two ways. The story was first published anonymously, 
with an English setting; then it was republished as a translation 
from "Bartello", with Italian names for the characters. Gascoigne's 
pretense that his story was a translation was no doubt prompted by 
the fact that in its original form the work was libellous; and the 
choice of Italian rather than French or German names was dic- 
tated by the popularity, in the age of Elizabeth, of Italian stories. 95 

Details in three of Shakspere 's plays have been explained as having 
their origin in public opinion. Thus Tago is interpreted, not as an 
inherently wicked villain, but as an Elizabethan who is compelled by 
conventional standards to seek revenge for a supposed wrong in the 
only way open to him, according to his code which was also the 
code of Shakspere's audience. Similarly, Shakspere 's variations 
from Bandello and Belleforest in the characters of Hero and Claudio 
are explained as necessary to make the Hero-Claudio plot conform 
with Elizabethan ideals. 97 The secret of the hostility of most of the 
characters in Twelfth Night toward Malvolio is found in his aspiring 
to wed his mistress, rather than in his puritanism. The entertaining 
of such an ambition and the mere possibility of achieving it "repre- 
sented a fundamental change in Elizabethan life, a change that swept 

Methods of Research: Source Study 179 

thousands into want and evil courses; and Shakspere makes him 
[Malvolio] express this change in particularly blatant and offensive 
form". 98 Hence, the source of the attitude of Maria, Sir Toby, and 
the rest one might almost say the source of the comic underplot 
is to be found in part at least in public opinion. A force somewhat 
analogous to public opinion the Christian doctrine of atonement 
is taken to be the source for Shakspere's revision of Promos and Cas- 
sandra in Measure for Measure." 

Sometimes the main source of a work or of details in a work 
is an individual. If his influence is exerted through his writings, we 
should classify the source as a direct one, or perhaps a documentary 
one; if through conversation, we should call it an oral source. But 
there are undoubtedly instances in which the influence is exerted 
through sheer force of personality and can hardly be classified in 
any other way. We know something about the influence much of 
which seems to have been personal as much as literary -of Jonson 
upon the Cavalier poets ; and it can hardly be doubted that Shakspere 
was indebted to Jonson and Jonson to Shakspere in ways that 
we shall probably never discover. A great many instances of sources 
in the personality of an individual must exist. The influence of 
Dryden, of Pope, and of Dr. Johnson upon their contemporaries is 
to be seen in many ways ; but there are doubtless as many more that 
have not been traced. The influence of Wordsworth upon Coleridge 
and, even more, of Coleridge upon Wordsworth 10 cannot be fully 
known, or that of Browning and Tennyson or of Dickens and 
Thackeray upon one another. 

Sometimes the source of a detail in a work is to be found in the 
requirements of the genre or type of literature to which the work 
belongs. The writer of a detective story might wish to make the 
footman or the gardener the villain of the piece as might very well 
happen in life; but he will probably, on second thought, heed the 
injunction expressed by almost everyone who has written on the 
subject : Do not have the murder committed by a servant or other 
presumably unimportant character. 14 Every literary technique 

14 Dorothy L. Saycrs had one of her characters say (Suspicious Characters (New 
York: Modern Age Books, 1931), p. 260): "See here, Wimsey, you're not going to 
turn round now and say that the crime was committed by Mrs. Green [the char- 
woman 1 or the milkman, or somebody we've never heard of? That would be in the 
very worst tradition of the lowest style of detective fiction." 

180 An Introduction to Research 

from that of the sonnet to that of the picaresque, or heroic tragedy 
to sentimental comedy acts to some extent as a source of any work 
written in that form. 

According to one writer, Marlowe made his Tamburlaine more 
likable than his prototype in Mexia and Perondinus because, in keep- 
ing with the requirements of the kind of drama he was writing, he 
wanted the protagonist to be admirable; un hence the genre is the 
source for the change in characterization. It has been argued that 
Malvolio and the other characters in the sub-plot of Twelfth Night 
were inspired by Jonson's comic method in Every Man in His Hu- 
mour and Every Man out of his Humour. 102 Professor Xethercot 
argued that Royall Tyler's The Contrast owed much to eighteenth- 
century English comedy; 10 * and Byron's Manfred is thought to 
have been shaped, in certain respects, by the Gothic drama.' 

The sixth class of sources to be considered involves the source of 
inspiration, whether it be inspiration for the initial idea, for subject, 
for characterization, for setting, for plot, for ideas, for technique, 
or fo/ other details. Spenser's Veue is thought to have been the 
source of inspiration for Wordsworth's View of the State of Ire- 
land. 10 -'* An "old yellow book" provided the inspiration for Brown- 
ing's The Ring and the Book Doubtless Les Trots Mousquetaires 
had some share in prompting Kipling to write his stories of Mul- 
vaney, Learoyd, and Ortheris ; and either Dumas or Kipling, or both, 
very probably had something to do with the genesis of the Three. 
Soldiers of John Dos Passos. It has been suggested that Bacon was 
inspired by Campanella's Civitas Solis to write the New Atlantis: 10G 
that the opening lines of the last satire in Mansion's Scourge of 
Villanie inspired Milton's L' Allegro \ t07 that Shadwell's dedication 
to the Duke of Buckingham in his The History of Timon of Athens, 
the Alan-Hater inspired MacFlecknoe: l08 that William (iilpin's Ob- 
servations led Wordsworth to write The Borderers ; 10 and that the 

15 The book would also properly belong in the next category that of graphic 
and plastic sources, although it might be argued that it was really the story in the 
book rather than the physical book which constituted the source of Browning's 

Methods of Research: Source Study 181 

prison scenes in Reade's It's Never Too Late to Mend owe much 
to Harriet Beecher Stowe."" 

The inspiration for the initial idea may at the same time suggest 
the subject ; the classic example of such a source of inspiration is 
that which prompted Milton to write Paradise Regained the chance 
remark of young Thomas Ellwood : u Thou hast said much here [ in 
the manuscript of Paradise Lost] of Paradise Lost f but what hast 
thou to say of Paradise Found ?" *'* 

It would be interesting to know how much the Tabard Inn of 
Chaucer's day had to do with the choice of the setting for the open- 
ing of the Canterbury Talcs, or the surroundings of Ludlow Castle 
with the setting of Comus. There can be little doubt that Fielding's 
familiarity with the west country- -particularly the Great West Road 
dictated the setting of much of Tom Jones\ another instance of 
inspiration for a setting that leaps to mind is the house of Haw- 
thorne's The House of the Seven Gables. 

An article on Chatterton and Coleridge 17 ' points out that the 
atmosphere of the African Eclogues is much like that of Kubla Khan, 
and raises the question "Could Chatterton have used a source that 
Coleridge also used?" The author examines parallels between 
Chatterton's work and the Reverend Alexander Catcott's Ticatise. 
on the Deluge and concludes that the geological elements, which 
give Chatterton's poems their u magic' , are largely drawn from Cat- 
cott. A study of the prose fiction of the early nineteenth century 
demonstrates that the realistic oriental settings are derived from 
travellers 1 tales. //<? 

A number of studies of the sources of inspiration for plots have 
found these sources in real life. It has been said that the plot of 
Fielding's The Letter-Writers: Or, A New Way to Keep a Wife at 
Home was suggested by a wave of terrorism that swept England in 
1730 and i73i. /;/ ' "Incendiaries and murderers had flooded the 
country with threatening letters, and had succeeded in extorting 
considerable sums of money from the easily intimidated." //J The 
plot of The Modern Husband is traced to the case of Abergavenny v. 
Lyddel ; nr> and Eurydice Hiss'd is shown to have a double relation 
to life: "it applies equally well to a playwright's endeavor to make 
a farce succeed in the theatre | referring to Fieldings' own unsuc- 
cessful Euridice, or the Devil Ilenpcck'd\ and to a minister's attempt 

182 An Introduction to Research 

to push an unpopular bill through the House of Commons [Walpole's 
Excise Bill of 1733] "- //7 

Another suggestion that actual events furnished the inspiration 
for a plot has to do with Hardy's "The First Countess of Wessex" in 
A Group of Noble Dames. The early part of Hardy's story closely 
parallels the marriage, in 1584, of Douglas Howard, the thirteen- 
year-old daughter of Viscount Binford, and Arthur Gorges, aged 
about thirty. Other details of Hardy's tale are based upon the mar- 
riage of Stephen Fox and Elizabeth Horner in i^b. 11 " 

It is generally assumed that two of the plot details in She Stoops 
to Conquer were inspired by incidents in Goldsmith's life. It has 
been pointed out/ however, that a trick similar to that played by 
Tony on Mrs. Hardcastle is related in one of the Spectator papers 
(No. 427) and the mistaking of a palace for an inn occurs in another 
(No. 289). p]ven though the ultimate source of these details in the 
play may be found in Goldsmith's life, the reading of the Spectator 
may have recalled the events to the dramatist's mind, or may have 
suggested their literary possibilities ; hence, the Spectator may have 
served in a way as the source of inspiration for part of the plot. 16 
Another case in which a written work may have served as a vehicle 
for material from real life is found in a study of Reade's Put Your- 
self in His Place. 120 An actual event, and various accounts of it, 
are taken to be the source of parts of Melville's Moby Dick and 
Clarel. 121 Another example of a plot inspired by real life, with a 
literary intermediary, is brought out in an article in dealing with 
Campion and Middleton. The plot of the latter's Chaste Maid in 
Cheapside is traced to one of Campion's epigrams; then we are re- 
minded that Mr. Bullen, the editor of Campion, regarded the epigram 
as one referring to an actual event. 17 

16 The autobiographical clement in Fielding's Amelia is often overemphasized; 
Professor Cross pointed out (The History of Henry Fielding, 3 vols. (New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1918), II, 312 ff.) the significance as a source for the novel of 
Fielding's own An Enquiry into the Causes of the Late Increase of Robbers. 

17 Thomas Campion, Songs and Masques with Observations in the Arte of English 
Poesy (London: A. H. Bullen, and New York: Scribner's, 1903), cd. A H. Bullen, 
Eighth Epigram (p. 252) and Note: "In spite of Campion's assertion that 'though 
sometimes under a known name I have shadowed a feigned conceit, yet it is done 
without reference or offence to any person', this epigram plainly refers to Barnabe 
Barnes and Gabriel Harvey", (p. 288) 

Methods of Research: Source Study 183 

Much scholarship has been devoted to the pointing out of literary 
sources of inspiration for plots ; such sources have been found for 
Chaucer's Rime of Sir Thopas, 123 for Greene's Pandosto, 12 * for Jon- 
son's Epicccne, 1 * 5 for Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster** 6 and for 
The Tryall of Chevalry 127 to mention only a few. 

As with plot, so with characters the source of inspiration may be 
found in life itself or in literature. A study of Hudibras n * concludes 
that Butler's satiric attack on Sir Paul Neile in 1664 was originally 
directed against William Lilly. Other studies have found in real life 
the sources of Columella and Parson Pomfret in Columella ; l29 of 
Mr. Clare in Caleb Williams and the Solitary in Wordsworth's The 
Excursion-, 13 of the Poet in Shelley's Alastor-, 1S1 of Becky Sharp 
in Vanity Fair] JX2 and of Feathertop in Hawthorne's tale of that 
name. 155 

What might be called a combination of real life and literary source 
is brought out in an article on Heywood's A Woman Killed with 
Kindness ; 15/ ' the anomaly in the characterization of Mrs. Frankford 
the ease with which she fell into the sin of adultery is traced to 
the Jane Shore tradition, which, as it came to Heywood, was doubt- 
less a blend of historical fact and legend. That the source of inspira- 
tion for a characterization is sometimes to be found, neither in life 
nor in literature, but solely in the author's imagination is interest- 
ingly brought out in an article on Mary Campbell.' 55 

One of the many studies of literary sources of inspiration for 
characterization argues that the character details in which Shakspere 
varies from Brooke in the Romeo and Juliet story would indicate 
that Shakspere knew in some way the Giulictta e Romeo of Luigi 
da Porto, of which no English or French translation is known to 
have existed in the sixteenth century. 756 ' (The author of the article 
seems inclined to the opinion that Shakspere read da Porto in the 
original Italian ; it should be pointed out that there are other possible 
explanations, e.g., that Shakspere made use of an English version no 
longer extant.) Marlowe's Dr. Faustus has been explained as a com- 
bination of the Faustbook hero and the legendary Simon Magus. 157 
The Yahoos of Swift's Gulliver's Travels may have been inspired by 
Tyson's Orang-Outang, Sive Homo Sylvestris ; /58 the character Rima 
in Hudson's Green Mansions is traced to Lady Morgan's The Mis- 

184 An Introduction to Research 

sionary. 1 * 9 The character of Gawain is thought to have been derived 
from Chuchulinn, not directly but through the intervening character, 
Gwri. 1 *' 

More and more, in recent years, scholars have been directing their 
attention to studies of an author's ideas, rather than his plots, or his 
characters, or his technique. In the nature of things, the sources of 
ideas are likely to be literary sources; but one article finds the 
source of inspiration for ideas in life: Goldsmith's views especially 
his championing of the English middle class are ascribed to the cir- 
cumstances of his upbringing in Ireland. /4/ Swift's attitude toward 
the Puritans is traced to a tradition rather than to any specific lit- 
erary source.'** A study of the background of Howells' social criti- 
cism mentions Laurence Gronlund and Bjornson.^ 5 

There have been numerous contributions J> * to a controversy as 
to the sources of Spenser's ideas, in which Plato, Lucretius, Em- 
pedocles, Bruno, and others have been mentioned. Some of Sidney's 
ideas have been traced to Plutarch's Moralia. 1 * 3 In two articles //|6> 
Schiller, Spinoza, and Kant are discussed as having inspired Words- 
worth at different stages in the development of his philosophy. James 
A. Herne is thought to have been inspired in some of his work by 
Ibsen."' 7 

Sometimes a study of a possible source of ideas has the negative 
but nevertheless valuable effect of demonstrating that the ideas, 
wherever they may have come from, did not come from the source 
in question. Non-academic people have sometimes found great amuse- 
ment in this sort of thing, poking fun at scholars for proving that 
an influence does not exist when no one ever suggested that it did. 
If the ideas of Jones cannot possibly be the source of Smith's ideas 
as, to take an extreme case, when Smith was dead before Jones was 
born to write an article or a book to prove the fact would be absurd. 
But if there is some likelihood that Jones served as a source for 
Smith, then to prove that he did not may be just as important a 
contribution to knowledge as would be proof that he did. 

It has been generally assumed that the Fcerie Queene was an 
important source for Pilgrim's Progress ; but a study of Spenser and 
Bunyan led to this conclusion : 

Into the imaginative synthesis, which is the real source of Pilgrim's 
Progress, diverse elements entered in permanent union, . . . elements 

Methods of Research: Source Study 185 

which include the Bible, the popular romances, the commonplaces of 
theological phraseology, as well as the men that Bunyan knew and all 
that he had seen, heard, or experienced. If The Faerie Queene had a part 
in this synthesis, this part, it is clear, can not have been large. Both as a 
romance and as a religious allegory, it was but one among many. 1 * 8 

Other studies of literary sources of ideas include an article dealing 
with Hermetic philosophy and Henry Vaughan, 1 * 9 one concerning 
Shaftesbury and Henry Needier, 150 and one on Chapman and 
Keats. 751 Sometimes the source of ideas is to be found in a misinter- 
pretation intentional or unintentional of the views of a predeces- 
sor. 752 One may interest himself in the source of a detail of allegory, 
as does the author of an article on Piers Plowman. 153 

The last of the sources of inspiration to be considered are the 
sources of an author's technique or details of technique. One article 
argues that the technique of the Book of the Duchess was derived 
from Guillaume de Machaut rather than from Matthieu de Ven- 
dome, Geoffrey de Vinsauf, and other mediaeval rhetoricians. 15/t 
Professor Gerould suggests that the author of Gawain and the Green 
Knight may have been inspired in his choice of dialect by Dante's 
praise of the vernacular in // Convivio. 155 Euphuism, according to 
another article, 756 had its source in the Latin orations of John 
Rainolds, which Lyly and others could have heard at Oxford in the 
1570'$ and read in print in the i58o's Several articles deal with the 
sources of the style of one author or another. 1 - 57 Of Synge, for ex- 
ample, it was said: "In this play \Dcirdre of the Sorrows] he was 
attempting to adapt his peasant dialect to the heroic people of the 
sagas. He did not live long enough to prove that Yeats' conception 
of a peasant Grania was unsound, but he did show that it would be 
difficult to achieve." 758 

We now come to the seventh and last kind of source what may 
be called graphic or plastic sources. Many examples of literary 
works, or details in such works, that were inspired by paintings or 
statues can easily be called to mind. That Markham's Man with a 
Hoe was inspired by one of Millet's paintings is well known, and 
Browning's Eurydice to Orpheus was admittedly suggested by one 
of Leigh ton's pictures. A picture is thought to be the source for 

186 An Introduction to Research 

Poe's "The Island of the Fay".' 59 Specific pictures may also have 
contributed to such of Browning's poems as Old Pictures in Florence, 
My Last Duchess, and Andrea del Sarto. We need not speculate 
upon the relation of sculpture to Hawthorne's The Marble Faun 
or to Keats 's Ode on a Grecian Urn\ and it may very well be that 
an actual bust whether or not of Athena played a part in the 
composition of Poe's The Raven. One attempt to find sources in art 
produced negative results ; no evidence was found to indicate that 
Shakspere made use of statues or paintings as sources." 70 (Professor 
Manly, however, once suggested 161 that a scene in The Rape o) 
Lucrece had its source in a painting.) 

Illustrations and maps may likewise be used as sources. It might 
be difficult to determine whether George Seymour or Dickens de- 
serves the greater credit for the origin of Mr. Pickwick and his in- 
comparable companions." 7 * We know that in intention, at least, the 
pictures came first, the narrative being meant merely to accompany 
and elucidate the drawings. That a map had something to do with 
the genesis of Treasure Island we are told both by Lloyd Osborne 
and by Stevenson himself.' 63 It has been suggested lfi>l that a map 
such as "Tabvla Asiae VI IT" in the 1540 (Basel) edition of Ptolemy's 
Geography was the source of the passage in Othello 18 in which the 
Moor relates his adventures among the anthropophagi. 

When we think of architecture as a source of literary inspiration, 
we may be reminded of the influence of medieval castles on the 
Gothic novels; the influence of Moorish architecture on Washington 
Irving is equally obvious. We know that a castle inspired Byron 
to write Sonnet on Chillon and The Prisoner of Chill on, and houses 
had something to do with Hawthorne's The House of the Seven 
Gables and Mosses from an Old Manse. Architectural remains in- 
fluenced Bulwer-Lytton in the writing of The Last Days of Pompeii, 
and it can hardly be doubted that the Tower and the Cathedral had 
much to do with Ainsworth's The Tower of London and Old St. 

Music inspired Milton to write At a Solemn Music, and music of 
a sort, perhapr prompted Noyes to write The Barrel-Organ. In a 
somewhat different way, music was responsible for Browning's A 
Toccata of Galuppi's and Abt Vogler. If we admit to the category of 

18 Act I, scene iii, 11. 140-45. 

Methods of Research: Source Study 187 

works inspired by music those in which the song of a bird was the 
source of inspiration, we may go back to the thirteenth century to 
mention Sumer Is Icumen In, with its "Lhude sing cuccu". Among 
others we should also name the skylark poems by Wordsworth and 
Shelley, and the Ode to a Nightingale of Keats. 

Nature in various forms and aspects is, of course, an inexhaustible 
source for writers. We have spoken of the songs of birds as an inspira- 
tion ; sometimes the bird itself provides a source, as in Bryant's To a 
Water jowl, Tennyson's The Ragle, and Masefield's The Wild Duck. 19 
Animals, too, may serve as sources, as in Gray's Ode on the Death of 
a Favorite Cat and Burns's To a Mouse. We should mention also 
Blake's The Lamb and The Tiger, and even, hesitantly perhaps, 
Lamb's A Dissertation upon Roast Pig. 

The garden of the Duchess of Somerset provided Shenstone's 
inspiration for Rural Elegance, and landscapes more cultivated than 
wild prompted Dyer's Grognar Hill and Pope's Windsor Forest. 
Landscapes were also the inspiration for Hawthorne's The Great 
Stone Face and for Lanier's The Marshes of Glynn. Poems with 
similar sources might be Burns's Ye Flowery Banks o' Bonnie Doon, 
Wordsworth's / Wandered Lonely as a Cloud, Arnold's Dover Beach, 
and Housman's Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now. 

Flowers have been a frequent source of inspiration ; one thinks off- 
hand of Herrick's To Daffodils, Waller's Go, Lovely Rose, Burns's 
To a Mountain Daisy, Wordsworth's daisy poems, Freneau's The 
Wild Honey-Suckle, Tennyson's Flower in the Crannied Wall, 
Bryant's The Yellow Violet and To the Fringed Gentian. As many 
more could easily be listed. 

Among other characteristics of nature that have served as sources 
are winds (Shelley, Ode to the West Wind; Emily Bronte, The 
Night-Wind \ Masefield, The West Wind; Bryant, The Evening 
Wind', Robinson Jeffers, Gale in April), clouds (Shelley, The Cloud] 
Amy Lowell, Night Clouds), rain (Maugham, Miss Thompson), snow 
(Emerson, The Snow-Storm ; Whittier, Snow-Bound), night (Shelley, 
To Night ; Robinson Jeffers, Night), stars (Blake, To the Evening 
Star-, Keats, Bright star, would I were stedjast as thou art), the sun 

10 A parrot transformed by poetic license may have had something to do with 
Poe's The Raven; see J. H. Whitty, "A Parrot", Colophon, new series, I (1935), 

188 An Introduction to Research 

(Whitman, Give Me the Splendid Silent Sun), rivers (Burns, Ajton 
Waters ; Emerson, Musketaquid and Two Rivers ; Lanier, Song oj 
the Chattahoochee; Joaquin Miller, The Missouri), and seasons 
(Shakspere, When icicles hang by the wall: Keats, To Autumn ; 
Bryant, June: Millay, / know I am but summer to your heart). 

Other objects of nature that have inspired literary men would 
include the butterfly and the glowworm of Wordsworth, the honey 
bee of Freneau, the chambered nautilus of Holmes, and the spider ol 
Whitman. And we should not forget the louse that inspired Burns. 

Any number of literary works inspired by human beings might be 
cited; Defoe found inspiration in Alexander Selkirk, Wordsworth in 
Napoleon and in Toussaint 1'Ouverture, Whitman and Sandburg in 
Lincoln. Members of the Royal Society seem to have served as 
sources in Shadwell's The Virtuoso. 16:> There are certain classes of 
poems in which persons provide the fundamental inspiration ; among 
these are love poems such as Mrs. Browning's Sonnets from the 
Portuguese written in honor of the one beloved ; and elegies like 
Milton's Lycidas, Shelley's Adonais, and Arnold's Tfiyrsis inspired 
by the person whose death is lamented. Individuals may also serve as 
sources for caricature ; in many of the Victorian novels, for instance, 
well-known personages are portrayed in one guise or another, gen- 
erally for purposes of ridicule, as Thackeray is thought to have 
portrayed Sir Martin Archer Shee. 6 

One more thing should be mentioned and, T think, merely men- 
tioned: that two or more of these sources may be combined, as in 
Cowper's The Dog and the Water-lily or Hardy's Rain on a Grave ; 
such combinations might, of course, be classified as composite sources. 


Tt is time now to consider how one should enter upon research in 
source study. The first step is to discover, if possible, what books the 
author owned. Unlike a collector, whose interest in books may lie in 
their bindings or their price, a writer is likely to read the books that 
surround him from day to day. It is not to be assumed, of course, that 
an author had r ead every book he owned, much less that he was so 
familiar with each of them that he used it as a source. But to know 
the contents of an author's library will provide a starting point. 

For the older writers we can not hope to get satisfactory informa- 

Methods of Research: Source Study 189 

tion as to books owned. A number of books exist that, because of a 
trefoil mark in the margin of some pages, are thought to have be- 
longed to Ben Jonson ; whether they constitute the whole of Jonson's 
library or, as is much more likely, are but a small part of it, would be 
difficult if not impossible to determine. With more recent writers we 
may hope for better luck. A diary may contain notes of the purchase 
of books ; there may be in letters or other documents a record of the 
borrowing of books or the lending of them to friends. Sometimes 
there is a printed or manuscript catalogue of the writer's library, 
which will be helpful if used cautiously ; most catalogues of this sort 
are unsatisfactory: they do not list all the books the author owned, 
and they are likely to include some books that the author never 
possessed and perhaps never even saw. 

The second step where it may be applied is to determine what 
periodicals the author regularly received and read during what period 
of time. To be sure, few individuals read every article in every maga- 
zine to which they subscribe; but if there is in a periodical an article 
which could have served as a source, and we know that our author 
was, at the time when the article appeared, a subscriber to the peri- 
odical, we are justified in considering the article a likely source, pro- 
vided we have canvassed the situation and have found no reasonable 
alternative. It might sometimes happen that an author, though not a 
subscriber, made a practice of reading a certain journal at his club, 
or at a friend's house ; if he refers to an article in a certain issue in 
such a way as to indicate that he has read the article, we know that 
he saw the issue and may have read other articles in it. 

The third step is to compile, from whatever clues the author has 
provided us, a list of the books he is known to have read. We may 
find help here in the curricula of the schools attended ; - we know 
that in the days before elective courses were invented, every boy was 

20 Students of the sixteenth century will find helpful George A. Plimpton, Th 
Education of Shakespeare. Illustrated jrom the School-books in the in His Time 
(New York: Oxford University Press, 193.0. The same author has written a similar 
book on Chaucer, The Education of Chaucer (New York: Oxford University Press, 

190 An Introduction to Research 

at least exposed to all the authors in the curriculum. Books men- 
tioned in the author's works, books from which he obviously bor- 
rowed, 21 books which his friends were reading, books which were "all 
the rage" all these are to be considered; some of them it may be 
possible to include among the books read, others will have to be 
relegated to the next category : books probably read. 

Study of the list of books certainly read may throw such light on 
the author's habits as to enable us to assume with a considerable 
degree of probability that he read certain other works. We might find 
that he made a practice of reading popular novels as soon as they 
appeared ; unless we found some reason for the omission, it would be 
unlikely that one work in this class would be discriminated against. 
If we found that he had a passion for Shakspere, we might assume 
that he had read Hamlet, even though we could find no proof that 
he had. We might learn that he made use of the library of a friend ; 
if that library contained copies of works that we could be sure would 
have interested him, we may be justified in including them among the 
books probably read. If we know that he read French only with 
difficulty and habitually read French works in English translations, 
we may consider it probable that his knowledge of Moliere came 
through a translator. One thing should be kept in mind in making up 
the list of books probably read : The statement that "everyone" has 
read this or that work may be almost but is never quite literally 
true; there are even now people who have not read Gone with the 
Wind or The Grapes of Wrath or Forever Amber. 22 

The last category of literary sources is made up of books possibly 
read. For all but the earliest periods such a list would be too long to 
record, and it is not likely to include many determinable sources. But 
it is important to keep in mind the fact that some books our author 
may have read, whereas others he cannot have read. Among the latter 

21 The warning given above (p. 171) against assuming that because an author 
mentions a book or quotes from it, he must therefore have read it, is, of course, 
to be kept in mind. 

22 Gabriel Harvey wrote in a letter to Spenser (Works, ed. (Jrosart, 3 vols. 
(London: privately printed, 1885), I, 69) that this is one of the conditions prevail- 
ing at Cambridge in 1580 the time of the Ramus controversy: "\ristotle muche 
named, but little read: . . ." 

Methods of Research: Source Study 191 

would be works of which no copy at any time was accessible to him 
and works not to be had in his lifetime in a language which he could 
read. Such books can be disregarded in a search for direct sources. 

Having learned all that he can about his author's reading and 
that should include, whenever possible, the determination of the time 
in his life at which each work was read the student of sources 
should study all the other elements of the author's life that may have 
served as sources in his works. The author's family and his friends, 
his habits and his hobbies, the various environments to which he was 
subjected all these should be examined as possible sources. 

* * * 

The next step is more than a step it is a life's work. Before one 
can hope to do anything in source study beyond the obvious and the 
superficial, he must have achieved a thorough familiarity with the 
period in which his author lived. He must know well not only the 
works of the author in whom he is chiefly interested, but also those of 
that author's contemporaries and predecessors. Only through such 
knowledge can one determine whether a parallel is significant or com- 
monplace, whether a similarity is evidence of dependence or merely a 
resemblance, or which of a dozen possible sources is the certain or 
most likely one. 

When all the sources that can be identified have been discovered, 
the most important part of the student's work still remains to be 
done. It is interesting and it may be significant to show that Author 
X took one thing from A, another from B, and still another from C ; 
but the really important thing is to show if it can be shown how 
Author X treated those sources. Those who pointed out that Shaks- 
pere was indebted to the // Pecorone of Ser Giovanni Fiorentino, the 
Gesta Romanorum, and The Jew of Malta made valuable contribu- 
tions to knowledge ; but the one who can show how those and perhaps 
other sources became The Merchant of Venice will have done much 
more. Conceivably, he will have made possible another Shakspere. 
Perhaps such epochal studies are not yet within the scope of our 
abilities; but devoted and intelligent effort may make it possible to 
achieve them. They will not be achieved by those whose conception 
of source study is limited to searching for parallel passages 



word chronology, as used in connection with research in 
A literary history, has two distinct meanings. The first of these in- 
volves the knowledge of dates and time relationships. Thus, if we 
say that an individual has mastered chronology, we mean that he 
knows the dates of all the events that have any significant connection 
with literature; or, to bring the matter more nearly within the scope 
of human accomplishment, to be expert in chronology implies having 
a knowledge of the dates of the most important events of literary 
significance in all periods and of all the dates in the period in which 
one is specializing. 


So far as one's general background is concerned, there is no par- 
ticular magic in knowing exact dates. To devote one's efforts to the 
memorizing of a long list of dates is for two reasons an absurd waste 
of time and energy, both of which might be much better applied. In 
the first place, knowledge so acquired is seldom long retained ; and 
in the second, one with the proper knowledge or even a rudimentary 
knowledge of reference books can easily look up any known date 
that he may have occasion to require. What is more important for the 
graduate student is the ability to place events within the proper half- 
century or quarter-century, and to associate readily those events that 
belong together in time. 

Few things make a worse impression on an examining committee 
than to have a candidate, when called upon to name the prose writers 
of the first part of the seventeenth century, mention Defoe, Swift, 
Addison, Steele, and Arbuthnot instead of Bacon, Ralegh, Donne, 

[ 192 ] 

Methods of Research: Chronology 193 

Burton, Browne, Fuller, and Milton ; but it would be an unreasonable 
examiner indeed who would insist that the student who is specializ- 
ing in Victorian literature should know that Lyly lived from 1553 to 
1606, Lodge from 1558 to 1625, Chapman from 1559 to 1634, and 
Nashe from 1567 to 1601. 

As has been suggested, chronology is not a subject to be studied ; 
it is rather, as Professor Morize pointed out, 1 a habit of mind. But 
how is the student to acquire this eminently desirable habit of mind? 
First, he must accustom himself to thinking of the past in terms of 
the proper century, until the thirteen hundreds are as readily thought 
of as the fourteenth century, or the sixteen hundreds as the seven- 
teenth century, as the present is thought of as the twentieth century. 
The student who wrongly assigned Swift and his associates to the 
seventeenth century was probably simply confusing the centuries ; if 
he had been asked to name the prose writers contemporary with 
Bacon, he doubtless would have made the proper response. 

Another thing that the student should do in attempting to master 
chronology is to practice constantly the establishing in his mind of 
chronological associations. Mention of poets of the first part of the 
nineteenth century should lead him instantly to think of Wordsworth, 
Coleridge, Southey, Scott, Byron, Shelley, and Keats. The novel of 
that period should bring to mind Maria Edgeworth, Jane Austen, 
Scott, and Bulwer ; the essay, Lamb, Hazlitt, De Quincey, and Hunt. 
One should be reminded, too, of the critics Jeffrey and "Christopher 

A few exact dates, easily remembered, will help in the establishing 
of these associations. For most of us it is a matter of no consequence 
that the date of Chaucer's death is 1400 rather than 1399 or 1401 ; 
but 1400 is an easy date to remember, and remembering it enables 
us instantly to assign Chaucer along with his contemporaries Gower 
and the author, or authors, of Piers Plowman to the latter part of 
the fourteenth century. In the same way Dryden's death in 1700 
may serve as a chronological landmark once the proper associations 
have been established. Remembering that Shakspere was born in 
1564 and died in 1616 will help to remind us that his greatest work 
belongs to the seventeenth century rather than to the sixteenth, that 
his real contemporaries are not Marlowe and Greene, but Jonson and 
Beaumont and Fletcher. 

194 An Introduction to Research 

Many chronological charts and tables have been published ; one of 
these may be a useful thing for the student to own, but he will find 
it much more valuable to construct one for himself. A sheet of paper 
should be devoted to each century, half-century, or quarter-century, 
depending upon the extent of the individual's interest in the period 
represented. Each sheet should be ruled into columns. Tn the first 
column may be put the names of the authors, with dates of birth and 
death ; their literary works are listed in adjoining columns. Works by 
the same writer may be grouped together next to the author's name, 
or all the works of the period may be arranged chronologically. There 
should be a column for each type of literature important in the 
period. Sometimes prose, poetry, and drama will be the natural divi- 
sions ; but generally the prose should be divided into fiction and non- 
fiction. In some periods it may be appropriate to devote a column to 
history, or biography, or criticism, or to some other special type. 
Another column should be devoted to political events, and still 
another to such achievements as works of art and architecture and 
musical compositions. It will be best not to do too much of this 
charting of events at one time. One should take a single period it 
would be logical to start with the earliest and fill in a column or 
two, then turn to other work ; the next day, perhaps, another column 
may be added, and so on until the first chart is finished and a second 
one can be started. After the charts are all completed, one should 
get them out and glance at them from time to time, not with the idea 
of memorizing them, but rather to keep their appearance fresh in 
mind. Then, if one has as many of us do have a visual memory, he 
may find, when he wishes to recall a date or a group of titles, that he 
can visualize in his mind's eye the proper chart and read from it, as 
it were, the desired information. 

1 have suggested that for the period in which the student specializes 
he will need to know exact dates and many of them ; but this fact 
need cause no one concern. By the time a person has studied a man 
or a period sufficiently to regard himself as anything of a specialist, 
he will find that the dates he needs to know have become as familiar 
to him through repetition, through working with them, as the im- 
portant dates of his own life. For the period in which he specializes, 
the student does not need to study chronology; he simply absorbs it. 

Methods of Research: Chronology 195 


So much for the first meaning of the word chronology. In the second 
sense, the word, as used by students of literature, means the science 
of determining the dates of events of literary significance. The evi- 
dence upon which we must rely in problems of chronology is of three 
kinds: bibliographical, external, and internal. 

Bibliographical evidence is that which is inherent in the physical 
material of which the manuscript or book is composed. It is often 
possible to date a piece of paper. Obviously a manuscript or book 
cannot be older than the material of which it consists. Three things 
should be noted, however. First, establishing the date of manufacture 
of the paper gives one only the terminus a quo (date after which 
something must have happened) ; paper once made may be written 
upon or printed upon at any later date. Second, determining the date 
of the paper provides evidence only for the date of a particular copy 
of a work ; the date of composition may be much earlier. Third, if 
one is dealing with a book, the date of manufacture of each sheet of 
which the book is composed must be determined, if possible; paper 
of rather widely different dates was sometimes used in the making 
of a single book. 2 

The chief evidence upon which we must rely in attempting to date 
a piece of paper is the watermark ; 3 but in recent investigations 
use has been made of another kind of evidence. Messrs. Carter and 
Pollard showed * that in several nineteenth-century pamphlets the 
paper was manufactured after the alleged date of publication. We 
know with some exactness when esparto was first used in paper- 
making, when chemical wood paper and mechanical wood paper were 
first used for books. Without a watermark we cannot date any piece 
of paper exactly; but for any manuscript or book composed of 
esparto, chemical wood, or mechanical wood paper, we have at least a 
terminus a quo. 

The handwriting of a manuscript, or of an inscription in a book, 
may be dated with some exactness by experts in palaeography ; thus 
it may furnish evidence of the date of the manuscript or provide a 

196 An Introduction to Research 

terminus ante quern (date before which something must have hap- 
pened) for the printing of the book. In using handwriting as evidence, 
it is to be remembered that an old man's hand will resemble that 
which was in vogue some years earlier rather than that popular at 
the date of writing. 1 It may be noted also that fashion in handwrit- 
ing tends to be more advanced in the metropolis than in the provinces ; 
thus a provincial writer will use a style which had been in vogue in 
London or Philadelphia some time previously. 

In a book especially an early one the printer's technique may 
provide evidence for dating. Thus in Caxton's early books the lines are 
irregular in length, leaving the right-hand margin of the page uneven ; 
after 1480 his books have the lines spaced out to make an even 
margin. We may say in general, then, that books with the lines spaced 
out to end evenly are later than books in which the line-endings are 
irregular.- It is the evidence of the printer's technique that has taken 
away from Oxford the honor once claimed for that city that of 
having produced the first book printed in England. A book entitled 
Expositio S. Hieronymi in Symbolum Apostolicum, which was printed 
at Oxford by Theodoric Rood, bears the date 1468 ; if that date were 
correct, it would mean that Rood had anticipated Caxton by nine 
years. But there is no other book printed by Rood earlier than 1479, 
and books of that date show exactly the same level of typographical 
achievement as the Expositio. Since it is inconceivable that a printer, 
at so early a stage in the development of the craft, should have made 
no technical progress in eleven years, scholars are agreed that the 
Expositio is misdated, that it was actually printed in 1478 rather than 
I468. 3 

Bibliographical evidence of date is often furnished by woodcuts 
used as illustrations or for ornamental initials. Such woodcuts may 
develop wormholes ; obviously a book in which the impression of a 
woodcut shows wormholes is later than one in which the cut appears 

1 Given sufficient material with which to work, a handwriting expert can deter- 
mine, approximately at least, the age of the writer, although physical conditions, 
such as illness, may make the writing of a young person resemble that of one much 

2 For exceptions see McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 55-56. 

3 The book bears a colophon: M.CCCC.lxviii. xvij die Decembris. Probably an 
* was pulled out of the forme in the process of inking; there are exact parallels 
for that sort of error. See Esdaile. Student's Manual of Bibliography, p. 23. 

tioo S&& ft JL f qg 

foGc efof Hfeu ft f^tt 0|tv acctpuc t$ not 
^ fb?&* 6> W 
faue oSfcrutb? t( afftt 

&tttx fo e|e> a&tEe 6> ft 

Figure 15. A specimen of Caxton's early printing: page 64 of 77;e Dictes or 
$ayengis of the Pkilosophres (Westminster, 1477) (59070). By permission of 
the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, California. 

[ 197 J 

198 An Introduction to Research 

in its perfect state. Cracks may appear in a woodcut, and they tend to 
increase in length and breadth with age and use. A book showing a 
woodcut with a short and narrow crack will have been printed earlier 
than one in which the crack is comparatively long and broad. It 
should be remembered, however, that the length and breadth of a 
crack may depend upon the degree of compression exerted upon the 
cut by the chase; if the type page was very tightly wedged in the 
chase, the crack might appear in the impression to be shorter than 
it really was, or might not appear at all. 5 Likewise the appearance of 
an impression might be affected by the amount of moisture present ; 
paper used in printing was dampened before being put in the press, 
and moisture transferred from the paper to the woodcut and to the 
wooden furniture might, by causing the wood to expand, make the 
compression greater toward the end of a printing than it was at the 
beginning. Thus the last book to come from the press might show an 
impression that seemed to come from an earlier condition of the 
woodcut than that represented in the first copies. Moreover, varia- 
tions in the shrinkage of the paper as it dried might affect the appear- 
ance of a woodcut. 

With metal ornaments, as well as woodcuts, certain portions espe- 
cially borders may break or wear down so that they fail to print. Of 
course a book in which such an ornament appears without any imper- 
fection is earlier than one showing a break ; but again one needs to be 
sure of his ground. Tf there is only a single copy of a book showing 
the break, it may be that the apparent defect is due to faulty inking 
or to the presence on the paper of a bit of lint rather than to a 
damaged cut. Evidence of this sort is used by Professor Bradner to 
prove that Henry Cheke's Freewyl was printed before 1577.* 

Engraved plates used for illustrations or decorations also show the 
effect of use ; and experts may be able to determine the order in which 
different editions or different copies of a work were printed by exam- 
ining the engravings for evidences of wear. 

It is to be remembered, however, that many of the ornaments 
found in books especially factotums were produced by casting, 
i.e., pouring type metal into a mold; these, of course, will provide no 
evidence of the sort we have been considering, since perfect copies 
can be turned out as long as the mold remains intact. In order to 
derive any chronological information from two impressions of a cast 

Methods of Research: Chronology 199 

ornament, we should have to determine somehow that both impres- 
sions were made by the same specimen of the ornament. 

An analysis of the ink, or of the pigment used in illuminations, 
may furnish evidence of date. Forgers have sometimes used brown 
water color paint, or something similar, to simulate faded writing, 
and have consequently betrayed themselves. 4 An illuminated manu- 
script in which one of the pigments proved to be an aniline dye would 
necessarily have been produced or at least tampered with after 
1856, when aniline dyes were introduced. 

If we turn now to external evidence for dating, we shall find that 
the most obvious instance is that in which a dated or datable work 
contains a reference to another work, thus providing a terminus ante 
qucm for the latter. As is well known, Francis Meres, in his Palladis 
Tamia (1598) mentions several of Shakspere's plays; thus we know 
that the plays included in this list were in existence by 1598. Since 
the list appears to be exhaustive, we may argue though with much 
less assurance that plays not mentioned by Meres were written 
after 1598. 

Entries in the Stationers' Register are also used as evidence for 
dating, though they offer some difficulties. In the first place, the 
author's name is frequently not given, and the title often appears in 
a torm quite different from the published title; thus one must be 
quite sure that an entry actually refers to the work with which he is 
concerned. Moreover it is possible that a work might have been 
entered in the Register before it was written ; if an author had told a 
bookseller that he intended to write a piece on a given subject, the 
bookseller might have entered the work at once by way of forestall- 
ing a rival project. 5 All we can say of an entry in the Register is that 
it indicates that the work referred to was in existence or in prospect 
at the time of the entry ; it does not prove that the book was then 
written, or, indeed, that it was ever written. 

Allusions in letters that are dated, or can be dated, may also pro- 

4 See above, p. 144. 

5 The entry would not, of course, have given any legal protection against a 
competing book; but if another publisher proposing to bring out a book on the 
same subject, saw by the entry that he had apparently been anticipated, he might 
in all likelihood abandon the project. 

200 An Introduction to Research 

vide evidence for chronology. An argument 7 for dating the composi- 
tion of Spenser's Cantos of Mutability in 1579-80 rests upon allu- 
sions in a letter written at that time by Gabriel Harvey; however, 
the case rests upon an interpretation which some scholars are unwill- 
ing to accept. 8 October or November, instead of March (1581) is 
suggested as the date of the marriage of Penelope Devereux to Lord 
Rich on the strength of references in a letter, written by Richard 
Brakinbury to the Earl of Rutland and dated September 1 8, 1581, in 
which the marriage is referred to as still in prospect. Since other 
details in the letter are demonstrably correct, it may well be that the 
writer was telling the truth about the wedding.- 9 

The date of Waller's Panegyric to My Lord Protector is indicated 
by a dated edition and also by a reference in a dated letter. 10 An 
article on Congreve uses two statements and a letter by Congreve, a 
statement by a contemporary, and other bits of evidence to establish 
the probability that a first draft of the Old Bachelor was written in 
the spring of 1689 and that the play was still being revised as late as 
August, 1692. ** A study of Shenstone reveals that a letter may con- 
tain an allusion to an event that can be dated by an announcement in 
a contemporary publication ; or a letter may be dated by the fact that 
it contains an allusion that can be connected with some reference in 
a dated letter.' 2 

Sometimes we may discover the terminus ante quern of a literary 
work by the fact that a reply to it exists and can be dated; thus 
Milton's Of Pr statical Episcopacy must be earlier than May 31, 1641, 
since a reply to it is so dated. 1S 

Other external evidence for dating a work may be arrived at 
through our knowledge of an author's life. If we know that a man 
was seriously ill during a certain week or month, we may take it as 
unlikely that he did any extensive writing at that time. If an author, 
in one of his books, says that he has always enjoyed perfect health, 
we might take the date of a serious illness as the terminus ante quern 
for that work : if another book contains an allusion to the illness, the 
date of the illness provides a terminus a quo for that book. 

An argument for 1374 or 1375 as the date of composition of 
Chaucer's ''Monk's Tale'' is based on a theory as to the way in which 
the material for part of the tale came to Chaucer. 14 The period 1568- 
72 is suggested as the date of composition of Henry Cheke's Freewyl 

Methods of Research: Chronology 201 

on the ground that (i) on being graduated from Cambridge in 1568 
Cheke might well have wished to do something to make a name for 
himself, and (2) after 1572 he was too much occupied with politics 
to have had time for writing.*'* 

Circumstances other than those in the life of the author may also 
contribute evidence for dating. Knowledge of the practices of the 
Restoration theatre leads one author to suggest some time during 
Lent in 1677 as the date of the first performance of Wits Led by the 
Nose. 16 Similarly, external evidence helps in the dating of two of 
Dryden's plays. It is indicated that Marriage a la Mode was written 
before July 13, 1671, since there is evidence that the King read the 
play at Windsor and the most likely time for that reading is the 
period from May 26 to July 13, 1671. Moreover, since the Rehearsal 
which appeared in December, 1671 contains satire directed against 
Marriage a la Mode, it seems likely that the latter play was per- 
formed long enough before December for audiences to have become 
familiar with it ; otherwise, the satire would lack point. Similar evi- 
dence would date Amboyna before June, 1672. 17 

Let us now turn to internal evidence of date. The most common 
instance of internal evidence is the occurrence in a work of an allu- 
sion to a datable event. The death of a monarch, the birth of an heir, 
a new title of nobility, a notable storm or earthquake or famine or 
plague an allusion to any of these may provide a terminus a quo 
for the writing (or revising) of the work in which the allusion occurs. 
Some question has been raised in connection with an allusion of this 
sort in The Owl and the Nightingale ; does the prayer for the king's 
soul necessarily imply that the king is dead, and hence date the poem 
as having been written after 1189? t8 The fact that Henry Cheke 's 
Freewyl is dedicated to Lady Cheyne who did not become Lady 
Cheyne until 1572 proves that the work was printed, 79 though not 
necessarily composed, after that date. 6 

Similarly, arguments based on allusions to contemporary events 
have been advanced in connection with attempts to date the South 

6 Another study based on the same kind of evidence is Acton Grisom's "The Date 
of Composition of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia: New Manuscript Evidence", 
Speculum, I (1926), 120-56. 

202 An Introduction to Research 

English Legendary and the Legenda Aurea* two of the Piers Plow- 
man texts/ 7 the sermons of Bishop Brunton,** the Wakefield cycle,** 
Skelton's Speak, Parrot* 1 * and others of Skelton's poems. 25 In addition 
to the evidence already given for the dating of Cheke's Freewyl, there 
is the fact that the religious controversy which prompted the work 
became less violent after 1570; hence the work was probably com- 
posed in or before that year.** 

We shall often find, as in some of the instances just mentioned, 
that the significance of an allusion as evidence of date depends upon 
the interpretation placed upon the allusion ; thus the student's prob- 
lem becomes a matter of bringing together evidence to support his 
interpretation. If the interpretation can be established, the correct- 
ness of the dating follows as a matter of course Thus, if Spenser s 
Veue of the Present State of Ireland was written, as one scholar 
argues, in support of the plan of the Earl of Essex to lead a conquer- 
ing army into Ireland, it may have been composed in the summer of 
i596. 27 And if Shakspere's Sonnet CVII, in the lines 

The mortal moon hath her eclipse endured, 
And the sad augurs mock their own presage; 
Incertainties now crown themselves assured, 
And peace proclaims olives of endless age. . . . 

refers to the death of Elizabeth and the peaceful accession of James 
[, the poem must have been written on or after March 24, 1603 ** 
Evidence of the same sort has also been used in arguing that Marston 
wrote Antonio's Revenge late in i6oi. 29 

Professor Pound very properly calls attention to some common 
misconceptions concerning English and Scottish popular ballads 
She points out that students are likely to think of the ballads as being 
much more ancient than they actually are; and the makers of 
anthologies have contributed to the error by lumping all the ballads 
together in the time of Chaucer or earlier. Thus we find <k Mary 
Hamilton" assigned by implication to the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century, when as a matter of fact, the heroine of that ballad was a 
contemporary of Mary of Scotland. 5 ' It is true that some ballads are 
very old and some cannot be dated ; but as Miss Pound shows there 
is evidence for dating that is often overlooked. Thus a ballad in 
which Robin Hood is represented as being a Roman Catholic was 

Methods of Research: Chronology 203 

pretty certainly composed before the break between Henry VIII and 
the Pope ; and one in which Robin Hood is satirized must be of com- 
paratively late origin. A ballad celebrating a specific event must 
naturally be later than the event itself, unless it is merely an adapta- 
tion of an older ballad, with a substitution of names. Although the 
date of the event gives us merely the terminus a quo, it will, in most 
instances, provide an approximate limit in the other direction ; foi , 
generally speaking, the ballad will have been composed while the 
event was still fresh in the public memory. Several years ago the 
name of Floyd Collins, who was trapped for days in a cave, was in all 
the headlines ; and long before the case ceased to be news, ballads 
about Floyd Collins were being composed and sung. That was little 
more than a generation ago, but we can hardly imagine any one s 
being inspired to write a ballad about Floyd Collins 7 misadventure 

Allusions in undated letters may furnish evidence of the date ot 
writing when they are compared with allusions in letters whether 
by the same author or another that can be dated. If an undated 
letter is clearly a reply to one that can be dated, the latter provides 
us with a terminus a quo for the date we are seeking. If the letter we 
wish to date alludes to an event mentioned in a dated letter, we may 
again be provided with a terminus a quo ; but if the author speaks of 
an event in prospect if an author, for example, tells us that he has 
just started a new novel the culmination of the event (in this case, 
the publication of the novel) would furnish a terminus ante quern for 
the writing of the letter. 3 * 

Another kind of internal evidence of date is to be found in borrow- 
ings. It goes without saying that a work containing a borrowing muM 
be later than the work from which the borrowing comes. Some of the 
York plays contain borrowings from the Gospel of Nichodemus 
which fact would date the composition or revision of the plays 
about 1400 or later/" It is not always easy, however, to determine 
which is the source and which the borrowing. Thus an argument 
establishing the chronology of certain Elizabethan plays by tin 
assumption that they contain borrowings from Marlowe S4 will col 
lapse if it should turn out that Marlowe was himself the borrowei 
rather than the lender. 55 A study of the relationship between Tht 
Taming of the Shrew and Greene's Orlando Furioso leads to the con 

204 An Introduction to Research 

elusion that the folio version of The Shrew was composed as early as 
A Shrew* 6 

An author may, intentionally or unintentionally, furnish us with 
evidence for dating a work if we can link it up with events of his life. 
The fact that Lord Jim is written in English to take an extreme 
case would be sufficient, even if we had no other evidence, to prove 
that it was written after 1878; not until then did Conrad begin to 
learn the English language. If an author gives evidence in one of his 
works of having read a certain book, and we can discover when he did 
that particular bit of reading, we have provided ourselves with a 
terminus a quo for the writing of the book. Tf he shows in one of his 
works that he has visited a certain city or country, and we can date 
the visit, again we have a terminus a quo for the work. 

Evidence for the dating of a letter may be derived from the fact 
that it was written at a certain place or addressed to a certain place. 
A letter written by Spenser from New Abbey would very probably 
have been written between 1582, in which year he leased the place, 
and 1586, when he wrote to Harvey from Dublin. If Jrom New Abbey 
he wrote a letter to Harvey in London, and we knew that Harvey 
had made a London visit of some length only in 1583, we should have 
brought within fairly narrow limits the date of the letter. Evidence 
of this sort was helpful in establishing the chronology of Congreve's 
letters/ 7 

Sometimes a knowledge of social history will enable us to make use 
of allusions to customs as evidence for dating. If we know that a 
certain style of feminine head-dress was introduced in a certain year, 
that fact gives us a terminus a quo for any work in which such a 
head-dress is referred to as being worn. If we can determine the date 
at which this vogue was replaced by some other, we have evidence 
toward a terminus ante quern. Thus the date of Cambyses has been 
put at 1550 or even earlier on the strength of a reference to embroid- 
ered guards as a new fashion already passe. 58 Another reference to 
costume this time to millinery has been used in attempting to 
establish the date of the authorship of the Wakefield plays. 7 

We come now to the internal evidence of date provided by the 

7 The article referred to (Mendal G. Frampton, "The Date of the Flourishing of 
the 'Wakefield Master* ", PMLA, L (1935), 6.51-60) also makes use of another detail 
of social history the number of gilds in Wakefield and their size, r 

Methods of Research: Chronology 205 

technique of a work. It is well known that an author's technique 
changes as he develops in experience; the early work of a poetic 
dramatist may differ in the proportion of run-on lines, of feminine 
rhymes, and of prose to verse, from that of his mature and later years. 
If we make an analysis of the work we wish to date, 8 and analyze in 
the same way the other works of our author, we may reasonably sup- 
pose that the work in question was written at approximately the same 
time as the works which in technique it most resembles. Although 
evidence of this kind is exceedingly valuable when it is used to con- 
firm other evidence, it is not always convincing when used alone. The 
application of tests of technique to the Wakefield plays in an attempt 
to date them 39 immediately evoked a reply ''" in which the same kind 
of evidence was used to point to a different result. 

Similarly inconclusive have been studies of the technique of 
Spenser's "Cantos of Mutability". Professor Padelford found *' that 
on the evidence of the feminine rhymes the Mutability Cantos were 
written after Cantos I-III. Tests of the compound words and the 
run-on lines indicated that the Mutability Cantos preceded Canto 
VI ; the weightier evidence points to their having been written after 
Canto VI. Using other tests of the same kind, however, Professor 
Purcell arrived at the opposite conclusion : that the Mutability Cantos 
represent early work. Then he very sensibly observed : "From these 
various studies analyzing Spenser's style Padelford's, Fletcher's, 
and the present article it is safe to draw only one conclusion : that 
is, that the counting of words in a partial analysis of a vocabulary is 
not satisfactory evidence for determining the dates of composition 
of portions of The Fazrie Queene" ** He observes also that the differ- 
ence in style between two parts of a work may be deliberate and "not 
the result of a weary or flagging imagination".* 3 

Technique is used as evidence in an argument that Spenser had 
written parts of the Shephearde's Calender before the idea of produc- 
ing a unified work occurred to him and that these parts were incor- 
porated in the larger work.** The evidence of technique is also used to 
support the argument that Waverley is not the first-written of Scott's 
novels.* 5 

8 A very elaborate analysis, which may be applied to prose as well as to poetry, 
is worked out in Edith Rickert's New Methods for the Study of Literature 
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927). 

206 An Introduction to Research 

The last kind of internal evidence of date to be here considered is 
that provided by the language of a work. Expert philologists can date 
a piece of writing if it is long enough to provide a fair test within 
fairly narrow limits by determining what state of the language it 
represents, judging by the presence or absence of inflectional endings, 
by the grammatical constructions used, and so on. It is largely on the 
basis of such evidence that Beowulf is believed to have been written, 
in the form in which we now have it, in the first half or perhaps the 
middle of the eighth century. 9 Linguistic evidence is, of course, most 
valuable in the dating of Old English and Middle English works ; 
grammatical change is so slow in modern English that it is doubtful 
whether linguistic evidence would be very helpful in the dating of 
works written since 1500, especially since better evidence for dating 
is generally available for such works. 

With all the kinds of evidence that have been discussed at our 
service for use in dating literary works, it is still unfortunately true 
that there are some pieces that cannot be dated. A ballad, handed 
down by oral tradition, provides no manuscript to be tested by 
bibliographical evidence ; such a work as "Lord Randal" or "The Twa 
Sisters" alludes to no datable event ; and the linguistic evidence is 
vitiated by the fact that, at best, it may provide a date only for a 
particular version, which version may be a relatively late one. Never- 
theless, with most works we are on rather surer ground in problems 
of chronology than in some other fields. 

9 The one extant manuscript of Beowulf is assigned, on the evidence of the hand- 
writing, to about the year 1000. 



PERHAPS it is obvious that success and influence are by no means 
the same thing and do not necessarily go together. Doubtless no 
book and no writer can be greatly successful without exerting some 
influence, but the influence may not be at all proportionate to the 
success. Conversely, a book might enjoy small success and at the 
same time be greatly influential. Plutarch and Holinshed would have 
left their impress on Elizabethan drama if they had been read by no 
one other than Shakspere, and Horace Walpole might still have in- 
spired the Gothic novel if Mrs. Reeve and Mrs. Radcliffe had heen 
the only readers of The Castle of Otranto. 


It should be fairly easy to determine the success of a modern work. 
The publisher can testify as to the number of copies sold; 1 this is 
not an absolute gauge, since some copies may remain for years on a 
bookstore shelf, but taken 'ogether with library circulation figures, 
should make possible a faiily accurate estimate of the number of 
readers. It is more difficult to determine the success of a work in times 
past. The number of editions is one test ; obviously a work of which 
there were many editions must have enjoyed a greatei success than 
one of which there were few. Unfortunately there is no way of telling 
how many copies of an edition were printed ; 2 one edition may have 

1 The number of copies printed is not a reliable guide; sometimes a considerable 
number is left on the publisher's hands, to be disposed of eventually as "re- 

2 Dr. McKerrow gives (An Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 131-33) such figures 
on the size of editions as are available. 

[ 207 ] 

208 An Introduction to Research 

consisted of anything from one hundred to thousands of copies. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the sixteenth century there was a provision of 
the Stationers' Company that not more than 1250 copies (later 
changed to 1500 and then to 2000) be printed from one setting of 
type ; but that figure gives us only a maximum limit, and we have no 
assurance that the regulation was strictly enforced. For the period 
1475-1640 the Short Title Catalogue will give the number of editions 
of a work of which copies are known to exist ; s and the number of 
editions as compared with the number achieved by a work of similar 
type and appeal is a fairly good measure of success. When a book 
contains a list of subscribers, the length of the list and the importance 
of the names would also furnish some evidence. 1 

The number and nature of contemporary allusions to a work pro- 
vide still better testimony of success. Thus the discovery of previously 
unnoticed references to Middleton's A Game at Chesse gives addi- 
tional information as to the play's popularity. 2 The popularity of 
Shelley's The Cenci has also been studied. 5 A study of Edward 
Fairfax prompted this comment : 

We may see the author admired by his contemporaries for his Ttalianate 
richness of description, praised by the seventeenth century for his 
smoothness and heroics, neglected by the eighteenth for his lack of 
elegance and rime (i.e., of couplets), revived by the romantics for his 
touching passages of emotion, and left on the shelf today because, per- 
haps, we have other things to think about. 4 

An article on Crashaw shows that his poetry had little vogue during 
the eighteenth century, but became increasingly popular in the nine- 
teenth. 5 Similar studies have been made of Fielding, 6 of Samuel 
Butler, 7 of Ruskin, 8 and of the nineteenth-century American humor- 
ists. 9 Literary critics and reviewers may give us some idea of a book's 
success, though it must be remembered that the reading public does 
not always see eye to eye with the experts; Congreve's Mourning 
Bride offers a case in point.'" The existence of a parody testifies to 
the success of the work parodied ; a parody has no point unless the 
original is well known. 11 

3 As has elsewhere been observed, the STC is not perfect ; a good many editions 
are not noted, and sometimes variant copies or issues have been mistaken for edi- 
tions. In a given work, however, such errors can generally be discovered without 
great difficulty. Moreover, a new edition of the STC is in progress. 

Methods of Research: Success and Influence 209 

Sometimes the study of an author's popularity reveals the fact that 
his success was non-existent, or at least was less extensive than had 
been supposed ; the reputation in England of the German romanticist. 
Hoffmann, is greater in the twentieth century than it was throughout 
the nineteenth. 12 A study of the popularity of Pope in the United 
States " showed one piece of evidence to be false, but brought out 
other indications of success. 

One may study the success of a genre rather than that of a writer 
or a specific work ; such a study has been made, for example, of the 
roman de longue haleine the long-winded romance* 1 * 

Studies of success may be limited either geographically or chrono- 
logically, as are some of those already mentioned ; others with geo- 
graphical limits include articles on the fame of Byron in France, 15 
and that of Longfellow, Whitman, 17 and Melville /8 in England. 
Studies with chronological limits include articles on Shakspere's 
sonnets in the early nineteenth century,' 9 and on the contemporary 
popularity of Defoe's Review. 20 Both geographical and chronological 
limits are applied in an article on Melville's Typee and Omoo 21 and 
in Keats' Reputation in America to i848. 22 One might profitably 
direct his attention to the type of reader attracted to a certain work 
or to an author. 


Let us consider now the matter of influence as distinct from suc- 
cess. Questions of influence are much like the problems of source 
study considered in an earlier chapter; indeed, the difference is 
largely, if not wholly, one of attitude. The student of Marlowe thinks 
of the relation between Shakspere and Marlowe as an instance of 
Marlowe's influence; to the student of Shakspere it is a matter of 
Marlowe's being one of Shakspere's sources. One of the most interest- 
ing things to consider in any question involving influence is the 
reason for it. Why does one man like Chaucer, say exert so strong 
and so lasting an influence, while another like Pope whose influ- 
ence was for a while even greater, loses his hold on his fellows in a 
relatively short time ? And why is one age, like that of Elizabeth, so 
avidly receptive to new ideas, while another is, by comparison, smug 
and self-satisfied? To answer these questions one must invade the 
fields of psychology and social history; such an excursion would 

210 An Introduction to Research 

hardly come within the province of this book. 4 We are concerned 
here rather with the questions "What kinds of influence may one 
study?" and "How is one to proceed in such studies?" 

The most obvious kind of influence is that of one author upon 
another. When the latter frequently alludes to the work of the former, 
or directly quotes from himas Walt Whitman quoted Shakspere M 
we have proof of influence ; but the influence may be much broader 
and deeper than the quotations and allusions alone would indicate. 
Professor Clark found that the influence of Shakspere on Shelley is 
proved by various bits of evidence, among them "parallels in thought, 
phrase, imagery, symbolism fin the work of Shelley] to passages in 
the plays of Shakspere . . ." 2/t An article based on similarity of 
ideas and an allusion brings out the influence of Voltaire on 
Thoreau ; 25 similarly, references and parallel passages show the influ- 
ence of Mary Tighe on Keats. 26 Other studies bring out the influence 
of Virgil on Spenser ; * 7 of Beaumont and Fletcher on Shakspere ; * 8 
of Burton on Keats; * 9 and of Swift on Keats 50 and Franklin; Sl of 
Milton on Freneau; s * of Keats on Shelley, 55 RossettV' and William 
Morris ; 55 of Shakspere on Scott ; 5fi of Maurice Morgann on 
Hazlitt ; 57 of Roger Fry on Virginia Woolf ; 58 and of Ibsen on James 
Joyce. 55 

The influence of a writer or a work may also be shown by pointing 
to imitations, replies, or attacks ; evidence of this sort brings out the 
relation between Charles Churchill and various minor eighteenth- 
century satirists. 40 

Sometimes personal acquaintance or friendship may be evidence of 
influence almost sufficient in itself. Even if we knew nothing more 
than that Wordsworth and Coleridge were intimate friends for years, 
we should be very sure each being the sort of person that he was 
that they must have profoundly influenced one another. Examples of 
less famous literary friendships are those of Markham and Garland ** 
and Trowbridge and Whitman.** 

It may happen that investigation of the influence of one writer on 
another achieves the negative result of proving that no such influence 
existed ; that is the conclusion of a study of the influence of Boling- 

4 Professor Morize has an excellent discussion of these matters in Problems and 
Methods, pp. 225-62. 

Methods of Research: Success and Influence 211 

broke on Voltaire.* 5 As I have elsewhere suggested,* people are 
sometimes contemptuous of negative results ; but in some studies a 
negative result may be just as interesting and just as important a 
contribution to knowledge as a positive one. 

Sometimes in studying the influence of one man upon another we 
may be particularly concerned with the effect on the latter's thinking 
as was the author of an article on Bacon's influence on Hall ** or 
on his life as well as on his works as was the author of an article on 
Socrates and Byron. 45 Or the interest of a study may be centered in a 
changing or developing influence, such as that of Wordsworth on 
Emerson. ** 

We may profitably interest ourselves in some instances with the 
way an influence was exerted. Thus it is said of the influence of 
Bacon on Shelley that it was indirect rather than direct, that "It was 
the spirit of the great philosopher that influenced Shelley. . . . They 
were, in fact, kindred spirits, for Bacon treated philosophy poetically, 
and Shelley treated poetry philosophically." 47 

An influence may be discovered in certain of an author's works, but 
not found in others ; thus the influence of Charles Brockden Brown 
is thought to be strong in Shelley's work before 1817 but not evident 
in his later writings. 48 A study of Arthur Hugh dough's Mari Magno 
concludes that the work shows in its themes the influence of Crabbe, 
and in its form, that of Chaucer. 49 The influence of an author on one 
aspect of another's work is brought out in an article on Virgil and 
Dryden : 5n and an influence exerted on a group of works is studied 
in a paper on the influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on Restoration 
drama. 57 

Sometimes an influence may exist in one detail or one respect. 
Thomas Vaughan is thought to be responsible for the interest in 
Hermetic philosophy shown by his brother, Henry, 52 and also for the 
latter's ideas concerning God in nature. 53 

One may study an influence upon style or technique. 54 In one 
article Lydgate is blamed I think the word is permissible here for 
the "aureate" language of the Scottish Chaucerians ; 55 in another the 
influence of Virgil upon the forms of English verse is brought out. 56 

The influence of a single writer may be seen throughout a genre, as 

ft See above, p. 184. 

212 An Introduction to Research 

Lyly affected Elizabethan prose fiction or Poe the short story. A 
study of Prevost concludes that much of the sentimentalism of the 
English novel in the second half of the eighteenth century can be 
traced to the author of Manon Lescaut. 57 It may happen that the sus- 
pected influence can be disproved; thus it is denied that the type 
represented by Chaucer's "Monk's Tale" the collection of tragic 
"falls" is traceable to Boccaccio. 58 

A study may be made of the influence of a single writer upon two 
or more writers, or upon a people, or an age. Blake is shown to have 
influenced "A.E." and, even more deeply, Yeats/ 9 Conversely, one 
may disprove such an influence. The pessimism of later nineteenth- 
century England is attributed, not to Schopenhauer as might well 
be supposed but to "certain social causes which clearly had begun 
to operate before Schopenhauer was known, . . ." 60 Similarly, Rous- 
seau is found to have been less influential in eighteenth-century 
England than he is generally thought to have been. 61 

The influence of several writers upon a period may be studied, 
though to analyze and disentangle the separate influences would be 
an almost, if not quite, insuperable task. Allusions would indicate, 
according to one article, that the writers most influential in the last 
decade of the eighteenth century were Shakspere, Milton, Thomson, 
Collins, Thomas Warton, Burns, Southey, and Gray. 62 

Attention may be directed to the influence of a single work, as that 
of Ovid's Metamorphoses on Spenser's Mutability Cantos. 63 A whole 
host of works with titles ending in "-iad" are to some extent at least 
imitations of Pope's Dunciad* 1 * 

The interest of a study may lie in the means by which an influence 
is exerted by one work upon other works. Whether the Platonic 
element in the heroic drama of the Restoration came from French 
sources or from earlier English drama is the question discussed in a 
series of articles. 65 

The influence of a work upon a type of literature may be studied, 
as in an article on the influence of Ivanhoe upon the writing of his- 
tory. 66 Or one might study the influence of a work such as Uncle 
Tom's Cabin or The Descent of Man upon a people or a period. 

An influence even a literary one is not necessarily that of a 
writer or a work ; it may derive from a literary form, or a style, or a 
convention. Thus we might study the influence of the ballad on Scott, 

Methods of Research: Success and Influence 213 

or the drama on Browning ; we might seek to trace the influence of 
Euphuism on prose style, or of conceits on poetry; we might examine 
the effect on literature of such stock characters as the braggart soldier 
or the clever servant, of such devices as disguises or asides. Professor 
Baldwin shows in Chaucer a reaction against the conventional popu- 
larity of rhetorical "colors" ; 6 ' 7 a study of the "vice" and "parasite" 
shows the influence of a type character on a genre. 69 

Influences other than literary ones may be studied; there are 
articles on the influence of painting on F. Hopkinson Smith 69 and 
Theodore Dreiser, 70 for example. 

The circumstances of an author's life exert an influence that may 
be studied. Scott's lameness made it necessary for him to indulge his 
interest in military exploits by writing about them instead of living 
them. The poverty-stricken boyhood of Dickens is reflected through- 
out his humanitarian novels, and the seafaring experiences of Joseph 
Conrad color everything he wrote. Without having known M. Heger, 
Charlotte Bronte could hardly have written Villette ; and Wuthering 
Heights undoubtedly owes much to Emily's relations with her brother 

One may study if he has sufficient background in history as well 
as in literature the influence of one period upon another. There can 
be no doubt that much of the laxity of the Restoration was caused by 
the strictness of the Commonwealth ; and much of the literature of 
the fin de si&cle was written in protest against another era of puritan- 
ism. One study of this sort involves the influence of Old English 
poetry upon a Middle English author. 7 ' 

The last kind of study of influence to be mentioned here deals with 
the influence of the literature of one country upon that of another. 
Three articles have to do with the influence of Irish literature upon 
English. 72 


In undertaking a study of the success of a writer, one must first 
determine as accurately as possible the number of people who have 
read his work in the period under consideration. Publisher's sales 
figures and library circulation have already been mentioned as guides 
available for recent works ; for more remote periods one must rely 
upon the number of editions (if that can be determined), references 

214 An Introduction to Research 

and allusions, quotations, and unacknowledged borrowings. The in- 
clusion of a work in the curriculum of a school or college will also 
give us information if we can discover how many individuals sub- 
mitted themselves to that curriculum. The fact that the reading was 
required makes the success of such a work a little different from that 
of one which is read voluntarily; nevertheless its being required 
represents a kind of success that must be taken into consideration. If 
we could compare the number of people who, during the past forty 
years, have read Dickens, with the number of readers of Thackeray, 
there would undoubtedly be a large plurality in favor of Dickens; 
but is the true measure of success of the two novelists to be deter- 
mined by these figures in view of the fact that Dickens, far more 
often than Thackeray, is "required reading"? Similarly, David 
Copperfield has perhaps far more readers than any other of Dickens' 
novels; is it, therefore, the most "successful"? These are questions 
that must be considered by one who attempts to solve problems of 
literary success. 

Another kind of qualified success is that achieved by a work when 
the reading of it comes to be a sort of tour de force. For a number of 
years Professor William Lyon Phelps printed in Scribner's Magazine 
the names of all correspondents who testified to having read Spenser's 
Fcerie Queene, and the American Legion Magazine included in a 
"roll of honor" the names of those who had read Gibbon's The 
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Such part of the success of a 
work as is due to readers who wish to see their names in print or to 
boast of their accomplishment is surely to some extent a spurious 
success. Another anomaly is presented by mile ; as one writer put it : 
"Although Emile stands at the head of Rousseau's works in point of 
eighteenth-century English diffusion, and although this is no mean 
position, its reputation was predominantly unfavorable." 7S 

Another circumstance which may serve to qualify the success of a 
work is popularity as a gift book. In the latter part of the last century 
and the first years of this, graduates and celebrators of anniversaries 
were likely to find among their presents The Idylls of the King or 
Lucile or both. A copy of one of these works, generally in a colorful 
if not lavish binding, was to be found on many a parlor table ; but it 
was there largely, if not solely, as an ornament. There were certainly 
many people who owned copies of Lucile but never read it, knew 

Methods of Research: Success and Influence 215 

nothing of u Owen Meredith's" other works, did not know that "Owen 
Meredith was the Earl of Lytton; hence an estimate of Lytton's 
success hased on the number of copies of Lucile sold would be a 
fallacious estimate. 

In attempting to study the influence of a writer or a work 
one's problem is even more difficult. It first must be determined that 
an influence was exerted, for it is possible to read a book without 
receiving trom it any stimulus, any effect. Perhaps, strictly speaking, 
there is always an effect, since a bit of reading like any other 
experience -inevitably contributes something to one's life; but the 
effect may be much too slight to constitute an influence that can be 
studied. A jesting remark of Stephen Leacock concerning the influ- 
ence of (Ireek or Latin upon the disciples of the classics contains an 
element of truth: 

My friend the Professor of Greek tells me that he truly believes the 
classics have made him what he is. This is a very grave statement, if well 
founded Indeed I have heard the same argument from a great many 
Latin and Greek scholars. They all claim, with some heat, that Latin and 
Greek have practically made them what they are. This damaging charge 
against the classics should not be too readily accepted. In my opinion 
some of these men would have been what they are, no matter what they 
were. 7 * 

To show that an author or a work exerted an influence upon John 
Doe, we must, then, first prove that Doe read the work or works in 
question and, second, show that he was affected by his reading in 
some discernible and demonstrable fashion 

For an author to admit his indebtedness to a predecessor or a 
contemporary is of course helpful to the student interested in tracing 
the latter's influence, but such admissions must not be pushed too 
far. An author might honestly think himself influenced by something 
which did not actually affect him, or might think the influence 
greater than in fact it was. Or one might think that he should have 
been influenced by Shakspere or Milton, and say that he was from 
fear of being thought unappreciative. Even when an author is telling 
the exact truth, we can make little of his statement unless we find 

216 An Introduction to Research 

evidence to confirm it. A writer like Lord Dunsany, for example, 
might conceivably be perfectly unaware of the influence of the Old 
Irish language and literature upon his style; he might tell us that 
the strongest influence on his work is that of the Bible. That the 
Irish influence is there, whether or not the author is conscious of 
it, could easily be demonstrated ; how strong the Biblical influence is 
could be determined only by a study of the diction, imagery, ideas, 
and rhythms. 

The warnings previously given 6 in connection with the study of 
sources apply also to the study of influences. Parallels must be real 
parallels, explainable only on the ground of a source-and-influence 
relationship. One must not make the mistake of allowing a knowledge 
of a certain writer, or an interest in him, to delude one into dis- 
covering his influence in all of his successors ; few men have been 
so influential as their champions are likely to think them. It must 
be remembered, too, that influences may be indirect ; they are still 
influences, to be sure, but with a difference. A book written under 
the stimulus of All for Love would represent the influence of Shak- 
spere, and of Plutarch, for that matter ; but the primary influence 
and in certain respects the only one that counts would be that of 
Dryden. A work inspired by the cinema version of Gone with the 
Wind or Of Mice and Men would represent the influence of Mar- 
garet Mitchell or of Steinbeck only indirectly. 

It must be remembered, too, that as the last illustration sug- 
gests there are influences other than literary ones. Radio, music, 
art all of the things, in fact, that can serve as sources may exert 
influences, some of which would be difficult, if not impossible, to 

One who seeks to solve problems of influence must have an exten- 
sive background, in order that he may not mistake one influence for 
another ; he must be open-minded to the point of skepticism, lest he 
should discover an influence that does not exist. In publishing his 
results let him suggest influences where he finds good reason to 
suspect them, but confine more positive assertions to those that can 
be proved. 

*See above, pp. 167-71. 



IT is the objective of the student of literature to appreciate what 
he reads ; in order to appreciate, he must interpret, and interpret 
rightly. A Hottentot or an infant might derive a certain pleasure 
from hearing Shaksperean verse or Biblical prose well read. An adult, 
ignorant of English, might be able to tell, just from hearing a read- 
ing of L' Allegro and II Penseroso, which of the two poems expresses 
the meditative mood and which the light-hearted. But true appre- 
ciation demands understanding, and understanding often involves 
problems of interpretation. 

One who reads Spenser's Mother Hubberds Tale without thinking 
of Burghley and Elizabeth's court, or Gulliver's Travels without 
reference to its political and social background, or Joseph Andrews 
without having read Pamela, will gain something, no doubt ; but he 
will miss what is most important in each work. Sometimes the essence 
of a work is its allegory or symbolism, as in Melville's Mardi ; 1 with- 
out interpretation, there can be neither appreciation nor understand- 
ing. Even where there is no appearance of allegory, or symbolism, or 
satire, one must still be on his guard ; Defoe's The Shortest Way 
with Dissenters deceived everyone for a time. Moreover, those works 
that have no secondary or hidden meaning must, to be fully appre- 
ciated, be read in the spirit of their times. Long though it is, Clarissa 
must be read entire for its full flavor to be savored ; one must realize, 
too, that eighteenth-century readers, brought up on "long-winded 
romances", did not find long books either tedious or tiresome. With- 
out an understanding of the author and of those for whom he wrote, 

[ 217 ] 

218 An Introduction to Research 

one cannot know all there is to be known about any literary 

Sometimes a problem of interpretation involves only a part of a 
work a single word, or a phrase, or a short passage. Professor 
Gerould corrects a misapprehension concerning Chaucer's Franklin 
by citing evidence that the word implied, not a parvenu, but a mem- 
ber of the gentry. 2 Another scholar is concerned with the meaning 
of the word burdoun in Chaucer. 5 The word favours had various 
meanings in Elizabethan times; its use in King Henry IV, Part I 
(V, iv, 96) has been interpreted to mean that Prince Hal takes the 
plumes from his own helmet to cover the face of his dead foe. 4 A 
famous crux in Hamlet (V, ii, 298) might be solved by interpreting 
the word fat to mean sweaty ; the author of the suggestion points out 
that the word is still so used in Wisconsin. 5 A difficulty in V Allegro 
is removed if we consider the word hoar as meaning misty or dewy 
rather than frosty. 6 Sometimes the word involved constitutes an 
allusion ; thus the identification of the name Letitia, in one number 
of The Rambler, with Letitia Pilkington, leads to the suggestion that 
in that reference Dr. Johnson was making a bid for popularity. 7 
Other articles in which interpretation depends upon the identification 
of characters deal with Spenser's Fcerie Queene 8 and Shepheardes 
Calender, 9 Nashe's Pierce Penilesse, 10 and Pope's A Receipt to Make 
an Epic Poem. 11 An autobiographical interpretation of Shelley's 
Alastor rests mainly upon the connotation of the word used as the 
title. 12 Suggestions concerning Browning's A Grammarian's Funeral 
depend upon two words used in the poem ; comment is interpreted as 
meaning, not the commentary printed with the text, but one that the 
grammarian intended to write, and the Latin word tussis is given a 
double meaning. 15 Sometimes the problem is one of translating from 
a foreign language ; taking the Latin alter in one of Gabriel Harvey's 
letters as changed rather than another makes it possible to infer that 
Spenser's wife was the "Rosalind" of the Shepheardes Calender. 1 * 
Sometimes it seems possible to interpret a word only by emending it, 
as in the reference to Falstaff 's death cited in another chapter ; x a 

1 See above, pp. 114-16. 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 219 

suggested emendation of a single word clears up a difficulty in the 
Exeter Harrowing of Hell. 15 

It may be that the interpretation of a word involves another word, 
or the context. In Shakspere's Sonnet CVII, if we take the "Mortal 
Moon" to be Queen Elizabeth, and "eclipse" to mean death, the other 
allusions fall into place and the poem becomes a celebration of the 
peaceful accession of James I. 16 The fact that Malvolio refers to a 
drinking song "Please One, and Please All" as a "true" sonnet is 
taken to indicate that he was not so much a puritan as is generally 
supposed. 17 That Shakspere's conception of the balcony scenes in 
Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, and III, v) was quite different from the 
modern staging of them is suggested by Tom Coryat's difficulty in 
attempting to explain Italian architecture to Elizabethan readers. 18 
The proper interpretation of the word "Yis" in the light of the 
passage that precedes it brings out the point of the joke in Chaucer's 
Housof Fame (Book II). 19 

Sometimes interpretation involves a phrase rather than a word a 
line in Beowulf (1. 1231)^ or an expression in the Canterbury Tales 
(Prologue to the "Reeve's Tale").* 1 Several of Shakspere's expressions 
have called forth explanations : "partridge wing" in Much Ado about 
Nothing (II, i, 155) ; M . "standing water" in Twelfth Night (I, v, 
168) ; 2S "star-crossed lovers" in Romeo and Juliet (Prologue, 1. 
6) ; *** and "miching Mallico" in Hamlet (III, ii, 147) * 5 to name 
only a few. Two of Milton's phrases have aroused considerable dis- 
cussion: the "two-handed engine" of Lycidas (1. 130)** and the 
"golden Compasses" of Paradise Lost (Book VII, 1. 22 5). * 7 An inter- 
pretation of Endymion is based upon the meaning of the phrase 
"fellowship with essence", 28 and the implication of "no voyager e'er 
puts back" is taken by one writer to be the crux of Melville's 
Mardi* 9 

An interpretation of a passage this time a scene in a play 
involves Webster's Duchess of Malfi ; objection is made, because of 
the attitude expressed by other characters in the play, to the idea that 

220 An Introduction to Research 

the Madmen's Scene (IV, ii) provided any comic relief . so Other 
articles are devoted to the interpretation of parts of works by 
Milton,* 1 Shelley/* and Coleridge/ 5 

Sometimes the part of a work to be interpreted is not a scene or a 
passage but a character or a type of character recurring in several 
works. One article deals with the Green Knight in Gawain and the 
Green Knight* 1 * another with a character in John Brown's Body ; ss 
studies of recurring characters concern Melville, 36 Edwin Arlington 
Robinson, 37 and Robinson Jeffers. 38 


Coming now to problems of interpretation involving whole works 
rather than parts of works, we may consider first those in which an 
interpretation is arrived at by consideration of the work itself. A 
unity otherwise lacking may be found in Beowulf if the poem is 
thought of as essentially a pageant-drama. 39 Inconsistencies and con- 
tradictions in the character of Criseyde which have long bothered 
readers of Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde are explained by the fact 
that the heroine is a static character, that the requirements of the 
story make her what she is.''" (It has sometimes been suggested that 
a similar view would provide the true solution of the Hamlet prob- 
lem ; Hamlet must act as he does to furnish material for a five-act 
play.) A reconsideration of the text itself gives explanations for Piers 
Plowman, 1 * 1 Gorboduc?* and for Hamlet.'** Another writer finds, 
largely within the work itself, material for an interpretation of The 
Marble Faun. kk 

Sometimes an interpretation of a work can be achieved by a con- 
sideration of the relation between a part of the work and the whole, 
by establishing a consistency between the two. It has been thought 
that the last stanza of Chaucer's "Envoy to Scogan" contains an 
appeal for help from Scogan ; an interpretation which makes this last 
part consistent with the remainder of the poem seems much more 
convincing. 45 The incongruity between the epilogue of Troilus and 
Criseyde and the poem itself might be accounted for as due to the 
conflict between the two natures of the author the pure artist and 
the religious man. y/e A study of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 221 

provides an interpretation that brings the rather obtrusive moral into 
harmony with the poem as a whole. 47 

Sometimes to determine the authorship of a work enables one to 
make the proper interpretation. If James Thomson wrote "To the 
Memory of Mr. Congreve' 1 , the character "Cenus" is easily identified 
as Thomson's enemy, Joseph Mitchell.* 8 

We may find our best opportunity to interpret a work by drawing 
upon our understanding of the author's psychology at the stage in his 
career represented by the work in question. Three articles on Dray- 
ton's Sirena ^ and two on Shakspere's The Tempest 50 are based on 
evidence of this kind, as is a study of Melville's "Benito Cereno". 51 
The whole body of a man's work may be studied in the same way, as 
in articles on Richardson 52 and E. E. Cummings. 55 Unfortunately, 
we lack objective standards for measuring the minds of others ; 2 
hence, interpretations based on one's view of the author's psychology 
will not carry conviction to a person who has a different conception 
of the author. 

We have evidence somewhat more concrete when we turn to other 
works by the same author in seeking to interpret a piece of literature. 
Making due allowance for technical and intellectual development, 
and allowing, too, for changes of mind and human liability to error, 
we should be able so to interpret any literary work as to bring it 
into harmonious relationship with the rest of the author's work. By 
an interpretation which implies a reconciliation with Wolsey, Skel- 
ton's last work is brought into harmony with his earlier poems. 5 * 
Students have drawn upon the whole canon of Keats, and upon that 
of Shelley, to confirm interpretations of various poems by one or the 

2 See, Kowever, Caroline F [ranees] E [leaner] Spurgeon, Shakespeare's Imagery, 
and What It Tells Us (New York: Macmillan, and Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, 19.35) ; an earlier work by the same author is "Shakespeare's Iterative 
Imagery", Proceedings of the British Academy, XVII (1931), 147-78. See also 
Lillian Hcrlands Hornstein, "Analysis of Imagery: A Critique of Literary Method", 
PMLA, LVII (1942), 638-53. 

222 An Introduction to Research 

other of those two writers. 55 And Melville's other works provide a 
basis for an interpretation of "Daniel Orme". 56 The whole body of an 
author's work may be studied in the light of the inter-relationship of 
the various works. 57 Often the author himself may provide an inter- 
pretation. 58 

The work of other writers may also help us to interpret an author 
in whom we are interested. By bringing together references in Scan- 
dinavian accounts as well as in Old English versions, Professor 
Malone throws light on the story of Hrethric and hence on Beowulf, 
in which poem Hrethric is mentioned. 59 An interpretation of the first 
part of Beowulf is based, to some extent, on references in Tacitus.** 
The study of many writers of Tudor and earlier times provided a 
basis for an interpretation of Marlowe's Edward 11. G1 The theory of 
courtesy expressed in The F&rie Queene, Book VI, is found to be a 
blend of Renaissance courtesy book ideas and the ideals of Christian 
knighthood/* The same method of study is used* in several other 
studies of Spenser , 6S and in an article on Marston's Fawn and Beau- 
mont's Woman Hater. 64 Wordsworth provides the basis for an inter- 
pretation of Coleridge's Ancient Mariner, 6 * and Maxwell Anderson's 
Winterset has been interpreted in the light of Jewish apocalyptic 
literature. 66 

Historical events whether those of national importance, like the 
invasion of an armada, the rise of a new favorite, or the death of a 
monarch ; or those of purely personal concern, such as the gain or loss 
of a wife or child may provide the key for an understanding of a 
literary work for which they constitute the background. Such evi- 
dence is brought to bear in articles on The Owl and the Nightingale 67 
and Guillaume de Palerme ; 68 in the latter study Professor McKeehan 
suggests that the author purposely emphasized parallels to contempo- 
rary events as a means of stimulating interest in his story. Interpreta- 
tions in the light of history have been made of the "Tale of Sir 
Thopas" " and of the Parlement of Foules. 70 Similar historical evi- 
dence is used to support the suggestion that The Pearl was intended 
as an elegy in honor of Margaret, granddaughter of Edward III. 71 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 223 

One article on Piers Plowman would connect the A-Text with the 
Good Parliament, 72 another, with the Norman Wars. 

An article on Malory finds historical significance in Le Morte 
d 'Arthur, 7 ** one on Skelton, in Speak, Parrot. 75 Several studies of 
Spenser look to contemporary events to provide the clues to the mean- 
ing of the poet's works. Thus one interpretation of Muipotmos makes 
the poem an allegory of Sidney, involving Penelope Devereux and 
others of Elizabeth's court ; 76 and a reply to that view takes the posi- 
tion that it is Sidney's wife rather than Penelope who is portrayed. 77 
Another objection to the identification of Spenser's Asterie as Pene- 
lope Devereux makes the point that there is no contemporary 
evidence that the marriage of Penelope to Lord Riche caused any 
such commotion among Sidney and his friends as has often been 
assumed. 78 An interpretation of Spenser's Veue of the Present State 
of Ireland is based upon references to contemporary events contained 
in letteis in Spenser's hand. 79 Historical evidence is also used in 
another article on Spenser's Veue. 80 The fact that there was in Spen- 
ser's day a reaction against Italianate influence makes the large pro- 
portion of classical coinages in The Fane Queene of possible sig- 
nificance in the understanding of the poem. 81 Two more articles on 
the Elizabethan period are based on historical evidence; Greene's 
James IV is interpreted in the light of the contemporary state of 
affairs in Scotland, 8 -* and Shakspere's Timon of Athens is taken to be 
a defense of the Earl of Essex. 83 

Knowledge of Manso leads to the suggestion that the "cups" 
referred to in the Epitaphium Damonis 3 as having been given to 
Milton by Manso were actually books, copies of Manso's works. 8 * 
Professor Moore finds in the political background of Otway's Venice 
Preserved evidence that the play is a satiric attack on Parliament in 
its conflict with Charles II. 85 

Social history is utilized in an interpretation of Nights with Uncle 
Remus. 86 Uncle Remus, Brer Rabbit, the other characters, and the 
author himself are studied in the light of Joel Chandler Harris's 
understanding of the situation in the South following the Civil War 
and his desire to interpret that situation to readers in the North. 

1 Ll. 181-83. 

224 An Introduction to Research 

Differences between the Folio version and other texts of Shak- 
spere s Henry V prompted the interpretation that the Folio text is one 
designed for a special performance before courtiers on the eve of the 
return of the Earl of Essex from Ireland. 87 Wherever different ver- 
sions of a work exist, whether the differences are to be accounted for 
as due to interference by church or state or to a change of heart on 
the part of the author, the fact that there are variations must affect 
any attempt at interpretation. 

If a writer, in borrowing from some other writer, makes a change 
in the material borrowed, we may find in the nature of the change a 
clue to help in understanding the later work. Thus when Robert 
Greene takes from Thomas Bowes' translation of Primaudaye's 
French Academic several stories illustrative of the strange operation 
of fortune, and omits the story of Tamburlaine which is the best 
of the lot we may find in the omission a bit of evidence that Greene 
was jealous over the success of Marlowe's play and had no wish to 
give his rival free publicity. 88 Such evidence but involving changes 
rather than an omission has been used in an attempt to interpret 
Spenser's Muipotmos Other interpretations in the light of sources 
involve works of Bacon, 90 Fielding/ 7 Keats/'* and Yeats.- 95 

A reply to a work may throw a great deal of light on the work 
itself. The theory that Spenser's letter to Harvey (now lost) ex- 
pressed no great hope of going abroad in 1579 OJ > is challenged on the 
strength of Harvey's reply. 1 * 5 

It is obvious that the date of a work has a vital bearing on the 
interpretation of it. If a work was written before an event occurred, 
it cannot except by way of prophecy refer to that event. If Shak- 
spere was known to his contemporaries in the summer of 1592 as a 
rising young playwright, then the attack on the "upstart Crow, beau- 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 225 

tified with our feathers" contained in Greenes Groatsworth of Wit k 
may very well be as is universally asserted an attack upon Shak- 
spere. But if Shakspere was known to Greene only as an actor, or not 
known at all and there is no proof that Greene had ever heard of 
him then, whatever may be the significance of the famous letter 
(assuming that Greene wrote it), it cannot be an attack on Shak 

Or, if a work is proved to have been written so long after an event 
that allusion to the event would have lost point, we must take that 
fact into consideration in any interpretation of the work. Professor 
Lawrence uses evidence of this sort in attacking Professor Manly's 
theory IJ6 that Chaucer's "Sir Thopas" is a satire directed against the 
Flemings. 37 

It is also obvious that interpretation depends upon punctuation. 
In the classic example in the old play, Udall's Roister Doister, 
changes in punctuation turn a most insulting document into a love 
letter. 98 It must be remembered that the punctuation in the older 
literature was scanty and careless and frequently confusing; the 
punctuation in the texts that we read today was supplied by modern 
editors, and may, consequently, misrepresent the author's intention. 
The punctuation of Beowulf was discussed by Professor Emerson." 
An article on the character of Chaucer's Criseyde is based in part 
upon a proposed change in punctuation. 1 '^ The passage involved 
reads, in Professor Root's text : 

The morwen come, and, gostly for to speke, 
This Diomede is come unto Criseyde; 
And shortly, lest that ye my tale breke, 
So wel he for hym selven spak and seyde, 
That all hir sykes sore adown he leyde. 
And finally, the sothe for to seyne, 
He refte hire of the grete of all hire peyne. 5 

4 Ed. Bodley Head Quarto, p. 45 ; ed. Grosart, XII, 144. 

8 Geoffrey Chaucer, The Book of Troilus and Criseyde, ed. Robert Kilburn Rool 
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1926), p. 366 (Book V, stanza 148). 

226 An Introduction to Research 

By changing the semicolon after "Criseyde" to a period, Professor 
Graydon would emphasize the break between lines two and three, and 
make the "shortly" rhetorical : 

The line: 

And shortly, lest that ye my tale breke, 

is not direct narrative continued, but parenthetical comment upon the 
poet's intended method. "To speak briefly so as not to interrupt the 
story too much, Diomede did console her and relieve her of her pain"; 
but neither this statement nor the immediately succeeding stanzas should 
be read without bearing in mind St. 156, which warns us concerning the 
time intervals and sequences of the incidents. lot 

Thus Professor Graydon would have us understand that Diomede 
broke down Criseyde's resistance not shortly after his arrival, but 
only after an indefinite but much longer time. 

Sometimes a correction may involve something more than punctua- 
tion. Several passages in Nashe's Pierce Penilesse are quite unintel- 
ligible in one or another of the old editions. 6 An argument assuming a 
corruption in the text of Shakspere's Henry IV, Part I, would elim- 
inate Gadshill from the famous tavern scene in the second act, on the 
ground that Gadshill, being a "setter", would not have had and 
nowhere else achieves such social equality wth Falstaff and the rest 
as is implicit in his presence with them at the Boar's Head Tavern. 1 "* 

Graphic or plastic evidence may in some instances contribute to 
our understanding of a passage or an entire work. I have mentioned 
in a previous chapter 7 the crux in Beowulf that was explained by the 
discovery of a bronze plate upon which a pair of Viking warriors were 
portrayed. A new significance is attached to the Round Table, famous 
in Arthurian legend, by the fact that many specimens of mediaeval 
art show a round table as a detail of Christian symbolism.* Unlike 

6 For examples see Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, I, 144-47. Some of these diffi- 
culties are removed by what appear to be Nashe's own corrections in later editions. 

7 See above, p. 91. 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 227 

the typical rectangular table of the Middle Ages, with its head and 
foot, its places above and below the salt, the round table provided no 
means of indicating the feudal rank of the diner by his position at the 
table. An attempt to discover just what sort of garment Shylock 
means by his "Jewish gaberdine" is aided by pictures of Jews in 
prescribed costume. lol> Illustrations also provide evidence in a study 
of the Dark Lady of Shakspere's Sonnets. 105 Another use of graphic 
evidence occurs in Professor Moore's study of Middleton's Game at 
Chesse. 106 

The article just cited illustrates another method of interpretation 
the application to a literary work of special knowledge involved in 
the work. Professor Moore made use of his knowledge of the game of 
chess; similarly, one must know astrology to understand certain 
passages in Chaucer, or mediaeval medicine to interpret the lines tell- 
ing of Arcite's death. 8 An article on Middleton's Fair Quarrel fur- 
nishes another instance of the use of special knowledge. 7 

As might be supposed, many articles devoted to problems of inter- 
pretation including some of those already mentioned must depend 
upon combinations of different kinds of evidence. An article on the 
Crist makes use of bibliographical evidence mainly, but other evi- 
dence is also involved.. 7 An article on Chaucer combines the evi- 
dence of history with that provided by other authors. 10!i An inter- 
pretation of Piers Plowman depends upon the three versions of the 
poem and upon other writers. 770 That the theology of a passage in 
Paradise Lost is Arminian is argued on the basis of a comparison of 
the Calvinism of the Westminster Confession with Milton's views as 
expressed in De Doctrina. 111 A study of Thomas Hardy depends 
upon a comparison of his poetry with his other works and with the 
works of other authors. 77 * 

I have left for consideration together a series of articles on Shak- 
spere's Richard II and the Essex conspiracy. 115 Not only do these 

8 Canterbury Tales, "The Knight's Tale", 11. 1885-1902. 

228 An Introduction to Research 

articles afford an opportunity for following through the details of 
two opposed lines of argument, and noting how the same words, the 
same facts, may be differently interpreted ; but also one of them 
it is not necessary to specify which one is an illustration of what a 
scholarly article should not be. It is no part of a scholar's business to 
deal in personalities or invective ; real scholars are equally anxious to 
arrive at truth, and progress in that direction was never made in 
anger. 9 

Indeed, the scholar should go beyond merely restraining his anger ; 
he should at all times display the tolerance and courtesy that are 
the invariable marks of true gentility. Professor Manly once sug- 
gested that ideal to me in rather subtle fashion. I had submitted for 
his consideration a paper which contained this sentence: " Finally, it 
should be said that all students find much for which to be thankful 
and much to condemn in the editions of Dyce, Grosart, and Collins/' 
When he had finished reading the paper, Professor Manly had only 
one suggestion to make: "I think it would be better if you said 
Something to condemn and much for which to be thankful/ " 

What is there to say, in conclusion, of interpretative research? 
First, perhaps, that it is not the kind of research to be undertaken by 
a graduate student. To bring to bear all the resources of linguistics ; 
of history political, social, and economic ; of psychology as applied 
to the author and his contemporaries ; and of textual criticism all 
this will generally require the full equipment of a mature scholar. 
But if a student should, through a "hunch" or a sudden ray of 
illumination, hit upon a new interpretation, he is not debarred by his 
youth from taking advantage of his good fortune. Instead, let him 
amass all the evidence he can find. Let him set down, in orderly 
fashion, all the arguments in favor of his interpretation, and then, 
with equal or greater scrupulousness, all those against. Let him study 

9 It may be remarked that Nashe is generally conceded to have got the better of 
Gabriel Harvey in their quarrel which, to be sure, was not a matter of scholarship, 
though otherwise a case in point not because he called Gabriel more names and 
Tiore ridiculous ones than were hurled at him, but because, aside from name-calling, 
he wrote more effectively. I think anyone who reads the contributions to that famous 
controversy will feel that Nashe is often merely amused and nowhere loses his 
temper; whereas Gabriel is frequently incoherent with fury. 

Methods of Research: Interpretation 229 

the evidence, giving full value to every argument ; for it may very 
well happen that a single bit of contra evidence will make the piling 
up of pro arguments like the adding together of zeros : whether there 
are twelve or twenty, the total is still zero. Having assured himself 
that he has a case, let the student then present his hypothesis, not 
as a revolutionary discovery that must supplant the quaint notions 
of his predecessors, but as a tentative suggestion for the considera- 
tion of those who may be able to bring further evidence to bear on 
the matter. 



ALL literature is characterized by manner as well as matter; an 
XJL investigation of the former is a study in technique, just as the 
investigation of the latter is a matter of interpretation or of the 
history of ideas. We may in general assume that content is more 
important than form; but studies of technique are often of para- 
mount value, especially as they may be made to throw light on the 
meaning of a work or to contribute to our understanding of an author. 
Such studies may confine themselves to a consideration of a single 
device, such as the dream-vision in mediaeval literature, or the solilo- 
quy in Elizabethan drama, or the surprise ending in O. Henry's short 
stories. They may deal with a type of literature a genre, such as the 
novel, the heroic tragedy, or the ode either throughout its history, 
or, more often, in a specific period and region. Or they may concern 
themselves with the technique of a single writer, or with some part 
of that technique. 

Sometimes we are interested in the source or origin of an author's 
technique. We may find the answer to our problem in the existence 
of a definite theory of the art of literature, such as the "rules" reli- 
giously observed by Pope and his followers, or the convention that 
the author of an orthodox detective story must eschew all traces of a 
love interest. Or the source may lie in public opinion or current taste 
the demand for happy endings instead of tragic ones, for prose 
instead of poetry, for short stories rather than long ones. Again we 
may find the secret of an author's technique deep within himself, in 
his experience or his personality. 

[ 230 ] 

Methods of Research: Technique 231 

A study of Middleton's early London comedies finds that the tech- 
nique of those plays represents an attempt to cater to public taste. 1 
The technique of Sir Thomas Browne is found to have its basis in the 
author's personality. 2 In another study, Milton's ability to compose 
by dictation is attributed to a method of work developed before the 
necessity for dictation arose. 3 Still another study traces Emerson's 
theory and practice of poetry to Coleridge's criticism and Words- 
worth's poetry. 4 

We may study an author's technique as an aid to discovering the 
nature and extent of his originality, as in articles on Chaucer, 5 Shak- 
spere,* and Vanbrugh. 7 " - . 

It is on the basis of the technique displayed that paintings are 
ascribed to one artist or another ; perhaps in time we may have tests 
as conclusive to apply to literary works. Even now we may make use 
of our knowledge of an author's technique to provide part of the 
evidence for determining the authorship of a given work. A study of 
Piers Plowman 8 brings out the fact that the increase in the number 
of legal references in the later versions of the poem is more than 
proportional to the increase in the length of the B and C versions over 
that of the A. The study concludes that this evidence is not sufficient 
to prove that the three versions are not by the same author ; but it 
does suggest that, if there was only one author, he added to his knowl- 
edge of the law between the composition of the first and that of the 
succeeding versions, or, if multiple authorship is involved, that the 
authors of the B and C texts were more expert in the law than was 
the author of the A. 

The evidence of technique may help in the dating of a work, though 
generally as contributory rather than determining evidence. A study 
of Spenser's technique in the Shepheardes Calender led to the sugges- 
tion that some of the poems in that work were written early, before 
the poet had any idea of putting them together in a unified work. 9 
Professor Gaw decided, largely because of the technique, that Much 
Ado about Nothing does not represent a revision of an older play. 

232 An Introduction to Research 

Another study of technique led to the conclusion that Scott wrote 
four of his other novels before he wrote Waverley. 11 

Sometimes our interest in an author's technique may be centered in 
the use he makes of his sources. Thus it is Chaucer's technique in the 
handling of the Filostrato that led Professor Young to regard 
Troilus and Criseyde as romance rather than novel. 72 Another 
Chaucer article deals with his treatment of the Teseide. 13 A study of 
Sidney considers the relationship between the Arcadia and Orlando 
Furioso. 1 '* Spenser's alterations of current ideas lend significance to 
one of the episodes in the Second Book of the Fcerie Queene. 15 A 
similar study deals with James Mabbe's handling of the Spanish 
Celestina in his translation of that work.' 6 Other studies involving the 
author's treatment of his sources include one on Munday's John a 
Kent and John a Cumber, 17 two on Wordsworth's Descriptive 
Sketches and The Prelude/ 8 and one on Herman Melville and Red- 
burn.' 9 

In many instances our purpose in studying an author's technique 
may be to discover for whatever value the knowledge may possess 
the artist's practices in such details as plot construction or char- 
acterization. One study deals with characterization in Scott, Balzac, 
Dickens, and Zola. 20 An article on Beowulf 21 and one on Piers Plow- 
man 22 express the view which is contrary to the usual opinion 
that those poems are essentially well-constructed. A study of Sire 
Degarre 2S reveals a mediaeval hack writer's methods. Peele's tech- 
nique in plot structure has been studied as a possible test of author- 
ship. 27 ' Professor Thaler concluded, partly on the evidence of Shak- 
spere's usual practice in plotting, that it was unnecessary to suppose 
that any scenes of Macbeth have been lost. 25 Other studies deal with 
the dramatic technique of Ben Jonson 2 * and of Middleton. 27 An 
article on Tristram Shandy 28 suggests that the book is not to be dis- 
missed as formless but may be regarded, in one sense, as a carefully 
planned historical novel. Another author discusses Peregrine Pickle** 

Methods of Research: Technique 233 

Studies have been made of the technique of Robert Browning, 3 " 
Charles Reade, 3 ' Herman Melville, 32 and Thomas Hardy. 35 

An author's habits in revising and rewriting may throw a consider- 
able light on his technique; studies dealing with such practices 
include two each on Chaucer 3 '' and Conrad 35 and single articles on 
Chapman, 36 Lovelace, 37 Crashaw, 38 Bryant, 39 Mark Twain/' Henry 
James/'' and George Moore. 42 

Studies in versification, being to a large extent objective, are often 
very valuable ; they may provide tests of authorship or of date, and 
they may contribute to one's understanding of a work. One study of 
Paradise Lost deals with rhythm/' 3 another with rhyme/''' Studies 
have been made of the versification of such writers, among others, as 
Campion/ 5 Donne/ 6 Shelley/ 7 Rossetti/* Emerson/' and Poe. 50 

A good many studies have dealt with diction or with figures of 
speech or both. An article on Spenser's language concludes that 
there is less artificiality in Spenser's diction than has generally been 
supposed. 5 ' Miss Spurgeon's studies of Shakspere's imagery l show 
that a thorough understanding of one detail of a poet's technique may 
greatly enlarge our knowledge of the writer. A study of Poe's use of 
color words 52 concludes : 

The analysis reveals a* predilection for black, for white and gray, and, 
to a lesser degree, for red, much as the general reader might have ex- 
pected. It is found that a small group of descriptive, landscape tales 
stress the greens; that a few popular colors are used more freely in the 
humorous tales; that the tales of ratiocination make less use of color than 
the others ; that the tales of horror are characteristic of Poe's total work ; 
and that Poe's poetry follows his general work except for a decrease in 
blacks, and a rise in the conventional "golden" of poetry. 53 

As the writer recognizes, the results here presented are just what 
might have been expected ; but such analytical studies may lay the 
foundation for a psychological study which would discover the reason 

1 See above, p. 221, n. 2. 

234 An Introduction to Research 

for the poet's practice in choosing color words, or, more important, 
the part such words play in the effectiveness of the work in which 
they appear. Other studies of diction involve William Morris, 5 * J. M. 
Synge, 55 and James Joyce. 56 

A device which is almost, if not quite, a figure of speech is dis- 
cussed in a study of John Donne's use of dissonance. 57 Starting from 
Johnson's comment that the characteristic of metaphysical poetry is 
the discordia concors, the author suggests that this device is found 
not only in the imagery of Donne's poetry, to which Johnson and 
most others have apparently limited it, but also in its diction, versi- 
fication, language, and general plan. After examining the poetry for 
examples of dissonance, the author concludes that "in general, . . . 
the dissonance is an expression of underlying temperament. . . ." 5H 
Milton's use of figures of speech is discussed in an article on the 
Miltonic simile 59 and in one on the animal simile in Paradise Lost. 60 
There are studies of figures of speech in Moby Dick 61 and in Leaves 
of Grass ; one article on the latter work finds that, despite Whitman's 
protestation to the contrary, there are many poetic devices in Leaves 
of Grass, 6 * and another holds that the reiterative devices in the poem 
are a method of tying it together. 65 

Miscellaneous studies of details of an author's technique deal with 
such subjects as the style of Beowulj , c4 dramatic irony in Chaucer, 6 '' 
characterization in the ''Knight's Tale", 55 Jonson's literary methods, 57 
Hooker's prose, 68 the punctuation of Comus, 69 the verses used as 
chapter-headings in the Waverley novels, and irony in Hardy and 
Conrad. 71 

Studies of an author's technique may deal with his work in a single 
genre : thus there are articles on Dekker and prison literature, 7 -* on 
the rhetoric of Donne's sermons, on the handling of the couplet by 
Donne 7/ ' and by Gay, 75 on Milton's work in satire, 76 and on the work 
of Bulwer-Lytton 77 and of Mrs. Catherwood 78 in prose fiction. 

The technique of an author may be studied as evidence of artistic 
development, as in articles on Chaucer 70 and on Synge ; 80 it is often 
possible to trace a writer's growth toward maturity more clearly 
through improvement in technique than in any other element of 
literary art. 

Methods of Research: Technique 235 


In studies of technique we need not, of course, confine ourselves to 
the work of a single writer ; it is interesting and often valuable to 
study a detail of technique throughout its history, or, more often, 
within a given period. Sometimes such studies may be directed toward 
the discovering of the origin or the purpose of a technical device. 
Studies of this sort have been made of understatement in Old English 
poetry, 81 of the visit-to-the-perilous-castle theme, 82 and of rhetorical 
balance in Chaucer. 83 A study has been made of low comedy as a 
structural element in mediaeval and Elizabethan drama. 8 * Another 
study traces the Elizabethan villain to the vice and the parasite of 
the older drama. 85 A question arises concerning Shakspere's use of 
the unhappy happy ending: are the conclusions of Love's Labors 
Lost, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Measure for Measure, and A 
Winter's Tale careless and conventional or are they psychologically 
sound and artistically right ? Hfi Other studies of the origin or purpose 
of details of technique include articles on conventions in Restoration 
tragedy, 87 on music in the cycle plays, 88 on the descriptions of cos- 
tume in the mediaeval romances, 89 and on Dickens and the evolution 
of caricature. 9 " 

Sometimes our interest in a detail of technique may lie in its im- 
portance or significance ; such a study may involve several writers, as 
does an article on theories of poetic diction in Wordsworth and 
others <J1 and one on particularity in characterization, 9 * 2 or a single 
writer in one instance, Thomas Hardy. 95 Studies in technique need 
not be confined to the technique of writing ; studies of the technique 
of acting, for example, may constitute a valuable contribution to 
literary history. 9 * 


Instead of studying details of technique separately, we may study 
the combination of techniques which constitutes a literary type or 
genre. Professor Zucker traced the origin of the genealogical novel, as 
it appears in the work of Thomas Mann, Galsworthy, and others, 
primarily to Zola. 95 A genre may be studied for the purpose of seek- 
ing to define it, differentiate it from other types, 96 or to discover the 
relationship between types. 97 We may study a genre attempting to 
discover the origin, not of the genre itself, but of specimens of the 

236 An Introduction to Research 

genre. 98 The history and characteristics of a type, such as that repre- 
sented by Chaucer's "Monk's Tale", may be well worth study." Such 
studies have been made of the Romanesque lyric, 100 the framing- 
tale, 101 the school drama in England, 10 ** the Elizabethan jig, 105 the 
Elizabethan elegie, 10 * the Elizabethan lyric, 105 bilingual dictionaries 
in Shakspere's time,' 0<? the seventeenth-century essay, 107 the songs in 
Restoration tragedy, 108 female prologues and epilogues. 109 English 
magazines for ladies, 110 the eighteenth-century formal eclogue, 11 ' the 
comedy of manners, 11 * the dramatic monologue, 11 * contemporary 
biography, 1 ' 4 even, of all things, the dime novel.' 15 

Often, as is true of some of the articles just mentioned, studies of 
a genre are definitely limited in time : "Animal Actors on the English 
Stage before i642",' 16 "English Burlesque Poetry 1700-1750," 117 
"Whig Panegyric Verse, i 700-1 76o"," 8 "Neo-Classical Criticism of 
the Ode for Music", 119 "The Metrical Tale in XVIII-Century Eng- 
land", 120 and "The Beginnings of the American Poetical Miscel- 
lany". 1 *' Sometimes the limiting element is a geographical one; as 
well as the broad limit set in confining a study to a country or part of 
a country, we may have a narrower limit, as in a study of drama in 
Lincoln Cathedral. n * 

In many instances a study of a genre attempts an analysis of the 
technique of that genre ; perhaps the analysis is offered just as a thing 
of interest to scholars, or it may represent an attempt to aid those 
who wish to write specimens of the genre. In the former category 
would be placed an article on the technique of saints' legends /2S and 
one on the "Parson's Tale" as a mediaeval sermon ; 12// here, too, would 
be placed a study of epistolary fiction 125 and perhaps one of sonnets 
and sestinas. 12 * Many studies of the novel m and of the drama n8 
would belong to the other category. 

One may study a genre within a genre for example, the lyric in 
Elizabethan drama. 129 Something interesting might be done in study- 
ing the whimsical chapter heading found in some eighteenth-century 
novels, including Tom Jones, and, more recently, in the books of 
Jeffery Farnol. One might study the sonnet in sonnet sequences, 
though the suggestion may raise the question whether the sonnet 
sequence constitutes a genre. 

Methods of Research: Technique 237 


The procedure to be followed in a study of technique will, of course, 
depend upon the type of study involved. If it is to be a study of the 
technique of an individual, one will turn first to similar studies of 
other writers. Thus he will learn what characteristics are to be con- 
sidered. He must discover for each of these characteristics what might 
be called the norm for the kind of writing that his author practised 
and for the period in which his author lived. Then he will be able to 
determine the extent to which his author deviated from the norm. In 
a study of versification, for example, one would consider the forms 
and meters used, the proportion of feminine endings and of run-on 
lines, the number and nature of figures of speech, and so on. For a 
writer of fiction, there must be an analysis of practices in plot-con- 
struction, in setting, and in characterization. In the field of character- 
ization, the characters may be studied in the light of their function or 
their importance in the story, their sex, their social status, their voca- 
tions ; the author's method of treatment of his characters must also 
be considered whether his characterization is achieved by means of 
direct exposition, through what the character does or what is said 
about him by other characters, or by some combination of these 

In studying an author's technique, one should not overlook the ele- 
ment of creative power or genius. Great literature is not produced 
merely by the application of an acquired technique to borrowed 
material. It has already been pointed out 2 that the difference between 
a passage in Shakspere's Antony and Cleopatra and the counterpart 
of that passage in North's translation of Plutarch cannot be wholly 
explained by saying that the former represents the application of 
the poetic or dramatic technique to the latter. And yet it may be 
that the study of Shakspere's technique the attempt to learn how 
some of Sir Thomas North's prose became some of the poetry of 
Antony and Cleopatra will not only lead to a fuller appreciation of 
Shakspere's drama, but may even enable another writer to perform a 
similar miracle of transmutation. 

There is great danger that one who chooses to study a detail of 
technique may lose consciousness of the fact that it belongs to the 

2 See above, p. 165. 

238 An Introduction to Research 

work of which it is a part. Falstaff is unquestionably linked with the 
miles gloriosus tradition, and it may be very interesting and worth 
while to study him as a part of that tradition ; but he is, at the same 
time and perhaps even more importantly, an integral, an essential 
part of the Henry IV plays and of The Merry Wives of Windsor. The 
student should not allow himself to forget that taking a character or 
any other detail out of a work for study is likely to change the 
significance of the part and that of the whole. Keeping that fact 
always in mind, the student may safely proceed with his dissection. 

If one should attempt a study of a previously unexplored genre, 
an original analysis would have to be worked out ; it would be much 
wiser for the graduate student to choose a subject that will permit 
him to use a model a good study of a similar problem as a guide. 
One word of warning in this connection may not be amiss. The fact 
that a number of works have an element or several elements in 
common does not, ipso facto, unite them in a genre. There would be 
little point in studying collectively poems about bluebirds or bare- 
foot boys, or novels involving a damsel in distress, a disguised aristo- 
crat, and a witty peasant. To constitute a genre, works must have in 
common elements of literary significance, elements that tend to shape 
and give character to the finished work. The genre will almost cer- 
tainly determine whether the work be long or short, in prose or in 
verse. A poem of twelve or sixteen lines, or one without rhyme, is not 
a sonnet ; a long poem may be labeled by its author, or by publisher 
or critics, "A novel in verse" ; but it is not a novel. The genre may 
also specify the mood, the style, and to some extent the subject 
matter. The seventeenth-century character is a short piece of prose, 
generally in a light vein, describing a type of person more or less 
familiar to the reader a man about town, a retired sea captain, a 
coquette, a country squire. A "Character of a Babylonian Warrior" 
or a "Character of the Emperor of China" would have been an 

All students of technique should keep constantly in mind the fact 
that technique is not the most important element in literary art. To 
know how to write is worth little unless one has something to say. 
The value of studies in technique lies in the contribution they can 
make to a fuller understanding on the part of the reader and the help 
they can give to the potential author. 



IT is the function of the philosopher to discover new ideas, and, 
according to Matthew Arnold/ that of the literary critic to make 
the best ones prevail. But we are concerned here with neither philos- 
ophy nor literary criticism. We are concerned rather with ideas in 
their relation to literature and to literary history. There are exponents 
of art for art's sake who may argue that literature need not concern 
itself with ideas ; and it is undoubtedly true that some poets Swin- 
burne, in The Forsaken Garden, and Poe, in The Bells, for example 
have achieved their effects through sound rather than meaning. In 
most poetry, however, and most plays, and in all novels * and essays, 
writers use words for their content rather than their sound ; and the 
result desired is achieved when it is achieved through the mean- 
ing, that is to say, through the ideas expressed. 

Literature overcharged with ideas may easily become propaganda, 
and propaganda is seldom, if ever, great literature. Even short of 
propaganda there is such a thing as too much content or too little 

1 There are, perhaps, exceptions; but to them a remark in a review (J. M. Lallcy, 
"On Collaboration", The Washington Post, January 31, 1944, p. liol) of Professor 
Elmer Edgar Stall's From Shakespeare to Joyce: Authors and Critics; Literature 
and Life (New York: Doubleday, Doran, 1944) may well be applied: ". . . the main 
basis of Professor Stall's quarrel with such contemporaries as Mr. T. S. Eliot and the 
late James Joyce is in the difficulties they have deliberately and disdainfully inter- 
posed between themselves and their readers. And since the meaning or purpose, when 
laboriously deciphered with the help of keys, codes, commentaries, and glosses, turns 
out to be something less than wonderful in The Waste Land a mere statement that 
our civilization is ugly and sterile; in Finnegan's Wake a complete disassociation of 
language and sense such writers cannot wholly escape a suspicion of charlatanism." 

[ 239 ] 

240 An Introduction to Research 

art. Whatever Milton and his contemporaries may have thought of 
the more didactic passages of Paradise Lost, it is certain that later 
generations have found some of the lines in which the poet explains 
his theological ideas less admirable than other parts of the poem. 
Nevertheless, the study of ideas is an important part and, judging 
from the number of books and articles in the field, an increasingly 
important part of the study of literary history. We are not thinking 
now of efforts to comprehend a work ; such study is a matter of inter- 
pretation. We are concerned here with terms and concepts as they 
appear in the literature of a given time and place, with an author's 
thinking as he expressed himself in one or all of his works, and with 
intellectual movements that represent the thinking of many people. 

In his article in the first number of the Journal of the History of 
Ideas and in the introductory chapter of The Great Chain of Being 2 
Professor Lovejoy set out to define the until then rather amorphous 
subject of the history of ideas. It developed, he suggested, as 
scholars 2 learned how far afield it was necessary to go to understand 
even simple literary documents. 

Lovejoy recognized, as some have not, the great danger that stu- 
dents of literature might venture so far afield as to find themselves 
at last lost in research for which they were equipped neither by 
training nor by temperament. Here is a real problem. By the nature 
of his work, a literary scholar is likely to think of ideas only in the 
crystallized form in which they are found in books, and perhaps to 
overemphasize the importance of purely intellectual relationships. 
And this seems a perfectly natural emphasis for one whose entire 
training has been in the interpretation of literary documents rather 
than in the recognition and understanding of historical conditions. 

In a review of several works, including The State in Shakespeare's 
Greek and Roman Plays, by James Phillips, Jr., 3 and Drama and 
Society in the Age of Jonson, by L. C. Knights/' Professor Malcolm 
Ross wrote : 

2 Professor Lovejoy uses literary scholars as an example, perhaps for obvious 
reasons, since literary expression, which involves ideas of all sorts, requires for 
understanding a broader knowledge than other forms, say in the physical sciences or 
in economics. 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 241 

The literary man, impelled by the ruling passion of his age to seek in 
social history the explanation of cultural phenomena, often approaches 
the task nervously, conscious of the frown of his less adventurous col- 
league, 'the safe scholar/ conscious, too, of the social scientist's quizzical 
smile as, contemptuous and unafraid, he observes his province invaded 
by the rank amateur. Perhaps for safety's sake, the literary scholar 
clutches the hand of the tallest stranger he can find in the strange new 
land. Dr. Phillips will not so much as tip-toe without Professor Allen at 
his side. Mr. Knights marks the footsteps of Professor Tawney. Nor are 
they to be criticized for their deference to the authority of the historian 
and the political economist. The trouble is not that they havejilted 
Kittredge and Bradley for a pack of outlanders some transference of 
allegiance was necessary. The danger lies rather in the mechanical divi- 
sions which still beset the social sciences themselves. It may indeed serve 
the interests of the academic curriculum to separate politics from eco- 
nomics. But it is unsafe for the literary scholar to adopt these curricular 
divisions in reaching out for a new synthesis of social and cultural values. 
The sociological criticism of literature, to be valid, must recognize and 
analyse the fluent interrelation of all discernible social and cultural 
factors in the given historical moment. Nor must that moment be 
detached and isolated from its context in time. The imposition of a 
sharply-defined method derived from one or the other of the social 
sciences may needlessly suppress or exclude or distort elements relevant 
to the solution of the scholar's problem. . . . 

The sociological critic, then, must do more than seek in the literature 
of the period direct evidence of political and economic ideas. It is not 
enough to know what Shakespeare and Spenser and Jonson thought. This 
is only the first step for the scholar, though an important one which he 
too often hesitates to take. Nor is it enough to understand the economic 
motivation of the age although without such understanding the socio- 
logical critic will be helpless, and his work, at best, will be one-dimen- 
sional. The sociological critic must investigate not only ideas and 'forces,' 
but also the subjective manifestations of these ideas and forces in the 
cultural climate as a whole. . . . 5 

Lovejoy has also noted that any practitioner in the history of ideas 
needs a special skill. Mere reading of the philosophical and historical 
texts is not sufficient for an understanding of how ideas work "a 
certain aptitude for the discrimination and analysis of concepts, and 
an eye for not immediately obvious logical relations or quasi-logical 
affinities between ideas" 6 are indispensable. 

242 An Introduction to Research 

From what he says later on in his essay, when he lays down the 
objectives of the history of ideas, Lovejoy would apparently have 
these dangers recognized by scholars, and the bounds of the history 
of ideas respected by those not specially trained in its discipline. 
For, though he speaks of the breaking down of the fences between 
subjects, he apparently does not mean that scholars should range at 
will on the greener side. His solution seems to be instead some sort 
of scholarly co-operation, in which a literary scholar would not try to 
do work for which a historian, a philosopher, or an economist is 
better fitted, but would avail himself of pertinent work in the other 
fields. The graduate student in English who wishes to work in the 
history of ideas will need to know, to mention only a few, such 
writers as Durkheim/ Beard/ Becker/ Barzun/ Curti/ 1 Bernard 
Smith, 1 * and Mannheim/ 5 as well as Lovejoy, Parrington, Perry 
Miller, Van Wyck Brooks, Hardin Craig, and others who will be 
mentioned later in this chapter. 

Lovejoy suggests four broad areas of knowledge for the historians 
of ideas to investigate : 

1. The influence of classical on modern thought, and of European 
traditions and writings on American literature, arts, philosophy, and 
social movements. 

2. The influence of philosophical ideas on literature, the arts, reli- 
gion, and social thought, including the impact of pervasive general 
conceptions upon standards of taste and morality and educational 
theories and methods. 

3. The influence of scientific discoveries and theories in the same 
provinces of thought, and in philosophy; the cultural effects of the 
applications of science. 

4. The history of the development and the effects of individual, per- 
vasive, and widely ramifying ideas or doctrines, such as evolution, 
progress, primitivism, diverse theories of human motivation and ap- 
praisals of human nature, mechanismic and organismic conceptions of 
nature and society, metaphysical and historical determinism and inde- 
terminism, individualism and collectivism, nationalism and racialism. 14 

The graduate student in English should approach the study of the 
history of ideas humbly and with trepidation. Though investigating 
the meaning of words like "nature" and "reason", as they are used by 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 243 

particular authors, may at first seem not so exciting as compiling a 
documentary history of, say, romanticism, it is much the safer bet. It 
will use a skill for which, presumably, the student will have trained 
himself : the understanding of literary texts. In the long run it may 
also be very useful, for it will provide information for a more fully 
equipped historian of ideas. 


As we have just seen, a study in ideas may involve a single word ; 
such would be the attempt to convey to English university students 
the meaning of "apple-polisher" or "pipe course", or to American 
students the meaning of "buller" (which is something quite different 
from what the American student might imagine). It may seem that 
these are properly matters of interpretation. So they would be if it 
were a question of the word's use in one passage or even, perhaps, 
in a single work. But when the word appears in several or many 
works, the study of its meaning is a contribution to the history of 
ideas. 3 Meanings change so during the course of the life of a word 
as a glance at a few entries in the NED will clearly show that, more 
often than not, some historical change or development is involved. 
One might think that a dictionary such as the NED would make 
unnecessary the studies to which I have reference ; but no dictionary 
can or should attempt to reveal all the nuances and connotations that 
may attach themselves to a word. Professor Love joy found some 
forty meanings for the word romanticism ; 1S and, although there 
may not be many words of such almost infinite variety, there are few 
that do not reveal some changes depending upon time and circum- 
stances. To know just what the word elegie meant in the sixteenth 
century requires more than a dictionary can tell us in two or three 
definitions, with illustrations ; it requires that we should know all the 
ways in which an Elizabethan might or did use the word. 16 Pro- 
fessor Lovejoy, in an article which serves as a sequel to the one just 
mentioned, discusses the meaning of optimism and romanticism. 17 
There are also studies of the terms imagination, 18 invention/ 9 
beauty, 20 nature* 1 and the comic. 22 An accurate knowledge of the 
meaning of certain words is necessary to the understanding of 

3 Such studies are actually, of course, studies in semantics. 

244 An Introduction to Research 

Shaftesbury,* 3 or Emerson, 2 * or Masefield,* 5 or Jonathan Edwards 
and William Godwin ; * 6 and the same may be said of many another 

Sometimes these studies of a term deal with the history of an ex- 
pression as well as its meaning ; one such article deals with the word 
sentimental* 7 and another with the expression moral sense* 8 


When we turn our attention to the thought of an individual writer, 
we may again find the meaning of specific terms important, as the 
words reason and understanding are in a study of Coleridge and 
Maurice,** or the word novelty in an article on Addison. 3 " Generally, 
however, when we study a writer's thinking, we are concerned, even 
if we limit ourselves to a specific topic, not with words, but with con- 
cepts, such as Spenser's views on friendship S1 Shakspere's ideas on 
love and honor, 3 * W T ordsworth's conception of grace/-* or Shelley's 
thoughts about love/* 

Studies still limited, but dealing with larger fields than those we 
have been considering,' include articles on the literary interests of Sir 
Francis Bryan; 37 Shakspere on style, imagination, and poetry; 35 
Mulcaster's view of the English language ; 37 Ralegh and natural 
philosophy; 38 Defoe and modern economic theory; M Swift and im- 
mortality; * Steele and the status of women; *' evolutionary think- 
ing in Akenside * 2 and Henry Brooke ; * 3 Mrs. Radcliffe and the 
supernatural in poetry;** Keats and world affairs;* 5 science in 
dough * 6 and Matthew Arnold ; * 7 Pater and aesthetics ; * 8 and 
Browning and higher criticism.* 9 In the field of American literature, 
there are studies of the religious ideas of Franklin 50 and Channing/' 
the political ideas of Orestes A. Brownson 5 * and Walt Whitman, 53 
the social philosophy of Ellen Glasgow, 5 * and the humanism of 
Irving Babbitt. 55 

Still more general studies would take in even larger aspects of a 
writer's thinking ; among these might be mentioned articles on Hall, 5 * 
Traherne, 57 Wordsworth, 58 Tom Paine, 59 Prescott, William James 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 245 

and Emerson, 6 ' Tourgee, 6 * Hart Crane/- 5 and Theodore Dreiser,** 
and books on Milton, 65 Sir Thomas Browne, 66 Keats, 67 Hawthorne, 68 
Melville, 69 and Emily Dickinson. 

It is interesting to study the views on literature of literary men, 
not only because such study contributes to our ability to interpret the 
works of those men, but also because the literary opinions of creative 
writers are as important a part of the history of ideas as are those of 
literary critics. Thus we have more than one reason for being inter- 
ested in knowing why Milton gave up the idea of using an Arthurian 
story as the subject of his magnum opus ; 71 what Fielding thought 
of critics and criticism 7 * and of heroic romance ; 73 to what extent 
Goldsmith was a sentimentalist ; 74 and what were the views of 
Bulwer-Lytton 75 and of Charles Reade 76 on the novel, of Brown- 
ing 77 and Swinburne 78 on poetry, and of Maxwell Anderson 79 on the 
drama. Many of the ideas of Coleridge and of Wordsworth are 
brought out in a review of Lowes's The Road to Xanadu. 80 Other 
studies deal with Burke's theory concerning words, images, and 
emotions ; ** the literary opinions of Charles Brockden Brown 8 * and 
Hawthorne ; * s and the criticism of Richard Grant White 8/ ' and 
Henry James. 85 

Some men have been known equally or almost equally for their 
criticism and for what may be called more creative work. Studies 
involving such men include articles on Coleridge's criticism of Words- 
worth, 86 Lowell's criticism of romantic literature, 87 and Hazlitt's 
criticism of Shakspere. 88 Mention may also be made here of articles 
on Thoreau, 89 Henley, 90 Pater, 91 and Meredith. 92 

One may study the ideas expressed in a single work, as, for ex- 
ample, the political ideas in Sidney's Arcadia 9S or the philosophical 
background of Gulliver's Travels. 91 ' Other studies of this sort deal 
with Richard Taverner's Proverbes or Adagies 95 Coleridge's Reli- 
gious Musings 96 and T. S. Eliot's The Hollow Men 97 

A study may be made of changing or developing ideas in a writer. 
"Chaucer's Changing Conception of the Humble Lover", 98 "Cole- 
ridge's Scheme of Pantisocracy and American Travel Accounts", 99 
"The Religious Evolution of Darwin", 100 and "The Three Stages of 
Theodore Dreiser's Naturalism" I0t are examples of this type of 

246 An Introduction to Research 

study; others deal with Mary Wollstonecraft/ * Emerson,'** and 
Henry James. 104 

Or one may study the ideas of an individual writer in an attempt 
to discover his relation to current or conventional thought. One 
article deals with Spenser's handling of a psychological problem in 
the light of Elizabethan views on the subject ; lor> another treats the 
friendship theme in Orrery's plays; 106 still another studies the "Art 
for Art's Sake" creed in Saintsbury. 107 When such studies of a writer 
trace his thinking or certain aspects of it to another, they are, of 
course, studies of influence or source and might have been mentioned 
in Chapter Four or Chapter Six of this work ; so far as they concern 
ideas, however, they may appropriately be included here. There are 
such studies of, among others, John Donne/ 08 William James/ 09 and 
Edwin Arlington Robinson." 


Perhaps the most interesting of the studies in the history of ideas 
are those which trace through decades or through centuries the think- 
ing of a people or of that part of a people which is articulate upon 
more or less specific topics, revealing the attitude of such people 
upon subjects literary, philosophical, social, or aesthetic, and show- 
ing how each attitude evolved from a preceding one and in time gave 
way to a later. The studies of a literary movement may deal with a 
large subject, such as Platonism in English poetry/ 11 or a small one, 
such as the attitude toward fables. 7 ' 2 In the former category would 
be placed Professor Baldwin's work on mediaeval rhetoric and 
poetic/ 15 and Professor Lowes's Convention and Revolt in Poetry ; 11J * 
the work of Professor Mills on the friendship theme, though a smaller 
subject, assumes large proportions because of the amount of material 
studied. 115 Studies more limited in scope include Elizabethan Psy- 
chology and Shakespeare's Plays, 116 "Ritson's Life of Robin 
Hood" 117 (bringing out the attitude of the public toward the ballad 
hero), "Native Elements in English Neo-Classicism"/ 18 "Changing 
Taste in the Eighteenth Century : A Study of Dryden's and Dodsley's 
Miscellanies"/' 9 The Noble Savage: A Study in Romantic Natural- 
ism, 1 * "The Nature of Romanticism". 1 " The Gloomy Egoist: Moods 
and Themes of Melancholy from Gray to Keats, lie "Mad Shelley : A 
Study in the Origins of English Romanticism"/* 5 and "Muckraking 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 247 

in the Gilded Age". 12 * Two articles deal with the American period- 
icals Putnam's Magazine 125 and the North American Review. 126 
Studies treating a more specific type of literature include "Anti- 
quarian Interest in Elizabethan Drama before Lamb", 727 "Prose Fic> 
tion and English Interest in the Near East, i775-i825", m The His- 
tory, from ijoo to 1800, of English Criticism of Prose Fiction, 129 and, 
perhaps, "The Beginnings of Nature Poetry in the Eighteenth 
Century". 150 

Studies more purely philosophical deal with humanism, 1 st pessim- 
ism, 152 primitivism, 133 enthusiasm, 13 * optimism, 155 and puritanism. 136 
Other works to be mentioned in this category would include Pro- 
fessor Tinker's Nature's Simple Plan, 187 "The Survival of Mediaeval 
Intellectual Interest into Early Modern Times", 738 and "The Perfect 
Prince: a Study in Thirteenth and Fourteenth Century Ideals". 13 " 
Such philosophical movements as are treated in these studies, since 
they find frequent and often important expression in literature, are 
properly of concern to the student of literary history as well as to the 

Many intellectual movements have a social basis ; they represent 
what people think as members of the body politic, the social group. 
Among studies of such movements are discussions of the spread of 
ideas in the Middle Ages, 140 middle-class concern over learning in 
the Renaissance/* 1 and middle-class culture in Elizabethan Eng- 
land. 1 * 2 Another study shows that Swift's attitude toward puritanism 
was in line with a social tradition of some standing. 1 * 3 The attitude 
toward fiction just before and just after 1800 is discussed in another 
article. 1 ** Professor Tinker studied the influence of the salon on 
English letters. 1 *'" 

The attitude toward fiction, both in America and in England, has 
often perhaps usually had a social rather than a literary or aesthe- 
tic origin. Fiction in general, or a type of fiction, or an individual 
work, has been praised or denounced on moral or ethical, not on 
artistic, grounds. One study deals with the American attitude toward 
fiction during the period 1789-1810; 146 another concerns itself with 
English views, almost a hundred years later, on realism in fiction. 1 * 7 
A third shows that Victorian criticism dealt much more leniently 
with the realism of the Russians than with that of the French ; '** 
and a fourth reveals that the American reaction to French naturalism 

248 An Introduction to Research 

in the latter part of the nineteenth century was more liberal than the 
English reaction of that period. 7 * 9 In still another article, the Vic- 
torian objection to Swinburne's The Leper is ascribed to the taste of 
the era rather than to any fundamental moral or aesthetic judg- 
ment.' 50 

Some intellectual movements have involved ideas primarily aes- 
thetic. Such a movement is discussed in an article on harmony of the 
senses. 1 " Professor Bredvold studied the tendency toward Platonism 
in Neo-Classical aesthetics. 752 Three articles 15S on eighteenth-cen- 
tury taste, or views about taste, would also belong in this category, 
as does a study of the attitude toward naturalism of certain Vic- 
torians. 754 


Another group of studies in the history of ideas is made up of inves- 
tigations of a tradition a tradition concerning a personage, such as 
that by which Virgil underwent a strange evolution from poet to 
prophet to magician ; or a character, such as that In which Cressida 
went from Court of Love heroine to Elizabethan villainess ; or a type, 
such as the braggart soldier or the artful servant ; or a form of litera- 
ture. Studies of Joseph, 155 Herod,' 5 " and Judas " 7 may be thought of 
as belonging either in the first or in the second group ; a historical 
individual closer to our own time such as Prince Hal '''* is more 
definitely a personage. Studies of characters involve Lorenzo and 
Jessica/ 5 * Diomede/** and the devil. " I/ Among the types that have 
been studied are the vice/ 6 * the parasite/ 65 the rebellious lover/ 6 '' 
the gentleman/* 5 the Quaker/ 6 ' 6 the country booby/ 67 the besieged 
lady/ 68 the sailor/ 69 the bestial man/ 7 " and the country squire. 177 
An example of a study of a form of literature treats the Utopian 
novel in America ; 17 * and two articles of the same sort are devoted 
to the Indian captivity narrative. 175 


The last group of contributions to the history of ideas to be dis- 
cussed here is made up of studies of a people a race, a nation, or the 
inhabitants of some specific part of a country. There is generally a 
chronological limitation as well as a geographical one. The emphasis 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 249 

may be literary, political, social, economic, religious, military, aes- 
thetic, or philosophic ; or there may be a combination of emphases. A 
study may be the work of one writer, or it may represent a collabora- 
tion or symposium, the product of several minds. The influence of 
one people upon another may be the subject of study. 

Examples of works that concern themselves with a race are The 
Negro's Morale: Group Identification and Protest ; 17} > The Story of 
the American Negro; 175 and Race Relations in a Democracy. 176 
Perry's The American Mind 177 and Commager's more recent work 
with the same title; 178 Parrington's Main Currents in American 
Thought ; 179 and Cargill's Intellectual America 18 deal with a nation. 
Van Wyck Brooks' The Flowering of New England: 1815-1865 and 
New England: Indian Summer, 1865-1915 1H1 and Wesley Frank 
Craven's The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1607- 
1689 l ** are sectional in scope. 

Sometimes the chronological limitation is a broad one, as in Hardin 
Craig's The Enchanted Glass/ 83 a study of Elizabethan England, or 
Perry Miller's The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Cen- 
tury; 18 ' 1 studies more narrowly limited include The Disruption of 
American Democracy, 1 "* which covers only a few years in the middle 
of the nineteenth century, and The Revolutionary Generation, 1763- 
ifpo. 186 Frequently the emphasis is indicated or suggested in the title, 
as in The Origins of American Critical Thought, 1810-1835 187 and 
American Criticism: A Study in Literary Theory from Poe to the 
Present ;'** History of American Political Thought; 1 * 9 Are Men 
Equal? An Inquiry into the Meaning of American Democracy; 190 
Government and the American Economy, i8?o-Prescnt ; 191 Popular 
Freethought in America i82^-i8^o f 192 American Freethought, 1860- 
iQi4, lin and The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re-examina- 
tion of Colonial Presbyterianism ; 19> * Lincoln Finds a General: A 
Military Study of the Civil War; 195 ^Esthetic Experience and the 
Humanities ; 196 and The Political and Social Growth of the American 
People t97 are examples. Co-operative efforts are represented by 
Changing Patterns in American Civilization 198 and Years of the 
Modern. 199 The influence of one people upon another is studied in 
The Atlantic Civilization: Eighteenth Century Origins 200 and The 
American Spirit in Europe. 201 

250 An Introduction to Research 


We have seen, then, that studies in the history of ideas may con- 
cern themselves with the meaning of a term or the history of a term, 
or both ; they may be devoted to the specific ideas of an individual, or 
his philosophy in general, or his views implied or expressed on 
literature or any other subject that merits study ; they may trace the 
development of an intellectual movement of literary, philosophical, 
social, or aesthetic nature ; they may show the evolution of a literary 
tradition involving a person, a character, a type, or a literary form ; 
or they may deal with the ideas of the people of a certain region in 
general, during a given time, or in one field. 

The difficulty in drawing a line of demarcation between the history 
of ideas and other fields, such as social history, or the history of 
philosophy, or of religion, or of science can readily be understood. 
The Journal of the History of Ideas in its second volume (1941) 
classified the books received for review under three headings: "His- 
tory of Literature and Art", "Social and Politicaf History", and 
"History of Religion, Philosophy, and Science". In the first group are 
included two works * 02 which might equally well be classified under 
"Social and Political History"; two other works assigned to the 
"History of Literature and Art" group might seem to be as properly 
classified under the heading "History of Religion, Philosophy, and 
Science". 2 " 5 A work listed under the second heading should come also 
under the first and third. 207 ' And two books assigned to the third 
group belong quite as much to the second. 205 

The graduate student who is tempted by the history of ideas must 
remember that in no other type of literary research is there the neces- 
sity for such broad reading and such extensive note-taking as few 
graduate students have time to achieve. Keeping this warning in 
mind, a graduate student may attempt a study, on a small scale, in 
the history of ideas ; the method to be followed will depend upon the 
type of problem selected. 4 

If the problem is the investigation of the meaning or the history of 
a term, the tine covered should be limited to a fairly brief period 
perhaps only ten years, perhaps twenty-five, certainly not more than 

4 Before beginning such a project the student should by all means read Morize, 
Problems and Methods, pp. 242-88. 

Methods of Research: The History of Ideas 251 

fifty. Dictionaries and concordances will provide a start ; from them 
should be taken all the illustrations that fall within the period 
selected. One should then begin to read all the authors who are likely 
to have used the word or phrase in question, or at least those whose 
use of the term will be significant. It goes without saying that, even 
if the period involved is only a decade, a great deal of reading must 
be done if the study is to be anything more than a superficial essai. 
It will be found, however, if one is pressed for time as graduate stu- 
dents generally are that one can skim rather rapidly through a book 
and still discover any occurrences of the word or phrase in which he 
is interested. Of course he will get little else from the reading ; and it 
is better, if time permits, to read more slowly and more thoroughly, 
and let the collecting of data be secondary to the digesting of the 
thought. Wherever one finds the term used, he should put in his note, 
not only the sentence in which the term appears, but also enough of 
the context to make the meaning of the term as there used per- 
fectly clear. The date of the usage should be indicated on the note ; 
particularly if one is concerned with the history of the term, he should 
be careful to determine, if possible, that the date is that of composi- 
tion, not that of publication. Once the reading is completed and all 
the notes are taken, all that remains is to put the material into some 
logical arrangement. 

If one is attempting to study the ideas of an author, the first step 
is to acquire a thorough familiarity with the author's works; only 
when one has a command of the entire body of a man's writings, can 
one be sure of the significance of a single work, or of a passage in 
a work, or even of a single idea. It will not be enough, however, to 
master one author ; in order to do any very thorough work, one must 
know well the author's background his environment, his sources, the 
work of his contemporaries. Thus it is easy to see that a good piece 
of work in the history of ideas, even if it be confined to the ideas of 
one writer, is likely to require years o* study. 

When one extends the scope of his work to include many men 
instead of one, and makes it cover centuries instead of a generation, 
he obviously increases enormously the amount of work to be done ; 
indeed, he is likely to have taken in more territory than can be 
covered in one lifetime. Hence it is permitted that he be less thorough 
less detailed, but not less careful in his covering of the ground 

252 An Introduction to Research 

than the person whose study takes in a smaller territory. If one is 
interested in a certain philosophical problem, and he finds what atti- 
tude toward that problem is expressed by the first- and second-rate 
writers, it is certainly not necessary that he should know and set 
forth the attitude expressed by all the fourth- and fifth-rate writers, 
whose name is legion. He should, perhaps, cite some of the lesser fry, 
to show that their attitude is or is not the same as that of their 
betters ; but to exhume from a merited oblivion a host of trivial, and 
doubtless dull, writings and give them careful study would be a work 
of supererogation. 

In a study in the history of ideas, how is one to know when to stop 
collecting data ? The question is not easy to answer. As long as one 
continues to turn up anything ideas, expressions, whatever it may 
be new, anything different from what he already has in his notes, 
he must go on searching and studying. But when one has made what 
seems a reasonably intensive and comprehensive survey of the field, 
and for some time has failed to find anything new, and has come to 
feel sure that there is nothing new or different to Be found, then 
he is entitled to stop collecting and begin the organization and 
presentation of his material. 

There is, I am sure, no kind of research in English literary history 
more difficult than that in the history of ideas, nor is there one which 
pays better rewards both in self-satisfaction and in recognition by 
others for conscientious and intelligent effort. 



by Stith Thompson 

Professor of English and Folklore, 
formerly Dean of the Graduate School, Indiana University 

NO field of research open to the student of literature shows wider 
variety than folklore. Many aspects of the subject take him 
entirely away from ordinary literary pursuits and carry him well over 
into the materials of the social sciences, and even sometimes into 
the methods and techniques of the biological sciences. It is a 
marginal subject, which has never attained an equilibrium in the 
scholastic scheme. 


Our concern in this chapter is with folklore only as it touches on 
literary expression. And yet the folklorist must not ignore the other 
boundaries of his field. He must always recognize its affinity to his- 
tory and realize the light that folk customs, superstitions, weather 
and agricultural lore, not to speak of local traditions, may throw 
upon the cultural history of an area. Nor can he disregard its close 
connection at many points with anthropology. If one reads anthro- 
pological literature, he will find that a very large proportion of tht 
studies devoted to primitive peoples is concerned with their aestheth 
life, their myths, songs, dances, ceremonies, and tales. When we are 
dealing with the folktale and considering its function in the life ot 
the people who tell it, is our problem really one of literature o 

[ 253 ] 

254 An Introduction to Research 

anthropology? Even the folklorist with interests primarily literary 
must be something of a student of society, and of local or national 
history. 1 


The literary scholar is usually interested in the individual con- 
tribution of a particular author. Literary history is largely a series of 
studies of authors or of movements dominated by them. But the indi- 
vidual expression of these authors takes place in a common milieu, 
interesting to the scholar not so much because of its differing mani- 
festations as because of the uniformity observable throughout. This 
common milieu, the chief concern of the folklorist, is of two kinds. 
The subject of any author's work must be in large degree the life of 
man, and even in the most individualistic persons or groups a surpris- 
ingly large part of life is purely traditional and conventional. More- 
over, when the author comes to treat his subject, he finds that he is 
not a free agent but that his work is conditioned by the literary 
habits of his time and place. Folklore, therefore, which is essentially 
the study of tradition, may concern both materials and literary forms, 
usually involved in such a way that they can hardly be separated. 

For an understanding of this common background which we call 
folklore, the following forms are of particular interest to the literary 
student: (a) riddles; (b) proverbs; (c) charms (folk medicine); 
(d) festivals and their celebration; (e) ceremonials; (f) local 
legends; (g) folktales (both oral and literary) ; (h) ballads; (i) folk 
lyrics (both secular and religious). 

The study of folklore requires two complementary processes. The 
material must be assembled and then it must be interpreted. Indi- 
vidual scholars usually specialize in one of these aspects of the sub- 
ject, or indeed in some small subdivision of one. Unless one is to be 
superficial, he cannot take all folklore for his province. 


Many folklorists spend all their time and energy in collecting. Such 
scholars ma> turn over whole libraries to find data already published, 

1 Only folklore as a subject for scholarly investigation is considered here ; other- 
wise we should have to invade the realms of public entertainment, such as sta^e 
and radio presentation of folk material. 

Methods of Research: Folklore 255 

or they may go out into the field and record tales or songs from the 
lips of informants. The task of the former type of scholar is not essen- 
tially different from that of any other literary student, but the collec- 
tor of oral folklore must develop quite another method. Though it is 
true that the best collectors are born and not made, some definite 
suggestion as to procedure cannot fail to be helpful. 

The field worker's first problem is the discovery of good informants 
from whom he can hear old songs or tales or other folklore. He will 
naturally be attracted toward areas which have already yielded first- 
rate material of the kind which he seeks. Such areas are by no means 
always in isolated districts. Usually one of two conditions is neces- 
sary to produce good traditional material. The social stability that 
results from geographical isolation or stagnation, or else that is pro- 
duced by common cleavage in speech with the surrounding district, is 
the most important element in preserving those manifestations of the 
practical and aesthetic life which interest the folklorist. Foreign lan- 
guage groups in large cities (the French in Canada and Missouri, the 
Spanish in New Mexico, and the Swedes in Minnesota), isolated 
mountaineers and hill folk, rural communities near but quite separate 
from cities, pioneer groups, cowboys, Indians, Negroes, lumbermen, 
miners, or indeed, any of the millions who carry in their memory 
what they have learned from older generations all of these beckon 
the folklore collector. In addition to these naturally fertile fields, one 
may receive clues as to good informants by the careful reading of 
folklore journals, by attendance at meetings of folklore societies, or 
through interested students in schools and colleges. The latter means 
is only now being properly realized. In Ireland, for example, all 
school children have the collecting of some folklore as a regular task. 
Though they are sending in to Dublin over a half million pages of 
folklore annually, their principal service is in calling attention to men 
and women from whom trained collectors can later recover rich tradi- 
tional lore. Aside from these two obvious methods of obtaining clues, 
the most generally employed is that of following the suggestions of 
informants themselves. They can nearly always call attention to 
some friendly rival in the same neighborhood. 

Informants may be possessed of a rich store of tradition, and yet 
an unskillful approach by the field worker may fail utterly to bring 
it to light. Because of the apparent simplicity of both the informant 

256 An Introduction to Research 

and the material he has to give, many amateurs make the mistake of 
attempting to collect without adequate preparation. One of the rea- 
sons for the relative failure in so many states oi the Folklore Division 
of the Federal Writers Project was that although the workers were 
plentiful and were paid for collecting folklore, they had little idea as 
to what they were seeking. A good collector goes into the field with a 
rather accurate knowledge of the material he hopes to find. He ha? 
acquainted himself with collections from neighboring areas; he has 
at his finger tips a great store of songs, tales, and other lore which he 
has good reason to expect to find. The best way to collect ballade is 
to know ballads. By suggesting a ballad plot, "a song about such and 
such", or the humming of a tune he stimulates the memory of his 
informant. The best ballad collectors have been able to sing their 
ballads and to enter into a song exchange which breaks down all 
reserve. The same background of thorough acquaintance with the 
field is necessary for all other types of collecting. Perhaps the person 
who specializes in the collecting of tales has the most difficult task, 
for though he can usually succeed with a relatively few typical stories 
in discovering whether his informant knows folktales at all, he should, 
in addition, know many hundreds of plots and must have some idea 
as to the occasion and type of raconteur appropriate for each. 

Much use has been made in recent years of questionnaires ; and 
when they are properly employed they are of great value. It is usually 
unwise, however, to take a questionnaire into the field and make 
inquiries from it as if one were filling out a tax report. Perhaps the 
chief function of these lists is the preparation of the collector himself. 
Questionnaires serve as memoranda of things he must look for while 
he is in the field. Among the most successful users of questionnaires 
are the collectors working in connection with the Irish and the 
Swedish Folklore Archives. In Ireland a complete questionnaire is 
furnished the collector, but he is urged to master a small part of the 
list and to carry on his interview without referring to it. In Sweden 
essentially the same method is used, except that a relatively small 
group of questions on a particular subject is sent out at stated inter- 
vals. It seems important for maintaining the proper psychological 
attitude in a folklore collecting interview that the questions appear 
to be spontaneous, and that they arise from the situation itself and 
from the normal give and take of conversation. 

Methods of Research: Folklore 257 

How long should the folklore collector remain in the field ? If life 
were not short and if there were a large number of persons engaged in 
recovering popular tradition, it would be desirable that he should 
spend his entire life in reasonably close contact with the people he 
has chosen to study. Especially if this group is primitive, a long 
period of years is necessary for a real acquaintance. The late James 
Mooney, who spent most of his life among the Cherokees, was par- 
ticularly scornful of those who hoped by a sojourn of a mere year or 
two to get at the heart of native tradition. There is no doubt that 
certain types of folklore particularly ceremonial songs and tales 
yield only to long and oft-repeated efforts. On the other hand, the 
student with a small amount of time should not despair. Frequent 
revisitings are almost as good as unbroken residence. Given a proper 
attitude toward his work, a good knowledge of his subject, reasonable 
tact and kindliness, he is not likely to encounter insurmountable 
difficulties. Some of our greatest collectors have been able to go into 
a new community and secure a huge amount of material in a single 
week. But such success comes only to that rare man or woman who 
has genius. 

Until the last few years all recording of folklore from informants 
has been by dictation. And, indeed, for most purposes, this is still the 
only practicable means. Ballads must be sung in a natural way so as 
to show the tune and the manner of singing. A recorder must learn to 
abbreviate and to record as fast as possible. Dictation also seems to 
be reasonably successful for tales, descriptions of customs, celebra- 
tions, and the like. An. animated teller of a story may find the delays 
incident to dictation so annoying that his whole style is spoiled. For 
such a man, and for singers in general, phonographic recording is 
particularly effective. The exact tune and the exact narrative style 
can be preserved in this manner. In spite of several difficulties to be 
mentioned, the making of records is being more and more widely 
adopted by collectors. The equipment necessary is fairly expensive 
and heavy, and sometimes it is impracticable because of the lack of 
electric current in isolated communities, or because, especially in 
Canada, one often encounters unusual frequencies in the current. 
But these two latter handicaps are gradually being overcome. Lighter 
equipment with wire or tape is taking the place of the heavier disc 
machines. Some collectors find it difficult to train their informants tt 

258 An Introduction to Research 

speak into the machine without self-consciousness, but usually if they 
have habituated themselves to giving dictation they can easily learri 
to use the microphone. Even in such a conservative community as the 
Gaelic-speaking section of western Ireland, the ancient tale-tellers 
have become expert in speaking to the phonograph. None of them can 
resist the urge to hear his own voice played back to him. In passing 
it may be said that such re-playings may easily become a great waste 
of time for the collector who is in a hurry, and that with discs an 
original record should not be played oftener than once because of 

No matter how much proprietorship the collector may feel in the 
results of his labors, he will always wish in one way or another to 
make them available to the rest of the world. His first thought will 
doubtless be to publish. Sometimes he has visions of large royalties 
from the sale of these folklore collections. He will almost certainly 
not receive them, and it may well be that he will find no one to 
sponsor his publication, much less reward him for his work. If the 
practical matter of securing publication, either as a book or in some 
periodical, has been arranged, the material must be properly prepared 
for the press. If it is possible to do so, all variants of songs or tales, 
even from the same informant at different times, should be printed, 
so that the scholar can get a true picture of the tradition. Material 
should be furnished for studies of variation in folklore. A conscien- 
tious scholar will by no means concoct versions out of a combination 
of variants. If he may publish only one, he should select a typical one 
and make proper notes as to other versions he has, but not try to 
improve the story or song he publishes. If the collection includes 
songs or ballads, it is of the first importance that the tune be given. 
Music doubles the value of any ballad book. 

The publication of folklore material may be either with or without 
comparative notes. Both forms are valuable ; but it is not necessary 
that all collections include distribution studies. If the notes are at- 
tempted, they should be done with the utmost care, for inaccurate or 
badly arranged notes have little value. If it is at all possible, publica- 
tion should be done either in a book or in one of the folklore journals 
which have at least national circulation. One of the greatest difficul- 
ties with folklore material is the fact that it is so scattered about and 

Methods of Research: Folklore 259 

Publication of one's collections may be quite out of the question. 
Sometimes the mere bulk of the material makes the expense prohibi- 
tive. But the collector should not be content to keep his songs and 
tales to himself; he should make them available at least to the 
earnest scholar. It is for the preservation of such materials that folk- 
lore archives are founded. In Europe a number of countries have 
established national bureaus of this kind where manuscript material 
and records are preserved, analyzed, and kept open to scholars. In 
America the Library of Congress has made a good beginning with 
its Folklore Section, now rapidly being expanded to include all types 
of traditional material. Such archives copy the collector's work, either 
photostatically or phonographically, without interfering with any 
proprietary rights he may claim. It would be wise for any collector 
who desires the best use to be made of his work to see that in one way 
or other copies of his material are made a part of this archive. The 
time is rapidly coming when the Library of Congress will be the 
natural clearing-house for all folklore collecting in America. 

Up to this point in our discussion we have been concerned with oral 
folklore. Before coming to grips with the wider problems of folklore 
study, it is well to remind ourselves that a large part of tradition, 
especially the widely-known tales, have already become a part of 
literature. Every competent folklorist should become thoroughly 
acquainted with a few of the great monuments of such written tradi- 

The most important literary collections of tales have come from 
India. Not all of them are easily available to the western student. 
Best known is perhaps the Panchatantra, 1 five books of fables serving 
as a manual of instruction in the wise conduct of life. This work has 
gradually spread westward under the title of The Fables of Bidpai, 
or Kalila and Dimna, or, as known in the Latin middle ages, Direc- 
torium Humance Vitce. An abbreviated form of the Panchatantra is 
included in the huge collection, Kathd Sarit Sdgara or Ocean of 
Story* now available in a very elaborate ten-volume edition in 
English. Four other important works in the same general sphere are 
the Hitopadesa* the Sukasaptati (or Seventy Tales of a Parrot),* the 
Vetdlapancavimsatika (or Twenty-five Tales of a Vampire), 5 and 

260 An Introduction to Research 

Vikram's Adventures (or Thirty-two Tales of a Throne). 6 Less inter- 
esting, but nevertheless important for comparative study, are the 
traditions of Buddhism which appear under the title of Jdtakas, 7 and 
purport to give stories of events in the former lives of the Buddha. 

Much of this Indian material early spread into Persia. The Pan- 
chatantra was translated by the sixth century of our era. Most im- 
portant for the folklorist is the Tuti-ndmeh, 8 which contains a con- 
siderable amount of the Indian Tales of a Parrot and which had wide 
influence in Europe during the middle ages because part of it was 
taken over into the Seven Sages of Rome. 9 The great tale collection 
from the Arabic world shows many points of dependence on Persia 
and India. This is the Thousand and One Nights. 10 Although some of 
its individual tales were known earlier in Europe, it began to influ- 
ence western literature and folklore only at the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. Another oriental stream in our written tradition 
is Hebrew. Besides such folklore from this source as is found in the 
Bible, a large number of Hebrew exempla and of pious traditions 
were current in mediaeval Europe. 11 

The folklorist has need of a good classical background, not only 
for such well-known authors of good stories as Homer and Ovid, but 
also for many less prominent writers whose works give us an insight 
into the traditional tales current in the ancient world. Particularly 
valuable are such men as Apollodorus n and Apuleius. 1 * The former 
tells many myths that are off the beaten path, and the latter gives us 
a beautiful folktale in his "Cupid and Psyche". For a comparative 
stylistic study of the folktale in the modern world and in the ancient 
a classical background is indispensable 

The European middle ages were particularly fond of story telling. 
This tendency is seen in their romances and ballads and also in their 
huge collections of prose tales. Of the latter there were several kinds. 
The clergy used illustrative anecdotes to give point to their sermons, 
and these narratives (originating, it may be, in India or Palestine or 
Rome) were brought together in large compendiums, often arranged 
alphabetically under the Latin name of the virtue or vice illustrated. 
The greatest of these collections of exempla are Gesta Romanorum, 1 * 
probably of English origin and the most popular of the whole genre ; 
The Exempla of Jacques de Vitry; 15 Scala Celt; and the Summa 
Predicantium 16 of John Bromyard. The two latter works are par- 

Methods of Research: Folklore 261 

ticularly full, each containing a thousand or more illustrative stories. 
Most of these collections ceased to be of influence after the end of 
the middle ages; but their individual stories frequently lived on, 
sometimes in literature, and sometimes, with utter ignorance of their 
scholarly origin, in the mouths of the ignorant and lowly.' 7 

The student of the folktale must acquire a knowledge of several 
other cycles of narratives besides these exempla. The ^Esop tradi- 
tion 1S will take him rather far, because he must become conversant 
with collections of fables in ancient Greece and Rome and try to 
master their relationship with first, the Hindu collections, second, the 
animal tales of northeast Europe, and, finally, the mediaeval retell- 
ings in France, England, and Germany. At some point in his dealings 
with mediaeval story the student will certainly encounter the 
romance of the Seven Sages of Rome. The popularity and influence of 
this group of tales can hardly be exaggerated, although a few of the 
stories have little interest for the modern reader. This collection 
takes the student immediately back to some of the Persian and 
Indian collections already mentioned. 2 One of the European redac- 
tions is the Dolopathos by Johannes de Alta Silva, an example of the 
importance of the Christianized Jew in bringing Oriental tradition to 
the west. 

In the later middle ages three literary forms helped to popularize 
tales. One of these, the fabliau? a short, poetic form which received 
its principal development in France, dealt primarily with risque 
situations and marital infidelity. Such famous literary stories as 
Chaucer's "Miller's Tale" undoubtedly go back to one of these racy 
poems. In Italy the characteristic story collection was in prose and 
was called the novella (plural novelle). Best known of these is Boc- 
caccio's Decameron, though several other authors, notably Bandello 
and Straparola, have played a large part in the enrichment of 
European fiction. 

Borrowing much of its material from the fabliau and the novella, 
and taking much from popular tradition, the jestbook came into its 
own with the invention of printing in the fifteenth century. In the 
origin of this form the Italian Poggio is the leader, but it was in 
Germany that it received its most vigorous development. Perhaps th< 

2 See Campbell's edition cited in note 9. 

3 See J. Bedier, Les Fabliaux, 2nd ed. (Paris, 1895). 

262 An Introduction to Research 

most representative collection of these Schwanke is Pauli's Schimpf 
und Ernst, really a combination of exempla and jests, for the author 
always carefully announces whether the story is "Schimpf" or 
"Ernst". Through the work of the great folklore scholars, Johannes 
Bolte and Albert Wesselski, these jestbooks have received careful and 
intelligent editing. The student will certainly wish to have some 
acquaintance not only with Poggio and Pauli, but also with Bebel, 
Frey, Schumann, and Wickram in Germany, with Arlotto in Italy, 
with the Oriental Hodscha Nasreddin, and with the English jestbooks 
of the sixteenth century. 19 

These English jests appeared in fugitive publications known as 
"chapbooks'\ They were cheap pamphlets and small volumes which 
treated all kinds of subjects, among them jests, anecdotes, and real 
folktales. This field has not been well explored, though some of the 
older collections of English folktales took much of their material 
from these sources. A similar type of cheap publication was the 
broadside ballad/ In these printed sheets have been preserved not 
only tens of thousands of quite worthless pieces of doggerel, but also 
some of the most important versions of really traditional ballads. 

Such are some of the purely literary productions with which the 
student of folklore, particularly one interested in the tale or ballad, 
must be acquainted. This is, of course, a counsel of perfection, but 
the more nearly the ideal can be attained, the better. 

As mentioned earlier in this sketch, the folklorist may be either a 
collector or a student of material already collected. Some of the spe- 
cial problems of the field worker have already been discussed. We 
will now assume that an investigator, reasonably well equipped with 
the literary background which has just been outlined, and with a 
good folklore library at his disposal, wishes to undertake a seri- 
ous study of some problem involving the ballad, the folktale, the 
proverb, the riddle, or another of those aspects of folklore interesting 
to the literary student. His first task, obviously, is to assemble the 
materials with which he is to work. For this purpose he needs some 
acquaintance with folklore bibliographies and some knowledge of 
how to make use of the various archives. The machinery for using 
the latter is indispensable when we have to deal with unpublished 

Methods of Research: Folklore 263 

Certain periodicals are so important for the field that nothing short 
of a thorough examination of the complete files will suffice to assure 
one of even reasonable bibliographical completeness. If one has 
decided upon the study of one particular song or tale or some genre 
or motif, it would be wise to look through the following sets : Volks- 
kundliche Bibliographic, (annual, 1929- ) ; Annual Bibliography in 
Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, s.v. 
^Folklore"; Journal of American Folk-lore; American Anthro- 
pologist; Southern Folklore Quarterly; Folklore (English) ; Journal 
of the Folk Song Society and its successor Journal of the English 
Folk Dance and Song Society; Zeitschrift fur Volkskunde; Hes- 
sische Blatter fur Volkskunde; Folkminnen och Folktankar. The 
four latter journals are especially good for their reviews and notices 
of new books. 

For the special field of the ballad, the complete edition of Child's 
The English and Scottish Popular Ballad (five volumes in ten) should 
be constantly consulted for its bibliographical references. This work 
may well direct the student into the Scandinavian field, and most 
good folklorists find that they must sooner or later learn the Scan- 
dinavian languages. For these northern ballads, Grundtvig's Dan- 
marks Gamle Folkeviser (nine volumes, 1853-1923) is indispensable, 
since it acts as a guide into the whole field. The American ballad 
student may well wish to secure access to the enormous collection of 
ballads and folksongs made in this country, sometimes of the same 
material as the Child ballads, and sometimes of quite new types. For 
this purpose he will find the notes in the following ballad collections 
especially valuable: H. M. Belden, Ballads and Songs Collected by 
the Missouri Folklore Society (Columbia, Missouri: 1940) ; Barry, 
Eckstrom, and Smyth, British Ballads from Maine (New Haven: 
1929) ; A. K. Davis, Traditional Ballads of Virginia (Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1929) ; Sharp and Karpeles, English Folk Songs from 
the Southern Appalachians (New York: 1932); Lomax, American 
Ballads and Folk-Songs (New York: 1934). For a more general 
bibliography of ballads, and for excellent treatment of the whole 
subject, see Gerould, The Ballad of Tradition (Oxford: 1932) and 
Entwistle, European Balladry (Oxford: 1939). 

The field of the proverb is opened up for the student by Archer 
Taylor in his The Proverb (Cambridge, Massachusetts: 1931). This 

264 An Introduction to Research 

work is supplemented by an index published in FF Communications 
Xo. 113 (Helsinki: 1934). Taylor also has an excellent treatment of 
scholarly problems concerning proverbs in the Journal of American 
Folk-lore, XLVI (1933), 77-88. 

Perhaps the most difficult bibliographical field for the folklorist 
is that dealing with the folktale. The scholar must seek some guid- 
ance, not only into the extensive field of the traditional literary tale 
but also into the worldwide collections of oral stories from every 
people and every rank. And he must learn how to approach the latter 
whether they are in print or still in manuscript. 

By far the most important bibliographical aid for the whole field 
of the folktale is Bolte and Polivka's Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Bruder Grimm, five volumes (Leipzig: 1913- 
31). In this work the authors have annotated such tales as appear in 
Grimm so thoroughly that there is no likelihood of the book's ever 
being superseded. The general bibliography at the end of volume 
three and the classified lists in volume five are indispensable. Thomp- 
son 's revision of Aarne's Verzeichnis der Mdrchentypen (The Types 
of the Folk-tale, Helsinki : 1928) and his Motif-Index of Folk-Litera- 
ture, six volumes (Helsinki and Bloomington, Indiana: 1932-37) 
offer bibliographical guidance for particular folktale types and 
motifs. Beginning in 1911 there have appeared largely in the most 
important of all folklore publications, FF Communications (Hel- 
sinki: 1907- ) a series of surveys, each concerned with the tales 
of a particular country or district. These are arranged in accordance 
with Aarne's classification of tales, and, in later years, with Thomp- 
son's revision. Lists of these surveys v/ill be found in the end sheets 
of FF Communications No. 106. They are constantly being added to, 
and not always in this series, so that one must be on the alert not to 
overlook an important contribution. A convenient survey of scholar- 
ship on the folktale will be found in Thompson, The Folktale (New 
York: 1946). 

Certain bibliographies give access to the folklore of particular parts 
of the world. Among these may be mentioned the following : DeVries, 
Volksverhalen uit Oost Indie, two volumes (Leiden: 1925-28); 
Thompson, Tal?s of the North American Indians (Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts: 1929); Dixon, Oceanic Mythology (Boston: 1916); 
Warner, African Mythology (Boston: 1925) ; Chauvin, Bibliographic 

Methods of Research: Folklore 265 

des Ouvrages arabes (Liege: 1892-1922); and Eberhard, Typen 
chinesischer Mdrchen (FF Communications No. 120). 

The folklorist would be happy if the assembling of his materials 
were as simple a task as the making of a bibliography. But whether 
his data is largely to be found in the pages of printed books, as with 
the proverb, fable, and riddle, or whether he must attempt to explore 
large unpublished collections, the actual bringing together of his 
material may become so formidable a labor as to discourage him 
utterly. The number of libraries which pretend to even reasonably 
good folklore collections is very small, both here and abroad. Most of 
them are, however, generous in lending their books to serious scholars. 
Perhaps the outstanding folklore collections in the United States are 
in the Widener Library at Harvard, the White Collection of the 
Cleveland Public Library, and the Library of Congress. 

If one is working with unpublished sources, whether in manuscript 
or on phonographic records, his work is not easily defined. Let us 
assume that he wishes to secure the data for a thorough comparative 
study of a widely distributed folktale. He will, of course, use the 
bibliographical aids which we have already mentioned. He will find 
that many of the special surveys refer to manuscript collections in 
various archives. Practically all of these archives have their folktales 
arranged according to the Aarne-Thompson classification, and it is 
quite possible to find all versions of a particular tale with great ease. 
Under normal world conditions the archivist can arrange, at a ver> 
reasonable cost, to have the desired material copied, and, if necessary, 
translated into one of the better known languages. Archives that 
should certainly be approached for the study of any item of folklore 
are: Finnish Academy of Sciences (Soumalainen Tiedeakatemia), 
Helsinki; Landsmalsarkivet, Uppsala, Sweden; Folklore Archive, 
Nordiska Museet, Stockholm ; Hylten-Cavallius-Institution for Swed- 
ish Folklore-research, Lund, Sweden; Vastsvenska Folkminnes- 
foreningen, Goteborg, Sweden; Dansk Folkemindesamling, Copen- 
hagen; Norsk Folkeminnesamling, Oslo; Irish Folklore Commission, 
Dublin ; Musee des Arts et Traditions Populaires, Trocadero, Paris ; 
Deutsches Volksliedarchiv, Freiburg im Breisgau ; Folklore Section. 
Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

266 An Introduction to Research 

Besides these regularly established archives, a number of private 
scholars have material which they are willing to make available for 
research. A good list of these private collections in the field of Ameri- 
can folksong is to be found in the report of the Committee on Folk- 
song of the Popular Literature Section of the Modern Language 
Association of America which appeared in the Southern Folklore 
Quarterly in June, 1937.*' American scholars have often received 
great help from several internationally famous folklorists of Europe. 
A good roster of names of such scholars is to be found in current 
numbers of Saga och Sed, the annual publication of the Royal Gustav 
Adolf Academy of Sweden. 

After recording folklore in the field or ransacking libraries or 
bringing together copies from archives over the world, the scholar 
may reach a point where he feels certain that he has before him such 
a large proportion of the available data that he is justified in study- 
ing his material. If he has not already solved it, he is now faced with 
the problem of what use to make of these tales or ballads which he 
has assembled with so much labor. What kinds of investigation, he 
may well ask himself, are suggested by the nature of folklore mate- 

Since folklore is transmitted by oral tradition, it offers scholarly 
problems essentially different from those of literary history. Items of 
folklore must be studied with much the same technique as other 
items of cultural history, so that folklore research in some of its 
aspects has close resemblance to studies undertaken by the ethnol- 
ogist or sociologist. Folklore is usually found to have rather con- 
tinuous geographical distribution. One of the most important ques- 
tions, therefore, with every traditional item, concerns the exact 
nature of the distribution. Scholars of the nineteenth century usually 
tried to reach large generalizations about the direction of folklore 
dissemination. But we know now that these generalizations were 
entirely premature and that we can only hope to approach the truth 
about this problem after hundreds of intensive studies have been 
made of particular songs, tales, riddles, and other items of folklore. 

The methods of distribution study have been more thoroughly 
:onsidered and more extensively practiced in connection with the 

Methods of Research: Folklore 267 

folktale than with any other form, but most of the principles involved 
would appear to be at least partially applicable also to all kinds of 
traditional literature. Though the historical-geographical method of 
folktale study has been attacked by some scholars in some of its 
important details, there is no doubt that, if used with good judgment 
and with a proper consideration of historical and literary influences, 
it is the most fruitful method for studying the dissemination of a 
story, especially if it exists in oral tradition in many versions and 
if the tale itself has a certain complexity of structure. 

The practitioner of this method hopes by assembling and arranging 
geographically and, where possible, historically all the versions of a 
tale, and by a thorough analysis of these versions to discover ap- 
proximately the original form of the tale, its place of origin, and its 
subsequent vicissitudes. It will pay the student to take care with his 
initial arrangement of the tales and to work out a brief way of 
referring to each version. The usual method is to have a conventional 
system of abbreviation. Tf, for example, there are six versions from 
Norway, they are usually referred to as GNi, GN2, GN3, etc. 4 

The tale is now analyzed into its component parts and the versions 
are examined with this analysis in mind. This process can be better 
illustrated than explained. Walter Anderson studied the story of 
Kaiser und Abt in which a ruler propounds to his enemy three ques- 
tions which must be answered within a given time on pain of death. 
A humble man substitutes and answers the questions, thus discom- 
fiting the king and saving the life of the intended victim. This story 
presents the following traits: (i) the number of persons concerned; 
(2) the question giver; (3) the man questioned; (4) the answer 
giver; (5) the number of questions; (6, etc.) the various questions 
and answers. The handling of the second trait will be illuminating. 
Anderson goes through all his versions and lists the various men who 
propound the questions. The result is given in the following form: 

Emperor. [There follows reference to eleven literary documents 
arranged chronologically; then the oral:] GG 32, 44, 45, 48, 54, 55, 

4 For this conventional scheme, sec any of the monographs which have appeared 
in FF Communications. Perhaps the best is Walter Anderson's Kaiser und Abt, 
FF Communications No. 42. In the above reference G = Germanic, N = Norwegian, 
and the figure represents the number of the version. The scheme is carried through- 
out the world: C = Celtic, R = Romance, S = Slavic, etc. 

268 An Introduction to Research 

GV i, 2, 4-7, GD 22, GN i, Lit i, SR 1-9 [10], 11-20, 23, 24, ... 
(121 variants 25.5% of the whole). 

/fiwg. [Reference to twenty-eight literary versions; then:] CB i, 
RP i, RF 2, 4, 5, RW i, 4, 5, .-. (254 variants = 53.6% of the 

After this are considered the versions which mention President, 
Pope, Bishop, Other Clerical Person, Priest, Miscellaneous Officials, 
Nobleman, Professor, Wise Man, Magician ; and then at last comes 
the heading "The Trait is Lacking". 

For each possible way of handling a particular item in the story 
the scholar lists all available versions both written and oral, and he 
works out percentages for each one. At the end of each section of the 
tale he attempts to interpret the percentages in order to see whether 
they give an unequivocal indication of the predominant form of the 
tale. Usually he finds that the solution is not altogether simple, and 
that a proper interpretation of the data involves much weighing of 
evidence. But on a basis of the percentages the scholar will at least 
construct a theoretical form as a trial archetype. It, is likely, however, 
that this purely mechanical construction will not actually represent 
the original form of the tale, if indeed such an original form can 
ever be attained. Re-examination of the tables must be made to see 
whether special developments of the story may be characteristic of 
particular geographical areas or of particular literary traditions. 
After his careful statistical examination of the tale mentioned above, 
Anderson eventually distinguished eighteen such redactions, which 
differ enough among themselves to have established separate tradi- 
tions. Now, with these special redactions established, it is possible by 
analysis to attempt the construction of a real archetype which could 
have produced all of these redactions or subtypes. One of the errors 
made by some scholars using the historic-geographic method is that 
they have attempted to work immediately from their percentage 
tables to the construction of an archetype without consideration of 
these local special developments. The proper procedure here is 
analogous to that used by the student of Indo-European linguistics. 
He arrives at his theoretical Indo-European form, not directly from 
the English, the Russian, and the French forms, but rather from the 
primitive Germanic, the old Slavic, and the Latin forms which repre- 
sent the archetypes for their respective linguistic groups. Even when 

Methods of Research: Folklore 269 

arrived at by the most carefully guarded methods, the theoretical 
form of the tale which we posit as the archetype may be only a vague 
approach to the original form. But it is the best we can do, and no 
other method than that of strict analysis is likely to arrive nearer to 
the goal. 

The close scrutiny which the scholar must have given a tale by the 
time he reaches the construction of the archetype will undoubtedly 
have afforded him some indication as to the time and place of origin. 
No exact methodology can be suggested for arriving at this result. 
There are some obvious principles. If the story of the Grateful Dead 
Man appears widely in oral tradition and is also in the Book of Tobit, 
we can be quite sure that the story was known at least two thousand 
years ago in the part of the world where Tobit was composed. But 
one should be very careful about the criteria he accepts. It is nor 
always true that because a story is spread over great geographical 
distances it is therefore very ancient. Nor is it necessarily true that 
the place of origin is within the present area of distribution. Gen- 
erally these principles are valid, but the exceptions are frequent. 

With at least an approximate archetype established, the scholar 
now attempts to explain how the various special developments and 
the multitude of versions attained their present form. The changes 
that take place in tales as they pass from person to person involve 
certain very simple psychological principles. Although these processes 
have been rather thoroughly analyzed. 22 they are all concerned in 
some way with omissions resulting from forgetfulne^s. with additions, 
or with substitutions Of the latter, some may come from misunder- 
standings, some from pure lack of skill, some from inventiveness, 
and some from a change of geographical background. At any rate, the 
goal of the folktale scholar is to trace the vicissitudes of his story 
and to make a reasonable explanation of all changes. 

The theory on which the study of dissemination is based is that a 
story proceeds from an original center and the dissemination may 
and frequently does occur in a wave-like motion in all directions. 
But for any one of a number of reasons a major change in the story 
may occur and set up a new center of dissemination. The waves 
spreading from this new center meet and complicate the original 
waves and those proceeding from still other centers. For the inter- 
pretations of these waves, the folktale scholar has used suggestions 

270 An Introduction to Research 

from some of the biological sciences. A widespread trait, for exam- 
ple, which entirely surrounds the area of another form of the trait 
is likely to be the older, and the element in the smaller area is likely 
to represent a special development. This is only one of the criteria 
used in the establishment of subtypes or special redactions. 

The criticisms leveled against the historic-geographic method are 
important, but they rather suggest improvement in technique than 
abandonment of the entire plan of work. C. W. von Sydow of Sweden 
is impressed with the importance of long established racial or 
national boundaries in the development of subtypes. These he calls 
ekotypes, since they seem to be "at home" in one country and not in 
another. This tendency must certainly be considered by the thorough 
investigator, but as an addition to, rather than a substitution for, 
a rigorous study of all versions. The late Albert Wesselski rightly 
insisted upon the importance of the literary tale and went so far as 
to state that the printed page had made a real study of oral tradition 
impossible. This dogma should be examined in the light of actual 
studies of the relation of the literary tale to the oral in Europe. More- 
over, pure oral folklore should be studied whenever possible. One of 
the values of the investigation of such tales as those of the North 
American Indian is that we are dealing entirely with the spoken word 
and that the chance of literary influence is all but out of the question. 
Such comparative treatments of primitive tales as have been made 
would seem to show the validity of the historic-geographic method. 

For the study of the diffusion of any item of folklore, whether it be 
a tale or not, some adaptation of this method would seem possible. 
It is clear that the item to be studied must be sufficiently complicated 
to permit of analysis, so that an objective investigation can be made 
of its different manifestations. Those folktales which consist of a 
single motif may be too simple for proper analysis, though it is true 
that some single motifs have enough complexity of structure to per- 
mit a thorough analytical treatment. Most tales, most ballads, many 
local traditions, and most riddles would seem to fit themselves to such 
study. The application of the method to ballads, though it is only 
in its beginning, 25 gives promise of clarifying their distribution and 
of making it possible to map out the main lines of their history. Such 
beginnings have also been made with a comparative study of 
riddles,** and of children's games/ 5 and cumulative tales.** 

Methods of Research: Folklore 271 

The student of the dissemination of a folklore item may be inter- 
ested in its history for its own sake, or he may feel that he is adding 
one more monograph which will help in arriving at some general 
laws. Our older scholars were interested in answering the leading 
question, "Where do folktales come from?" We are still interested in 
such problems, but we realize that it is only when we know about 
specific tales that we can hope to come to any conclusions. Dog- 
matism about diffusion, or independent origin, as a universal prin- 
ciple is entirely premature. We must learn what kinds of material 
diffuse, what kinds arise independently. 27 With the thirty or forty 
monographs which have already been written, it is possible even now 
to re-examine some of the older theories and to give consideration to 
others. Does our data already indicate currents which have given 
direction to oral tradition? What relation have these currents with 
migrations and other well-established historic facts? How are they 
correlated with racial, cultural, or linguistic boundaries? Is there, for 
example, a typically Indo-European folklore ? For an objective study 
of the latter question, the American Indians again afford an unusual 
opportunity, since racial and linguistic boundaries on the American 
continent have little correspondence. 

Such are some of the problems arising from the fact that folklore 
obeys certain laws of oral transmission, that it proceeds from centers 
of distribution and not from document to document, like literary 

We have seen that folklore as well as literature has developed its 
special genres. 28 The scholar must be sure that any differentiations 
of such forms as he makes should have actual validity. Much of the 
hair-splitting which has taken place in trying to differentiate between 
various kinds of folktales is futile from any point of view. It is con- 
venient, however, to recognize the difference in intent and subject 
matter between a Sage (a local tradition) and a Mdrchen (a tale like 
Cinderella). And sometimes an analytical study which attempts to 
make minute subdivisions of recognized genres brings out interest- 
ing facts about regional, racial, or other differences in treatment oi 
material. A type of interesting study with which very little has been 
done would seek to apply the differentiations of European folklore 
genres to the traditions of primitive people, and see how far they have 
validity in the very nature of the material and how far they w^uld 

272 An Introduction to Research 

seem to be a result of a particular place and age. One of the most 
difficult of these studies would undoubtedly be with the myth. How 
much of the speculations of nineteenth-century mythologies would 
be left when one has finished ? 

The relation of folk literature to the people from whom it is recov- 
ered should be interesting to the literary student as well as to the 
sociologist. How do tales or folksongs actually function in their lives? 
Certainly their feeling toward them is different from that of a col- 
lector to whom they are dictated. Can we not learn from the attitude 
of the simple folk whose lore is still alive some of the essential prin- 
ciples of aesthetics why people tell tales and sing songs and why 
other people listen to them ? 

The study of literary style in folklore is almost untouched, and 
even the methods would have to be invented by the student who 
would undertake to explore the field. Such pioneer works as Professor 
Hart's Ballad and Epic, 29 with the excellent method of literary 
analysis suggested there, have not been followed up as they should 
be. Objective analyses of the folktale styles of various countries and 
periods, for example, have hardly been attempted. How shall the 
student even begin such an analysis? 

Certain detailed studies can surely be undertaken that have their 
bearing on the question of style. The beginning and end formulas of 
certain kinds of tales or ballads, the kinds of material favored by par- 
ticular genres or by particular peoples or ages can be easily studied 
and their influence on narrative style observed. Why are the tales of 
some American Indian tribes uninteresting to the white reader and 
those of the next neighboring tribe filled with all the qualities we are 
used to associating with good narrative art? Do the Iroquois, for 
example, really enjoy their long-winded and repetitious tales? If so, 
what elements in their culture, religious or social, have brought about 
this result ? 

A combination of the methods proper to oral literature and those 
of ordinary literary history must be employed whenever we attempt 
to study the relation of written literature to folk tradition. Unless one 
confines his study to primitive peoples, even the investigation of the 
folktale itself must be partly a question of the relation of literary 
documents. Tales have been recomposed by writers of prose or verse, 
and these literary retellings in turn have profoundly affected the 

Methods of Research: Folklore 273 

purely oral tradition. It would be an interesting thing to know just 
how much influence the particular version of Cinderella composed by 
Basile in Italy in the early seventeenth century and that of Perrault 
sixty years later in France have had on the Cinderella as recorded 
from the people in western Europe. Such a study would include both 
style and content, and its feasibility would depend primarily upon 
the thoroughness with which the versions could be assembled. 

What of the folktale and the ballad as the origin of sophisticated 
literature? The European ballad is a distinct genre whose origin does 
not go back more than a thousand years. The literary imitations and 
borrowings from these ballads have been rather thoroughly studied, 
though further relationships may well be discovered. As to the narra- 
tive songs in Europe before the advent of the present ballad form, 
we know so little that we are reduced to guesswork. In the absence 
of sufficient historic data scholars may speculate as to the heroic 
^ongs that may have been current at the court of Hrothgar or of 
Alcinous. Generally the attempt to explain the great epics themselves 
as artistic amalgamations of such songs has been abandoned. A some- 
what analogous problem, indeed, is presented by the relation of the 
Finnish heroic folksong anil the literary epic, the Kalevala. The great 
number of these Finnish heroic songs has made possible good tech- 
nical studies of their distribution and mutual influence.- But condi- 
tions making possible these Finnish studies are probably unique. 

Folktale enthusiasts have undoubtedly overstated the influence of 
the popular tale on literature. The scholar should try to consider 
every problem of this kind as an individual question not to be solved 
by the application of any general laws. Too many studies were made 
in the last century on the assumption that folktales are broken down 
myths or in some other way the debris of literature. When the fallacy 
of this position became clear, the reaction was strong; and the folk- 
tale became the favorite hunting ground of the seeker for literary 
sources. The only advice that can be given the student in this regard 
is to insist that he approach his problem with the proper scholarly 
attitude. Betore he examines his data thoroughly and interprets it to 
the best of his ability, he has no right to arrive at conclusions. All 
scholars must now recognize the mutual give and take which has 
occurred between the folktale and literary narrative. 

One point that has been very confusing in the study of the relation 

274 An Introduction to Research 

just mentioned is the fact that scholars have seldom differentiated 
sufficiently between entire folktales and the motifs out of which these 
tales are made. Many motifs combine freely in almost any kind of 
narrative, and the student must beware of concluding that because 
a particular romance or epic contains a certain folktale motif it has 
therefore borrowed that motif from a particular folktale. Some of the 
studies of Beowulf and other monuments of Germanic legend sl have 
been subject to this fallacy. Anyone who looks into the folk material 
in Homer, for example, must be especially careful to distinguish be- 
tween tale-type and motif. The same caution must be given for the 
study of the puzzling relation of the mediaeval romances with the 
folktale. There was undoubtedly much mutual influence, for many 
undoubted tale-types constitute either an entire romance or a part of 
one. Comparative studies of most of these have been made with fair 
thoroughness, though some further historic-geographic monographs 
on tales with romance variants should be worth while. 

For a long time various attempts have been made to classify folk- 
lore material. It is only after some satisfactory classification has 
been contrived that it is possible to make a proper sorting of the data 
of any scholarly activity. Not until Aarne's Verzeichnis der Marchen- 
typen appeared in 1910 was it possible to begin surveys of the folk- 
tale repertories of various countries. Even though the system there 
exemplified is not perfect, it has been so widely adopted that the part 
of wisdom would seem to lie in improvements and modifications 
rather than in contriving another. For the individual incidents and 
traits in all kinds of popular narrative literature, Thompson's Motif- 
Index seems to offer a satisfactory basic classification. But in both 
the type-index and the motif-index there is much opportunity for 
improvement by individual scholars who wish to undertake thorough 
revisions of particular sections. Moreover, the motif-index is now 
serving as a common basis for an analytical treatment of whole 
genres or literary traditions, such as the Italian novelle, the French 
fabliaux, and the like. Every study of this kind serves to expand the 
classification in certain directions, and it is only by some such prac- 
tical co-operative effort that the scholarly world can gradually ap- 
proach a more complete view of the enormous variety of narrative 

Methods of Research: Folklore 275 

The present index of tale-types is made primarily to fit the tales of 
Europe and adjacent lands. Surveys of folklore material from other 
parts of the world, such as Africa, Oceania, or the American con- 
tinent, raise the question of new classifications for each area or the 
possibility of expanding one scheme to cover the world. Work is 
already being done in some of those fields, but there is room for 
many analytical studies and classifications of this kind. 

A satisfactory ordering of ballads and folksongs is much to be 
desired. More than a mere list of titles is necessary, for songs are 
variously known. It will take some ingenuity to devise a scheme 
which will include Sir Patrick Spens, Old Joe Clark, Git Along Little 
Bogies, The Jam on Gerry's Rock, and the songs of Lead Belly, not 
to speak of even more diverse types. It may be that the plan will 
recognize certain well-established groups, such as the Child ballads, 
the play party songs, etc. ; or it may be made purely on a basis of 
subject matter. But however it is devised it should make easier the 
work of the collector in the field and the scholar annotating his mate- 

Classification of folk music is a problem so special that it must be 
left to the musicologist, but it is to be hoped that some generally 
acceptable system may be made available that is not beyond the 
understanding of the literary student. 52 The Deutsches Volkslied- 
archiv uses a system which seems to give satisfactory results with 
German folklorists. 

Should special classifications of other genres be undertaken? It is 
possible that separate indexes of Sagen and riddles and myths should 
be constructed, or it may be that the same end will be served by a 
great extension of a general motif-index, with special finding-lists for 
each genre. 

In this summary treatment of the methods and problems of folk- 
lore research it has been made sufficiently apparent that the field is 
not nearly so well explored as those dealing with pure literature. One 
has not only the sense of adventure belonging to the pioneer but also 
the disadvantages. He must do many tasks and assume a variety of 
duties. For example, he must not let the mere fact that a text or 
discussion is in a foreign language deter him. He must learn some- 
thing of anthropology, and perhaps of music or dancing. He must 

276 An Introduction to Research 

undertake many fields of knowledge, but he must have a strong will 
not to follow the broad road of dilettantism. He must strive to keep 
up with the real scholars in all the fields he tries to cultivate. Too 
many literary folklorists are still using methods of study that serious 
anthropologists abandoned fifty years ago. The serious student will 
find that it is not impossible to cultivate literary folklore as both an 
art and a science. At least it is a challenge. 


I DO not propose in this section to tell any one how to write a thesis 
in English literary history. Of all things, literary research is one 
that must be learned by doing, not by reading or listening. No one, 
however learned he may be, however good a teacher and scholar, can 
be of much help to the graduate student with a thesis to write, except 
by way of suggesting methods of procedure and criticizing resul's 
achieved. Even this help some graduate schools used to neglect or 
minimize; it was their practice to assign a thesis subject to the stu- 
dent and then allow him to seek his own salvation according to his 
ability his intelligence and initiative. Perhaps those who emerged 
triumphant from such an experience were the better scholars for hav- 
ing been left so much to their own devices, but T doubt that such aid 
as might have shortened and lightened the task such aid as can he 
given would have been particularly injurious to the student. Every 
individual who completes a thesis, unless he has such help as amounts 
to having his work done for him, will have experienced the training 
and discipline that constitutes the value of thesis-writing. 

The first problem that confronts the student faced with the neces- 
sity of preparing a thesis is the choice of a subject. This is an 
important matter and one which is too ojften carelessly or hap- 
hazardly settled ; but it is, I think, less important than many students 
suppose. To have a good subject is not a guarantee of a successful 
thesis ; conversely, an apparently dull or unpromising subject may 
lead to a vitally interesting and important piece of research. The first 

[ 277 ] 

278 An Introduction to Research 

step, as has previously been suggested, 1 is to select a field in which 
one is, or can make himself, competent. It would be a capital mistake 
for one whose language equipment is weak to undertake a study 
which might involve comparative literature. It is desirable, though 
not necessary, that the field chosen be one which holds some natural 
attraction for the student ; it will be found that working in a field, 
becoming acquainted with it, generally creates an interest where none 
formerly existed. An important consideration in the choice of a field 
is the faculty of the institution in which the student expects to do his 
work ; if it includes an individual of special note, the student may 
do well to choose the field which will bring him under that indi- 
vidual's direction. 

In actual practice, I suppose, the typical graduate student, after 
gaining some acquaintance with the professorial staff, selects the 
member of the staff under whom he wishes to work, which choice 
automatically determines the field. If the person thus chosen is one 
who will give serious and thoughtful consideration to the assigning of 
a subject, who will discuss the problem at some, length, seeking to 
discover the student's interests and abilities, there is every prospect 
for a successful thesis. Unfortunately, there are in most graduate 
schools some scholars who have more interest in their own research 
than in the training of students ; these individuals are likely to assign 
projects that they wish to have studied, not bothering to determine 
whether the student has any interest in the research assigned, or, 
indeed, whether he has the ability to carry it out successfully. Such 
persons the graduate student will do well to avoid. 

Having chosen a field and a director for his thesis, the student will 
want to formulate a definite problem on which to work. For a mas- 
ter's thesis, which the student may wish to complete within an 
academic or a calendar year, a specific topic should be chosen as 
soon as possible ; but for a piece of research which may extend over 
a longer time, the subject may at first be very general. If I may 
, mention my own experience as a case in point, I started to work 
on the suggestion from Professor Baskervill that Robert Greene 
would be a good subject for study. For a long while too long, at 
times, for my peace of mind 1 studied without arriving at a more 

1 See above, p Q2 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 279 

specific subject; eventually there emerged not one topic, but four. 
In view of the fact that they all had to do with the latter part of 
Greene's life and his work during that period, I was able to achieve 
some sort of unity by treating the four problems under the rather 
unacademic title Greene's Last Years. 

One advantage of delay in choosing a specific subject is that such 
delay encourages the student to keep an open mind until he has 
sufficiently mastered his material and can take an intelligent position. 
Too often the student who is given a subject such as "The Influence 
of Spenser on Bunyan" is unconsciously predisposed to find an in- 
fluence rather than to seek the truth. To encourage open-mindedness 
the University of Chicago, in company with other universities, has 
long favored the use of the word dissertation with its connotation 
of thoroughness and exhaustiveness instead of the word thesis, 
which suggests an attempt to prove a point. 

Before making a definite choice of a subject, either specific or 
general, the student must make sure that the materials books and 
manuscripts necessary for the study are available to him. The in- 
dividual or the committee directing the thesis should be able to 
advise the student as to the availability of material, and the student 
is entitled to rely upon such advice ; but he may save himself from 
later grief by conducting his own investigation and determining, as 
soon as he is in a position to know what materials are necessary, 
whether the resources of local libraries are adequate. Some materials 
may be secured by means of inter-library loans, but it would be a 
great inconvenience to have to depend much upon such borrowings. 
Of course if the student is financially able to travel to New York 
or Chicago, to Harvard or Yale or Texas, to the Folger Library or 
the Huntington, or to buy books and photostats or microfilms, he 
need not worry about local resources. But few graduate students are 
so happily situated as to be able to buy much more than the text- 
books required in their courses. 

Another factor to be considered in the choice of a thesis-subject is 
the time element. One who expects to finish a thesis in ten months 
must select a subject which, without superhuman industry and with 
no more than ordinary good fortune, can be completed within that 
length of time. If one cannot be reasonably certain that a subject in 

280 An Introduction to Research 

question can be finished in the time proposed, he must either choose 
another subject or resign himself to the possibility of having to spend 
more time on the project than he had intended. 

Still another consideration is the value and importance of the 
results to be achieved. It is not always possible to determine, until 
after a piece of research is completed, how important its conclusions 
will be ; but it can not be denied that many theses have been written 
which any one might have known from the beginning would be of 
interest and value to no one except the person who assigned the 
subject and the student who did the work perhaps not even to 
them. This is not to say that all theses, and especially master's theses, 
must represent "discoveries" original and strikingly important con- 
tributions to knowledge. 2 I remember that some years ago a student 
apologized to Professor Manly for the fact that his work did not 
involve a discovery. Professor Manly replied that no apology was 
necessary, and added that he had read a good many doctoral dis- 
sertations in his time and could remember only two or three that 
constituted discoveries. Nevertheless, it is possible to find, even for 
a master's thesis, a subject that has interest and significance. The 
training received from writing on a dull and lifeless subject is no 

2 Articles which may be said to represent "discoveries" of greater or less im- 
portance include: Edythe M. Backus, "The MS Play Anna Bullen", PMLA, XLVII 
(1932), 741-52; F. M. Salter, "Skelton's Speculum Principis", Speculum, IX (1934), 
25-37; T. H. Vail Hotter, "A 'Lost' Poem by Arthur Hallam", PMLA, L (1935), 
568-75; William Van Lennep, "Three Unnoticed Writings of Swift", PMLA, LI 
(1936), 793-802; DeLancey Ferguson, "Some New Burns Letters", PMLA, LI 
(1936), 975-84; George Reuben Potter, "Unpublished Marginalia in Coleridge's 
Copy of Malthus's Essay on Population", PMLA, LI (1936), 1061-68, and Ken- 
neth Curry, "A Note on Coleridge's Copy of Malthus", PMLA, LIV (1939), 
613-15; Irving L. Churchill, "Shenstone's Billets", PMLA, LII (1937), 114-21; 
Bertrand Harris Bronson, "Ritson's Bibliographica Scotica", PMLA, LII (1937), 
122-59; Alan L. Strout, "James Hogg's Forgotten Satire, John Patterson's Mare", 
PMLA, LII (1937), 427-60; Bernard Mathias Wagner, "New Poems by Sir Philip 
Sidney", PMLA, LIII (1938), 118-24; Rossell Hope Robbins, "The Gurney Series 
of Religious Lyrics", PMLA, LIV (1939), 369-90; Willa McClung Evans, "To 
Splendora", PMLA, LIV (1939), 405-11; John Edwin Wells, "Wordsworth and 
De Quincey in Westmoreland Politics, 1818", PMLA, LV (1940), 1080-1128; Thomas 
O. Mabbott and Rollo G. Silver, "Walt Whitman's ' Tis But Ten Years Since' ", 
AmLit, XV (1943-44), Uil-62; Helen E. Sandison, "'The Vanytyes of Sir Arthur 
Gorg-s Youth'", PMLA, LXI (1946); Rollo G. Silver, "Whitman in 1850: Three 
Uncounted Articles", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [3011-17; and Robert Shafer, "Paul 
Elmer More: A Note on His Verse and Prose Written in Youth, with Two Un- 
published Poems", AmLit, XX (1948-49), U31-5I- 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 281 

better than that resulting from work on a good subject. Why, then, 
should one not choose a subject that gives promise of leading to a 
thesis of value to others than the writer ? 

Before starting to work on a subject one should make sure that 
what he proposes to do has not already been done. It may be said 
that this is a responsibility which should rest with the director of 
the thesis or the candidate's committee. That is undoubtedly true ; 
a subject which has previously been treated should not be suggested 
or approved unless there is a reason such as the fact that the first 
treatment was unsatisfactory or that new material has become avail- 
able for a second treatment of it. But thesis-directors and graduate 
committees sometimes err; and when they do, it is generally the 
candidate who suffers for the mistake. To be safe, then, one should 
make sure for himself that his work will not be a duplication of 
previous efforts. For a master's thesis, it will probably suffice to 
search the available catalogues and the MHRA Bibliographies ; but 
if one is preparing to work on a doctoral dissertation he should by 
all means consult the List of American Doctoral Dissertations Printed 
(published by the Library of Congress annually from 1912 to 1938) 
and Donald B. Gilchrist (and others; see below, p. 321, n.5i), Doc- 
toral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities (annual since 
1934). One should also consult Works in Progress . . . in the Modern 
Humanities , published annually by the Modern Humanities Research 
Association; and the section "Research in Progress" in each issue 
of AmLit ; and it may be wise to write to several of the leading 
scholars in the field especially those who are connected with pro- 
ductive graduate schools to inquire whether they know of anyone's 
being at work on the proposed subject. One of the greatest of aca- 
demic tragedies is to have a piece of research well under way 
perhaps almost finished and then to be anticipated in publication 
by someone else. 

One more suggestion and we shall have done with the matter of 
choosing a subject. More and more people are taking doctoral de- 
grees ; in many positions, where formerly a master's degree or even 
a bachelor's degree was sufficient qualification, a doctor's degree is 
now an inexorable requirement. Consequently, many a student now 
working on a master's degree and expecting to be satisfied with the 
attainment of that goal, may find himself later working for the 

282 An Introduction to Research 

more advanced degree. It will be wise for those who may eventually 
have to write a doctoral dissertation, as well as for those who expect 
to do so, to choose as the subject for the master's thesis one that 
will lead to work which will provide a basis for, or will be related 
to, future research. One may write his master's thesis on one phase 
of a question, leaving others for future investigation, or on one 
author of a group, or one work of several, or a short period out of a 
longer one. 


The subject having been chosen or assigned, the student is ready 
to proceed to work. Mention has previously been made of the equip- 
ment required. 3 What is much more important than the size and kind 
of note slips and filing devices is the quality of the notes taken. Much 
excellent work was produced from notes copied into bound note- 
books, and we shall have profited little if our improvement in 
materiel is counteracted by carelessness or inefficiency in note-taking. 
Professor Dow, in his Principles of a Note-System jor Historical 
Studies, has worked out an arrangement which may be desirable or 
even necessary for students of other kinds of history, but which 
seems to me unnecessarily elaborate for students of literary history. 
Instead of the ten or twelve kinds of notes recommended by Pro- 
fessor Dow, I should suggest three kinds: bibliographical notes, 
critico-bibliographical notes, and subject notes. It may also be help- 
ful to distinguish subject notes representing primary sources from 
those representing secondary sources and also from those containing 
one's own ideas. 4 

Since the first step in the solution of a research problem is the 
compiling of a bibliography, the first notes to be taken will be biblio- 
graphical notes. A bibliography is, of course, a list of documents 
books, articles, pamphlets, manuscripts dealing with a common sub- 
ject. To be of any value, a bibliography must be accurate, and it 
should so far as is humanly possible be complete. That is not to 
say that a bibliography for a thesis on Shakspere's knowledge of 
botany, or of medicine, or of law should contain everything written 
on Shakspere ; but it should contain everything that may contribute 

3 See above, pp. 86-88. 

4 See below, Appendix B. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 283 

to a discussion of Shakspere and botany, or medicine, or law. Un- 
fortunately, such completeness is generally an impossible ideal. A 
bibliography is likely to be out of date as soon as it is completed ; 
perhaps even before it is completed a book or an article will have 
appeared that should have been included and would have been in- 
cluded had the compiler of the bibliography known of it. Moreover, 
significant material often lurks in out-of-the-way places, in books 
which to judge from their titles might be expected to have nothing 
to contribute; and it would be an obvious impossibility for the 
student to read everything that has been written on Shakspere to 
make sure that he has included everything that touched on his 
specific subject. But he should make the utmost endeavor to in- 
clude all those works that by their titles give promise of being help- 

We are considering now the working bibliography a collection of 
slips, preferably 4" by 6" containing the titles of all the works that 
seem likely to have, or may have, something to contribute to the 
thesis. Such notes are primarily for the student's own use ; but they 
form the basis for the thesis bibliography, which may be consulted 
by others. Hence they must contain all the information necessary 
to enable the user to locate, with the minimum expenditure of time 
and effort, any work represented; all other information, however 
interesting it may be to a librarian or a book-collector, is confusing 
to the student and should be omitted. Data concerning the size of a 
book, the number of pages, the presence of illustrations, have nothing 
to do with making it easy to locate the book, and hence have no 
place in a thesis bibliography. But the following facts must be given : 
For books, the name of the author ; the title of the book ; the facts 
of publication ; 5 the name of the editor, or translator, or compiler 

5 These, of course, consist of the place of publication, the publisher, and the date. 
In many bibliographies the name of the publisher is not given, the assumption being, 
I suppose, that the place and date are sufficient to identify the edition, since two 
or more publishers would not be likely to bring out different editions in the same 
place during the same year. That may be true; but it seems to me that the pub- 
lisher's name should be given in view of the fact that the user of the bibliography 
may wish to purchase the book, in which case the publisher's name is the first thing 
he will want to know. However, the student will in this matter, as in all matters of 
form, naturally follow the advice of the director of the thesis. If place and publisher 
are both given, it matters little which item is placed first ; probably the commoner 
practice is to put the place first. 

284 An Introduction to Research 

(if there is one) ; the number of the edition, or the fact that it is a 
revision of a previous edition ; 6 the number of volumes or, as in a 
work like the Cambridge History of English Literature, the numbers 
of the volumes pertinent to the study at hand ; and the name of the 
series to which the work belongs, such as Indiana University Studies, 
or the "Modern Readers' Series". For periodical articles, the name 
of the author ; the title of the article ; the name of the periodical ; the 
volume number ; the date ; and the pages covered by the article are 
necessary. Most of the entries with which one has to deal in a thesis 
in the field of English literary history will clearly belong to one of 
these two categories and can be treated according to the formula 
given 7 for that category. Occasionally an entry a government bul- 
letin, an advertising pamphlet, an article in an encyclopaedia or a 
dictionary, an unpublished manuscript will cause trouble. 8 In treat- 
ing such anomalous entries, one must keep in mind the necessity for 
completeness, clearness, and consistency. 

To begin the compiling of the working bibliography, the student 
may consult a reference work, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
or, if the subject is a person, a biographical dictionary such as the 
DNB, and take down the titles given at the end of the appropriate 
article. Or one may find in a library catalogue or in Clark S. 
Northup's Register of Bibliographies the most recent book that con- 
tains a bibliography covering or relating to one's subject. It may be 
possible to assume with the consent of the director of the thesis 
that such a bibliography was complete for the date of its publication, 

If different editions are involved, one must use the same edition as that given in 
the bibliography, to be sure that the page numbers will agree; one may, however, 
use a copy with a date different from that given in the bibliography if it represents 
merely a different printing or impression. In the latter case, however, the possibility 
of corrections or revisions on the page in question must be considered. 

7 See below, pp. 286-89. 

8 Serial publications of universities and learned societies are frequently trouble- 
some. When such publications are put out in volumes with two or more studies 
bound together and consecutively paged, it would seem best to treat them like 
periodicals, putting the title of the study in quotation marks and italicizing the name 
of the series, thus: Merrit Y. Hughes, "Virgil and Spenser". University of California 
Publications in English, II (1929), 263-418. When each study is issued and paged 
separately, it naght be better to italicize the name of the study: Germaine Dempster, 
Dramatic Irony in Chaucer, in Stanford University Publications, University Series, 
Language and Literature, IV (1932), No. 3. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 285 

or approximately that date. 9 For the period since that time, one 
should then consult one's own library catalogue and any other cata- 
logues available, for the titles of books, and the Readers' Guide to 
Periodical Literature and the International Index to Periodicals, for 
articles in magazines and learned journals. The MHRA Bibliog- 
raphies will give both books and articles for the years 1919-1938; 
but one should consult all possible sources of information, even at the 
cost of considerable duplication of effort, to make sure that no 
promising title is overlooked. If one keeps his bibliographical notes 
always at hand, and in alphabetical order, it will take but an instant 
to determine whether a newly-discovered title is already included in 
the notes. One should never assume, because a title seems familiar, 
that he has made a note of it. It is much better to go to the trouble, if 
one's notes are not at hand, of making a duplicate note ; otherwise, 
the work thus inadvertently omitted will invariably prove to be the 
one that should, above all, have been included. Nothing gives critics 
more joy than such lapses. 

Since the notes for the working bibliography are for the student's 
own use, he may please himself in the way he arranges the informa- 
tion on the slip ; common sense would suggest that he use essentially 
the same form that he will be required to use in the bibliography that 
will accompany the finished thesis. 10 

The student may find it helpful to keep the slips representing 
periodical articles separate from those for books ; but it is the usual 
practice to put all entries into one alphabetical arrangement in 
the final form of the bibliography, and there is little reason for not 
doing the same in the working bibliography. 

We come now to the matter of bibliographical form. Unfortunately, 
there is no uniform standard in such matters ; the information that 
follows represents what seems to me the commonest and best prac- 
tices, but the student may find that some of my recommendations 

9 It must be remembered that bibliographies are sometimes completed months 
before the date of publication ; one should begin his independent search for material 
at a point three or four years before the publication date, thus making sure that 
he will discover anything that may have appeared too late for inclusion and at the 
same time establishing a check on the completeness of the bibliography. 

10 It may be convenient, howiver, to put the items on different lines, as in 
Appendix B. 

286 An Introduction to Research 

will be overruled by the director of his thesis or by the requirements 
of his graduate school. 

It is usual in a bibliographical entry to put the author's surname 
first, 11 in order to emphasize the alphabetical arrangement and make 
it easy to find a given entry. Works written by two or more authors 
jointly should be entered in full under the name that comes first on 
the title page, but there should be a cross reference for each col- 
laborator. 12 In determining where to alphabetize names beginning 
with prefixes such as De, La, and Von one may well follow the prac- 
tice of a good model such as the biographical section of Webster's 
New International Dictionary. Such portion of an author's full name 
as does not appear on the title page of his work should be enclosed 
in square brackets: "H[erbert] G[eorge| Wells". It used to be a com- 
mon practice to group together works of unknown authorship under 
the heading "Anonymous" ; it is now considered better to alphabetize 
such titles under the first important word contained in them. Thus an 
unsigned article, "A First Edition Forgery", would follow "Finch" 
and precede "Frost". Encyclopaedia articles are frequently signed 
with initials which can be identified by referring to a table at the 
beginning of the volume ; thus part of the article on "Shakespeare" 
in the Encyclopedia Britannica (i4th edition) is signed "E.K.C.", 
representing, of course, Sir Edmund Chambers, and should be entered 
"C[hambers], [Sir] E[dmund] Kferchever]". If an article such as 
an editorial has no title, the name of the periodical in which it 
appeared would determine its position in the alphabetical arrange- 
ment. An unsigned, untitled review of a book or a play might be 
alphabetized according to the name of the work reviewed ; but for the 
sake of consistency it would be better to alphabetize it according to 
the name of the periodical in which it appeared, with a cross refer- 
ence under the name of the book or play. 

The American Library Association has made popular the practice 
of capitalizing in a title only those words which would be capitalized 
if they were not part of a title i.e., proper nouns and proper adjec- 
tives. The older and more conventional practice is to capitalize the 
first and last words and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and 
verbs. Unless the director of the thesis or someone else in the depart- 

11 For the practice in footnotes, see below, p. 303. 

12 See below, Appendix A. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 287 

ment has strong feelings about italic capitals, the student may adopt 
whichever system he prefers; he should, however, be consistent in 
adhering to the system he chooses. 

As soon as one has looked up a title in his library catalogue, he 
should put on the note-slip the call number of the work represented 
by the note, so that he need never again take time to consult the 
catalogue for that entry. 13 

Titles of parts of publications are enclosed within quotation marks ; 
the title under which a whole work is published is underlined in long- 
hand or typewriting, to be set in italic type if printed. 14 Thus the 
titles of short stories, articles in magazines, essays, and short poems 
are quoted ; titles of books and plays and names of periodicals are 
underlined. An exception to the rule is sometimes made in favor of 
works that are regarded as classics ; one may legitimately underline 
instead of quoting the title of Keats's sonnet "On First Looking into 
Chapman's Homer" or Stevenson's "An Apology for Idlers", even 
though neither work may ever have been published separately. When 
a title that would normally be italicized occurs within an italicized 
title, it is sometimes enclosed within quotation marks, sometimes set 
in roman type. One may see either : "A Study of Hamlet as a Sene- 
can Tragedy" or 'A Study of "Hamlet" as a Senecan Tragedy 9 . When a 
title that is to be italicized forms part of a larger work as in a collec- 
tion of plays it is convenient to use the word "in" to bring out the 
relationship : "John Fletcher, Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, in Repre- 
sentative English Comedies, ed. Charles Mills Gayley (New York: 
Macmillan, 1914), III, 215-300." In a bibliography in which roman 
type is used instead of italic for titles, the word "in" in such entries 
should be italicized. In references involving page numbers, the con- 
cluding page should always be represented by two digits unless the 
first of the two is a zero. Thus we may have "pp. 107-9" r "PP- ri 3- 
19" but not "pp. 113-9". This rule, like most apparently arbitrary 
rules, has good sense back of it. If one forms the habit of giving only 
the last digit, he is very likely to write "117-9" when he means tc 
write "117-29"; but one who is accustomed to write "117-19" is not 

13 Call numbers are not, however, included in the final form of the bibliography, 
since they are not the same for all libraries. 

14 Roman type is often substituted for italics in printed bibliographies, apparentl> 
for no better reason than that modern printers are not fond of italics; the practice 
is, however, one which can in some instances create a good deal of confusion. 

288 An Introduction to Research 

likely to substitute another numeral for the "2" when he means to 
write "29". 

When a reference includes a volume number and a page number, 
it is unnecessary to use any abbreviation for volume or page ; it is 
understood that the Roman numeral 13 represents the volume and 
the Arabic numeral the page. When the reference contains only one 
of these items, an abbreviation must be used : "Cambridge History of 
English Literature . . . Vols. V, VI". Or, assuming that Volume II 
has nothing to contribute to the thesis, we might have "Smith, G. 
Gregory, Elizabethan Critical Essays . . . Vol. I". If only certain 
pages of a book are pertinent to the inquiry, the fact may be indi- 
cated in the bibliography : "Spencer, Hazelton, The Art and Life of 
William Shakespeare (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1940), 
pp. 89-I02". 16 

If the name of an editor, translator, or compiler is to be given, it 
may be placed either before or after the facts of publication. 

In an entry relating to a periodical article it is usually necessary to 
give only the year of publication, ignoring the month and day. One 
might ask why any date need be given, since the volume number 
alone is sufficient to enable the user of the bibliography to locate the 
article ; but there are at least two good reasons for including the year. 
In the first place, when periodicals are bound, the binder may put on 
the backstrip of the bound volume the date rather than the volume 
number ; of course both should appear, but one sometimes finds only 
the date. In such a case one must, if he has only the volume number, 
take down a volume at random, find the volume number for that 
year, and then perform an arithmetical calculation in order to dis- 
cover the volume for which he is looking. The other reason is that 
giving both year and volume number gives the user something to go 

15 Some authorities permit the abandonment of the Roman numeral and the sub- 
stitution of the system used in the Readers' Guide ; thus we should have: 'DfeWitt] 
T[almadge] Starnes, "Bilingual Dictionaries of Shakespeare's Day", PMLA, 52: 
1005-18 (1937)* instead of '. . . . PMLA, LII (1937) 1005-18'. The use of Arabic 
numerals may be necessary in such a work as the Readers' Guide, to conserve space 
and lessen expense; but in thesis-writing the use of Roman numerals for volume 
numbers is so universally practised that one can hardly abandon them without 
laying himself open to the suspicion that he is unable, rather than merely un- 
willing, to handle them. 

16 The superior c accompanying the date in this reference indicates that the date 
is that of the copyright, there being no date of publication given. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 289 

on if one of the items happens to be incorrect. Suppose one is looking 
up a reference in which only the volume number is given and that, he 
discovers, is wrong ; no such article as he seeks is to be found on p. 47 
or any other page of Vol. LIX. He may try LXI and XLI and various 
other combinations ; but he might conceivably save time by starting 
at the beginning and looking on page 47 of every volume ; and with a 
journal like The Athenceum, which began publication in 1828, or The 
Edinburgh Review, which began in 1802, the task would be an 
arduous one. When both volume and year are given, it is most 
unlikely that both will be wrong; if the article sought is not in the 
volume indicated, the searcher finds that the date of that volume does 
not correspond with the date given. Turning then to the volume 
indicated by the date, he finds the article he is seeking. 

In handling dates and volume numbers one must be alert to notice 
any irregularities. Some periodicals began publication in March or 
July and carried the first volume into the succeeding calendar year. 
Others publish two volumes in one year. Still others may have one 
volume bound as two or more, or two volumes bound as one. 

Most of the older periodicals are paged consecutively from begin- 
ning to end of each volume ; and when the volume is bound, any dis- 
tinction between issues disappears. Hence there is no point in giving 
the number or the date of the issue in which an article is to be found. 
However, some of the more recently established journals, and popular 
magazines generally, follow the practice of paging each issue sepa- 
rately ; in referring to such periodicals the month and year must be 
given for monthly and quarterly publications, and the day, month, 
and year for weeklies and dailies. If one is taking down a reference 
and finds the month or month and day given, he should of course 
copy that information, unless the page number is so large as to prove 
that the volume is consecutively paged. 

The compiling of a working bibliography is a long and arduous 
task and one that the student should not attempt to complete before 
beginning the next stage of his work. Indeed, it will not be possible 
for him to complete his bibliography until he has almost finished his 
thesis; for again and again as he reads, new bibliographical items 
will keep appearing and must be added to the working bibliography 
if any degree of completeness is to be achieved. 

We have so far been considering purely bibliographical notes; 

290 An Introduction to Research 

these should, as quickly as possible, be turned into critico-biblio- 
graphical notes by the adding of information as to the nature and 
value of the work represented by each note. Such comments may be 
in part the student's own reactions, recorded after a study of the 
work involved; but the student will do well, before making his own 
evaluation, to read and consider the reviews of the work in literary 
and learned journals. 17 He may find it desirable to quote statements 
from a review on his note ; in such a case the borrowed opinion should, 
of course, be enclosed in quotation marks, and the source of it should 
be given, so that there will be no confusion between the student's 
opinion and that of some reviewer, and so that the source of the 
quotation may easily be found if occasion for consulting it should 


As soon as the working bibliography is well under way, the student 
will naturally be eager to begin taking the third kind of notes the 
subject notes. But here a difficulty arises. The student cannot tell 
just what piece of information he should take down much less how 
it is to be classified until he knows, in a general way at least, what 
the form and content of the thesis is to be ; but the form and content 
of the thesis he cannot determine until he knows a good deal about 
the material with which he is to work not, in other words, until he 
has taken a good many notes. Thus the student who begins a piece of 
research is thrust into what may well seem a vicious circle : he does 
not know what notes to take until he has taken a good many, and he 
cannot take notes efficiently, at least until he knows what notes to 
take. It might seem that the only solution is to start taking down 
haphazardly whatever information appears as if it might be relevant, 
and then, after acquiring some command of the field of investigation, 
to discard the notes already taken and start over again. But the solu- 
tion is not quite that bad. 

17 The Book Review Digest will be helpful in locating some of these, but reviews 
of works published between 1919 and 1938 may be most conveniently located 
through the annual bibliographies of the Modern Humanities Research Association. 
It must be remembered that reviews, especially in learned journals, do not always 
follow promptly upon the publication of a work. If a book was published in the 
latter part of the year 1930, most of the reviews will be found in 1931, and some in 
1932 or possibly later. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 291 

There are two things that one may do to make sure that his note- 
taking will be done with some degree of efficiency. First, he should do 
a good deal of reading in the field which he proposes to examine, tak- 
ing no notes other than bibliographical ones. When he has sufficiently 
oriented himself, the problem should begin to take such shape as will 
enable him to determine, of any piece of information he encounters, 
whether or not it is relevant to his investigation, and, also, if it is 
relevant, what place it occupies in the solution of his problem. How 
much of this orientation reading will be required will depend, of 
course, upon the student's background and upon the nature of the 
problem. Most of the materials used in this preliminary reading will 
have served their purpose when the background reading is finished 
and will not be cited in the thesis itself, because the student will have 
found more authoritative sources for any information derived from 
them that he may have occasion to use. For example, one might well 
read Sir Edmund Chambers' article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
as part of the background for a study involving Shakspere ; but he 
would probably find that the details in that article also appear eithet 
in Chambers' William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems 
or in his The Elizabethan Stage, and one would naturally cite the 
book rather than the article. 

In the course of the preliminary reading, the problem that is to be 
solved by the thesis should begin to take shape, and certain topics 
destined to be the main headings of the discussion should begin to 
make themselves apparent. As such points of interest arise, the stu- 
dent may find it helpful to put them in the form of questions 
whenever possible, questions that can be answered "Yes" or "No"; 
u l)id Spenser exert an influence on Bunyan?" "Is that influence to be 
seen in Pilgrim's Progress?" "Did it come from Bunyan's reading of 
Spenser's works?" "Could it have come instead from the neo-Spen- 
serians or some other source?" And so on. When these questions are 
arranged in logical order, the thesis topic has been formulated and an 
outline can be planned; the finished outline will consist of the 
answers to the questions. 


At this point the student may avail himself of the second means of 
insuring efficient note-taking referred to above. By adopting a suffi- 

292 An Introduction to Research 

ciently flexible note-system one may be able to do a good deal of 
reorganizing of material, as a need for reorganizing becomes apparent, 
without having to make any changes in the notes already taken. 
Suppose that one writing on Milton had decided to organize his mate- 
rial into the following main divisions: I Life, II Character, III 
Works, IV Criticism. To save time he might label all the notes per- 
taining to Milton's life "I", those having to do with his character 
"II", and so on. If it should later seem best to deal with the poetry 
and prose separately, the student must go through all his notes chang- 
ing "III" to "III-A" or "III-B". But if the notes representing works 
had been labeled Lycidas, Paradise Lost, Of Prelatical Episcopacy, 
Comus, Areopagitica they could be rearranged without any change 
of labels. Conversely, if it should be decided that "Life" and "Char- 
acter" belong in the same main division, those notes can be put to- 
gether without having to change "II" to "F". Arbitrary labels based 
on the position the material represented in the note will presumably 
occupy in the finished thesis have to be changed with every change 
in organization ; logical headings based on the subject matter of the 
notes do not. 

As the note-taking proceeds, the need for subheads and sub-sub- 
heads will generally appear. Thus a note for a Chaucer study may be 
labeled "P\arlement of] F[oules] allegory political" or "C\anter- 
bury] T\ales] Man of Law Source". As the need for such subheads 
develops, the notes already taken should be examined and the proper 
labels added wherever necessary. 

Every subject note consists of three parts : heading or topic, subject 
matter, and bibliographical reference. The heading or topic, as we 
have just seen, indicates the section of the thesis to which the 
information on the note pertains ; the subject matter is, of course, the 
information for the sake of which the note was taken; and the 
bibliographical reference gives the source of that information. It 
wouVl be logical to arrange these three items in the order just used 
label, material, and source; but it may be good discipline to put 
source before subject matter. One is so likely to feel a sense of com- 
pletion when he has taken down the information he wants, that he 
may grow careless in recording the source, or worse forget to record 
it. And a note containing the most valuable information to be had is 
almost worthless if it does not give the source of the information. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 293 

The most important rule in note-taking, however, and the one 
which probably causes students the most trouble, is to put on each 
note one, and only one, unit of information. The rule is easily stated 
and easily learned, but to apply it is a different matter. Learning to 
recognize what constitutes a unit of material requires discrimination 
along with, sometimes, good guessing. A unit of material is that 
amount of information whether it be paragraph, sentence, phrase, 
or word which will stand by itself in the finished thesis, within 
which no intervening information, except, possibly, a comment by 
the author of the thesis, is properly to be placed. In the early stages 
of one's research it is frequently impossible to be sure whether one 
sentence from a given source should appear in the thesis immediately 
following its predecessor in that source, or whether a sentence or 
several sentences should come between them. If the student knows 
that a passage of, say, six sentences is to appear as a unit in his 
thesis, then those six sentences properly belong on one note-slip. But 
even when a detailed outline has been worked out, there are often 
occasions when one cannot be sure whether or not he should put two 
pieces of information on the same slip ; in such cases of doubt, the 
safe thing is, of course, to use two slips. Suppose, however, that one 
has already put a passage of six sentences on one slip and finds later 
that a sentence from some other source should come between the 
third and fourth of those sentences. He may copy sentences four, five, 
and six on another slip and cross them out on the first one ; or and 
this procedure saves time and probably does just as well he may 
fasten the new note with its one sentence to the old one with a paper 
clip, and put an asterisk between the third and fourth sentences to 
show where the appended material belongs. 

It is sometimes suggested that different colors be used for different 
kinds of notes; I see little to recommend such a scheme, but if it 
appeals to one if the use of colored note-slips will lessen the 
drudgery involved in all research let him by all means use as many 
hues of the rainbow as he can find excuse for. 

On all notes, of whatever kind or color, there should be a margin 
of about an inch at the left of the slip. In this space should be set 
down, in abbreviated fashion, the date on which the note was taken. 
To have a record of the date of each of several notes may make per- 
fectly plain the history of the evolution of an idea, over which one 

294 An Introduction to Research 

plight otherwise puzzle his head in vain. The marginal space on the 
note may also be used for afterthoughts (each of which should also 
be dated), for cross references, and for any other jottings which it 
may be desirable to link directly with the material of the note. 

Some authorities urge the use of one's own language in taking 
notes, rather than that of the source. Such advice is undoubtedly to 
be followed in undergraduate term papers, but I think that the writer 
of a thesis will do well to take many notes verbatim. Certainly he 
should take down the exact words of his source whenever there is a 
possibility that he may want to use a direct quotation in his thesis. 
He should then enclose the subject matter of the note or whatever 
part of it is in the words of the original in quotation marks. He 
should, of course, be extremely careful to copy everything, including 
spelling and punctuation, accurately. 18 If the original contains a mis- 
take, in spelling, perhaps, or in grammar, which the note-taker is 
afraid someone may impute to him he may disclaim responsibility 
by using the conventional device sic within brackets: ". . . his 
freinds \sir] all knew ..." 

In taking down on a note-slip a quotation that extends from one 
page to another, one should indicate on the slip where one page ends 
and the other begins: "The Comedy of Errors is based on Plautus; 
it is an artificial thing, really a / farce, which mildly pleases by adroit 
manipulation of plot." (Hazelton Spencer, The Art and Life of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare, pp. 38-39.) If one decided later to use only the last 
clause, the slanting stroke would tell him that the proper reference 
is "p. 39". 

When the copying of a quotation is completed, the note should be 
collated with the original; then, if the student is satisfied that his 
note exactly reproduces the source, he may add a check mark or some 
such symbol as evidence that he is free to quote from his note without 
again consulting the original. In what I have just said, I do not, let 
it be understood, mean to suggest that there should be too lavish a 
use of direct quotations in a thesis ; but it is much easier to turn a 
note into one's own language at the time of incorporating it into the 

18 If there is any chance that the student may wish to reproduce in his thesis 
the typographical peculiarities of the original such as the long s (f), ma (for 
wan), y e (for the), or the Elizabethan usage in the matter of i and ; and u and u 
he must of course be careful to indicate those peculiarities in his notes. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 295 

thesis than it is to get out the source of the note if a direct quotation 
should prove to be desirable. 

In taking notes one must constantly keep in mind the difference 
between primary and secondary sources. A primary source is the 
original, the direct source. Thus for the date of Shakspere's christen- 
ing the primary source is the register of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity in Strat ford-on- Avon ; if that date is quoted from Sidney Lee, 
or J. Q. Adams, or Sir Edmund Chambers, or Hazelton Spencer, one 
is making use of a secondary source. The primary source for one oi 
Shakspere's plays would be Shakspere's manuscript ; but since we do 
not have the manuscripts, we are accustomed to think of the various 
quartos and the First Folio as primary sources, as, indeed, they are 
for the printed versions of the plays, which may, or may not, differ 
materially from what Shakspere actually wrote. It may be said, then, 
that a primary source is that beyond which it is impossible to trace 
a piece of information. For all practical purposes, Arber's Transcript 
of the Stationers' Register and Greg's Henslowe's Diary, accurate as 
they are, serve as primary sources ; but strictly speaking, the Register 
itself, and the Diary, are the primary sources, the editions of Arber 
and Greg being secondary. 19 Primary sources are not necessarily more 
valuable to the student than secondary ones, but should be used 
whenever possible. Second- and third-hand sources may furnish ideas 
and suggestions, and it is perfectly proper to use them, so long as they 
are presented as second- and third-hand sources; but the student 
should trace all information back toward its origin as far as it is 
possible for him to go/ 20 

Likewise, the student must keep himself at all times aware of the 
difference between fact and opinion. If we read that in the First Folio 
version of Hamlet there are a certain number of run-on lines, or 
rhymed lines, or feminine rhymes, the statement assuming the 
count to have been correct represents a fact. But when we read that 

19 A perfectly clear photostat of a primary source is equivalent to the source 
and may be cited as if one were citing the original. 

20 Professor T. Atkinson Jenkins told a story on himself ("An Inaccurate Quota- 
tion from Dr. Johnson", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 313) that resulted from failure to 
observe this rule. He quoted Dr. Johnson as denning a novel as "a smooth tale, 
generally of love". He was quoting his source (Walter Scott, Essays on Chivalry, 
Romance, and the Drama) correctly, but the source was wrong; what Dr. Johnson 
really said was "a small tale, generally of love". 

296 An Introduction to Research 

Shakspere attended the local grammar school at Stratford, we are 
dealing with an opinion. If the records of the school for the period of 
Shakspere's boyhood were extant and showed Shakspere's name on 
the attendance roll, we might accept his membership in the school as 
a fact, just as we may accept the date of his christening as a fact. 
But lacking such evidence, the assumption that Shakspere was edu- 
cated at the Stratford school is only an opinion, however probable it 
may be. Opinions, like secondary sources, may be exceedingly valu- 
able ; and the student may make free use of them so long as he never 
forgets, or allows the reader of his thesis to forget, that they are 
opinions, not facts. 

In taking notes, since they are for his own use and need not be 
understood by anyone else, the student may feel free to use such con- 
tractions and abbreviations 21 as will make for economy of time and 
labor. But this license is one to be used cautiously. Many a student 
has taken a cryptic note, the meaning of which was perfectly clear to 
him at the moment, only to find that, after the passage of weeks or 
perhaps only days it has become a baffling enigma* One must be 
sure, then, to employ only such abbreviations as he will always 
understand ; he must not make the mistake of condensing beyond the 
point of comprehensibility. Indeed, it is a good idea, I think, to make 
a practice of taking notes in complete sentences. A sentence may not 
have, a year later, all the connotations that it has as one writes it, but 
it will still convey a basic meaning; whereas a truncated sentence 
may, after a lapse of time, cease to convey any meaning at all, and 
serve only to make one wonder what on earth he could have meant. 

Any difficulty in understanding one's notes will be largely obviated 
if one uses them as he should keeps reading them, poring over them 
constantly. Only by thus living with his notes can the student hope 
to bring out their full possibilities. Trained scholars need not work 
at such heat, though many of them do; but the average graduate 
student, while he is working on his thesis, ought to become so 
absorbed with his subject, so unable to talk about anything else, that 
he becomes, for the time, a nuisance to his friends. 

One more word on taking notes: take plenty of them. The more 

21 In taking down verbatim quotations it will be best to abbreviate only where 
there is an abbreviation in the original ; then there will be no question later whether 
an abbreviation in the note stands for an abbreviation or a full word in the original 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 297 

notes one has, the better his chance, by selecting the best of them, to 
achieve a brilliant result. Everything that may possibly be helpful 
should be taken down. When a second source repeats something that 
has already found its way into one's notes, the repetition should be 
recorded. The subject matter of the note need not be recopied if it is 
identical ; the second reference can be added to the original note. It 
may later prove that the second authority is a much better one to cite 
than the first ; it may be worth something to have two sponsors for 
the opinion, or two confirmations of the fact. But, having taken a 
multitude of notes, one should not allow himself to be betrayed by his 
affection for them or by his pride in their bulk. One should ruthlessly 
discard, no matter how much it may hurt to do so, every note whose 
contribution turns out, after all, to be neither significant nor particu- 
larly interesting. By such Spartan methods are good theses produced. 

Little that would be helpful can be said here concerning the prob- 
lem of organizing the material for a thesis ; effective organization 
depends upon the nature of the problem. A biographical problem or a 
study of a movement will lend itself to a chronological arrangement ; 
many studies demand analysis or synthesis or a combination of those 
two methods. When one comes to feel that he has accumulated all the 
notes necessary for the thesis, he should sort them out into piles, 
putting together those bearing the same main heading ; those he will 
again sort and divide, until he has brought together in separate piles 
the notes representing the smallest sub-topic in his outline. Each such 
group should contain not more than fifteen or twenty notes, so thai 
they can be spread out before the student's eyes and their contents 
digested almost at a glance. It will then be easy to decide that a 
certain note will provide a good climax for that section of the thesis 
and hence should come last ; that another will furnish a good open- 
ing ; that still another leads up to the last, or naturally follows the 
first, or makes a good transition somewhere. When the notes for each 
smallest subdivision are so arranged, and the subdivisions themselves 
are put in logical order, and finally the main divisions are disposed 
so as to lead up to and provide a climax, one has what is in effect a 
rough draft of the thesis. What yet remains to be done is important ; 

22 Some suggestions have been made in the various chapters in Part III. 

298 An Introduction to Research 

many a thesis has been ruined in the final stage. But if the pre- 
liminary work the compiling of the bibliography and the collecting 
and arranging of the notes has been well done, the actual writing of 
the thesis should be almost, if not quite, a pleasure. 


Every graduate student in English should be able to write com- 
petently ; nevertheless, a good handbook should be kept available for 
solving those problems of grammar, sentence structure, and punctua- 
tion that are forever rearing their ugly heads. Some students may still 
have the handbook used in their freshman days, and that will doubt- 
less serve the purpose; if a new one must be secured, Porter G. 
Perrin's Writer's Guide and Index to English, revised edition (Chi- 
cago: Scott Foresman, 1950) will be found especially satisfactory 
because of its dictionary arrangement and its eminently sane point of 

It is not enough, however, for a thesis to be written in correct 
English ; it should have what many students and many thesis-direc- 
tors, too, for that matter overlook: an attractive style. That does 
not mean that there should be "purple passages" or "fine writing". It 
means simply that the sentences should be pleasingly varied in struc- 
ture and that the diction should achieve the golden mean between 
stiltedness and familiarity. It is sometimes said that a thesis must be 
written in the third person, and that is doubtless generally true. But 
I think that with some subjects and by some writers the first person 
can be used without any loss of the objectiveness and the impartiality 
that every good piece of research must have. 

Before one starts to write, he may profitably examine, being espe- 
cially mindful of their literary style, several examples of scholarly 
writing of more or less the same sort that he is undertaking. Some 
will doubtless be found to be lifeless and dull ; whereas others, no less 
scholarly, have all the charm and interest of a good novel. Without 
playing too much the sedulous ape, the student may well adopt the 
latter as models for style. 


I have, in this discussion, of necessity separated the comments on 
the writing of the thesis from those on documentation. In practice, of 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 299 

course, writing and documentation go along together. One puts in the 
footnotes as he writes ; indeed, for the first draft, at least, it is best 
to put each footnote immediately below the line of text in which the 
reference occurs, with a line above the footnote and one below it to 
separate the note from the text. 2 * In some graduate schools the thesis 
may be submitted in this form ; more often the student is required, in 
the final draft, to collect the footnotes for each page at the bottom of 
that page. The advantages of inserting the footnotes in the text in the 
first draft are : first, one copies the reference from a note as soon as 
he has finished using the material from that note and hence is in little 
danger of forgetting the necessity for giving the source of his informa- 
tion ; and second, in typing out the reference, the student learns how 
many typewritten lines each footnote requires and can make proper 
allowance for it at the bottom of the page when putting the manu- 
script into final form. 

Unacademic people together with, perhaps, some graduate stu- 
dents sometimes have queer ideas about footnotes. I have heard the 
story of an individual who submitted a doctoral dissertation to one 
of our leading universities only to have it rejected. Without making 
any change in it "except to stick in a few more footnotes", he resub- 
mitted the dissertation, whereupon it was promptly accepted. The 
story is told as a reflection upon the university; and perhaps the 
university was at fault, either in overlooking the merits of the work 
in the first place, or in accepting it later. It is much more likely, how- 
ever, that the addition of the proper footnotes turned a piece of bad 
scholarship into a satisfactory dissertation; for the difference be- 
tween a good piece of research and a bad one may easily lie in the 
footnotes. Material presented on the authority of no one but the 
writer may become a real contribution to knowledge when it is 
properly confirmed and attested. That is not to say that one should 
strive for a great number of footnotes ; there is no more merit in a 
mere multiplicity of footnotes than there is in a multiplicity of pages. 
There should be a footnote wherever one is needed and nowhere else. 
But how is one to know where these places are ? 

/Footnotes are sometimes classified as being of three or four kinds ; 
but fundamentally they serve two purposes : to give the source of a 
bit of information contained in the text, and to supplement or 

23 See below, Appendix C. 

300 An Introduction to Research 

amplify the text. 1 There should be little difficulty about the first kind. 
Once the student realizes that he is expected to provide a footnote 
for every idea and every bit of language 24 that did not originate in 
his own mind, all that is necessary is to put down the source of every 
bit of information based on reading as soon as it has been transferred 
from the note-slip to the text, The other kind of footnote causes a 
little more trouble. It may often happen that an illustration of a 
point just made or the expansion of an argument would be helpful 
to the reader of the thesis, but to provide the illustration or extend 
the argument would confuse the main line of discussion. In such a 
circumstance the student may be well advised to put the illustration 
or the extension of the argument in a footnote, first being careful to 
satisfy himself that the additional information is really helpful to the 
reader and that it does not properly belong in the text. There are 
footnotes that have neither interest nor value for the reader and serve 
only to display the erudition of the writer ; no matter how proud he 
may be of some bit of esoteric knowledge picked up in the course of 
his reading, the graduate student should resist the* temptation to 
indulge in a footnote that is not germane to his text. 

What might be considered a third kind of footnote is the cross 
reference, which calls attention to the fact that a point touched on in 
the text is developed elsewhere in the thesis in more detail. 1 

Footnote form is a little more nearly uniform than is bibliograph- 
ical form, but again the important thing is that one be perfectly 
consistent in adhering to whatever form he decides to adopt or has 
forced upon him. It used to be the practice to number footnotes page 
by page, labeling the first footnote on each page number one. 'it is 
generally considered better form now to number the footnotes con- 
secutively throughout a work or a chapter or section of a work. A 
master's thesis might have the numbering consecutive throughout; 
but if there are more than one hundred footnotes, numbering by 
sections or chapters will be better. A doctoral dissertation should 
almost certainly have the notes in each chapter separately numbered* 

24 An exception may be made in favor of expressions so well known as to be 
almost proverbial; thus it seemed unnecessary to cite a reference to Robert Louis 
Stevenson for the phrase "sedulous ape" used a few lines above, and "temper the 
wind to the shorn lamb" is often used without being credited to Laurence Sterne, 
even though most people take it to be from the Bible. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 301 

The advantage of consecutive numbering of footnotes is that it makes 
it possible for a reader to correct an error. If I am reading a thesis 
and find myself directed to "p. 17, n. 2", and, turning to the desig- 
nated page, I find that the second note has nothing to do with the 
thing for which I am looking, I know that something is wrong. 
Looking at the other notes on p. 17 I find that they are no more 
relevant than note two ; hence the page number must be a mistake 
and I must look to some other "n. 2". But on what page? Which one 
of perhaps two or three hundred note two's is the one I am looking 
for? With consecutive numbering there is no difficulty. T turn to page 
17 and find that the notes on that page bear numbers from 16 to 19; 
note 2 is on page 7 and proves to be the one I am seeking. Even in a 
poor thesis, page number and note number are not likely both to be 
wrong in the same reference. 

The reference number in the text should follow the material in the 
text taken from the source indicated in the footnote to which the 
number refers. Students sometimes wonder how far back the influ- 
ence of a footnote extends, how much of the text preceding the refer- 
ence number is to be taken as coming from the source indicated. 
Theoretically, unless the text indicates that part of the material is 
original with the writer of the thesis, it might be assumed that all of 
the information contained between two reference numbers is taken 
from the source indicated by the latter ; actually that seldom amounts 
to more than one paragraph. 25 If the writer wants the reader to know 
that the beginning of a. paragraph is entirely original, though the 
latter part comes from someone else, he must show the fact by the 
language of the text. 

The reference number in a typewritten manuscript may be put on 
the line with the text and a proofreader's mark (like a broad V v ) 
put below it to indicate that it should be a superior number or super- 
script. It is just as easy, however, and considerably neater, to turn 
the platen or roller of the typewriter toward one slightly and hold it 

25 With direct quotations, of course, the scope of the reference is shown by the 
quotation marks. If a quotation should contain more than one paragraph (for the 
usual treatment of long quotations, see below, p. 309), it is customary to repeat the 
quotation marks, when quotation marks are used, at the beginning of each para- 
graph and to show that the quotation is continuous by omitting the quotation 
marks at the end of each paragraph except the last. 

302 An Introduction to Research 

in place with the left hand while striking the proper key or keys with 
the right. The corresponding number preceding the footnote should 
be indented slightly ; generally the indention is the same as for the 
beginning of a paragraph. The number may be raised, or marked for 
raising, like the reference number, or it may be left on the line un- 
marked ; since it comes at the beginning of a line and is preceded by 
an indention, there is no likelihood of confusion. If the footnote re- 
quires more than one line, the lines should be single-spaced ; there 
should be a double-space between footnotes. 

In papers that are not accompanied by a bibliography, it is cus- 
tomary to give full bibliographical details concerning a work in the 
first footnote in which the work is referred to. Since every thesis is 
presumably accompanied by a bibliography, it is not necessary to 
give the facts of publication of a book in the first or in any other 
footnote ; the reader is expected to use the footnotes in connection 
with the bibliography JThe usual form, then, for a footnote referring 
to a book would be: author's name, title of book (underlined for 
italics), volume number (if the work contains more than one vol- 
ume), and page numberl. Some thesis-directors consider that the 
author's surname alone is sufficient, unless the bibliography contains 
two or more authors with that surname. The title of the work may be 
shortened ; no one would think of using the full title of one of Defoe's 
novels in a reference footnote. One may use the first words of the 
title, or the first and last part of it, with marks of ellipsis to indicate 
the omission. Thus McKerrow's A Dictionary of Printers and Book- 
sellers in England, Scotland, and Ireland, and of Foreign Printers of 
English Books 1557-1640 might appear : A Dictionary of Printers . . . 
or, better, perhaps, as more informative, A Dictionary of Printers 
. . . 1557-1640. If more than one edition of a work is included in the 
bibliography, a footnote referring to that work must indicate the 
edition involved. 

Footnote form for periodical articles is the same as the bibliograph- 
ical form, except that the page reference will generally be to a single 
page or perhaps two pages: author's name, title of article (in quota- 
tion marks), name of periodical (underlined for italics), volume 
number (in Roman numerals), date (in parentheses), and the page or 
pages (in Arabic numerals). 
) An author's name need not be repeated in the footnote if it is given 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 303 

in the text; 20 the footnote then begins with the title of the work. If 
the author's name and the title of the work both appear in the text, 
the footnote contains only the page number (" n P. 30."), or the vol- 
ume and page (" 12 IV, 17-21.") ; for a periodical reference, if the 
author's name and the title of the article are given in the text, the 
footnote would begin with the name of the periodical.! 

It was formerly the common practice to put the author's surname 
first in footnotes as in bibliographical entries ; it is now considered 
better to use the natural order, with the surname last. A footnote 
beginning " Horace Howard Furness, Jr., . . ." is much more sensible 
than the awkward "Furness, Horace Howard, Jr., . . ." 

For information taken at second hand one should give both sources. 
If one wished to quote Amos Cottle on the Teutonic ideas of heaven 
and hell, and could not gain access to a copy of Cottle's Icelandic 
Poetry, one might take the quotation from another source. The text 
would then read : "The Teutonic nations, on the contrary, held that 
there was a fixed Elysium, and a hell. :i . . ."; and the footnote: 
" :i Amos Cottle, Icelandic Poetry, or The Edda of Scemund Trans- 
lated into English Verse (Bristol, 1791), p. ix, as quoted in Arthur H. 
Nethercot, The Road to Tryermaine, p. 132". 

If one wishes to use a quotation for which there is a footnote in the 
original, he should reproduce the footnote if it is a reference note ; he 
may disclaim responsibility for any error it may contain by attribut- 
ing it to the original author : "The attempted description of the early 
press which follows is based principally on Moxon, 2 . . ." with the 
footnote: " 2< Mechanic k Exercises, the second volume (Printing), 
1683' [McKerrow's note]". The writer should substitute for McKer- 
row's reference number the number that would be called for if the 
note were his own. The words quoted from McKerrow should be 
enclosed in quotation marks. An explanatory footnote may be repro- 
duced or not, depending upon its nature and importance. If the writer 
decides not to reproduce it, no notice is taken of its presence. If I 
should wish to quote: 

He [the printer] must let the ink of the first printing dry before he 
attempts to print the sheet on the other side. This necessary interval 

20 If, however, the author's name is separated from the quotation or the reference 
number by several lines of text, so that it may not be immediately clear to the 
reader, it will be best to repeat the name. 

304 An Introduction to Research 

between the printing of the two sides of a sheet is, as we shall see later, 
of great importance in connexion with variations between copies of the 
same edition of a book. (McKerrow, An Introduction to Bibliography, 
p. 21), 

I am under no obligation to point out that there is a reference number 
following the first sentence, and a footnote : "There are ways of avoid- 
ing this trouble by the use of 'setting-off sheets', but it is unlikely 
that the sixteenth-century printers were often sufficiently pressed for 
time to make such expedients worth while." If, however, I were to 
quote: "Eventually they [Baskerville's types] seem to have been dis- 
persed and the whereabouts of the punches and matrices is not 
known. . . .", I should think it desirable if not absolutely necessary 
to give the accompanying footnote : " 'Cf., however, Updike \Printing 
Types, Their History, Forms, and Use, a Study in Survivals], ii. 114. 
It appears that some of these types have recently come to light in 
French printing-houses.' [McKerrow's note]". 

Students are often puzzled over the use of the abbreviations ibid. 
(for the Latin ibidem, i.e., in the same place), op. cit. (for opere 
citato, in the work previously cited), and loc. cit. (for loco citato, in 
the same place passage previously cited) ; and there is some con- 
fusion in the matter, 'ibid, is used instead of repeating a footnote 
when the reference is the same in every respect as that in the imme- 
diately preceding footnote. If the second reference is to the same 
author, work, and volume, but to a different page, the footnote should 
read "Ibid., p. 79." ; if the second reference is to a different volume,, 
we should have "Ibid., II, 118.^ When another reference intervenes 
as when a work by Smith is cited, then one by Jones, and then the 
one by Smith again one can still avoid repeating the full reference 
by using "Smith, loc. cit" if the reference is to the same passage as 
that cited in the first note, or "Smith, op. cit., p. 19" if the reference 
is to a different part of the work. 

The difficulty comes not so much in the rule itself as in the excep- 
tion to it. I have read theses in which the writer used the title of a. 
work only in the first footnote in which the work was referred to, 
and used op. cit. or loc. cit. thereafter. That is hardly just to the 
reader. Of course one can presumably find the title of the work in the 
bibliography ; but the reader hates to have to keep turning back to* 
the bibliography, and it is not fair for a writer to cater to his own; 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 305 

convenience at the expense of the reader. Moreover, there are times 
when the bibliography will not solve the problem. Suppose that I am 
reading a thesis on Dickens ; if the writer has used a set of the col- 
lected works of Dickens as he most naturally would the footnote 
might have a volume number that would tell me, after I had looked 
it up in the bibliography, which novel is involved. 27 But if separate 
editions were used, then, unless I can tell from the text which novel 
the writer is discussing, I must, when I come to a "Dickens, op. cit., 
p. 197" turn back through the preceding pages of the thesis until I 
find the footnote giving the title. I once had the curiosity to pursue 
such a reference through thirty-seven pages, but few theses would 
reward one for the time and effort involved in running down many 
such references. 

The best practice in printed books is, I think, to use ibid., op. cit., 
or loc. cit. only in such circumstances that the abbreviation is ex- 
plained on one of the two pages that one can see as the book lies open 
before him. One may use such an abbreviation on a recto page if it is 
explained on that page or on the preceding verso page, but not on a 
verso page if the explanation is on its recto side not, in other words, 
if the reader is required to turn a page in order to learn the meaning 
of the abbreviation. If the principle here involved be applied to a 
typewritten manuscript, it would seem to me logical to require that 
abbreviations be used only where the explanation of them occurs on 
the same page, so that the reader need not turn back even one page in 
order to identify the work involved. 

There are a good many other abbreviations, many of them coming 
from Latin words, that a graduate student should know and under- 
stand, however much or little occasion he may have to use them. 28 
Some of these are : 

ante before (used to refer to pages of a work preceding the page 
on which it occurs ; supra, or "See above" is better) 

art. article ; plural, arts. 

cf. (confer) compare 

chap. chapter ; plural, chaps. 

27 Generally, however, the bibliographical entry would give merely the number 
of volumes in the edition; it would not tell which volumes contain which novels. 

28 The abbreviations of the names of learned journals are given elsewhere ; see 
above, pp. 73~75- 

306 An Introduction to Research 

circa or ca. approximately (used with dates when exact date is 
not known, as "circa 1500") 

col. column ; plural, cols. 

del. (delineavit, he drew it) on an engraving indicates the artist 
from whose work the engraving was made 

ed. edition, editor, edited by; plurals, edd. editions, eds. 

e.g. (exempli gratia, for the sake of example) for example 

et al. (et alii) and others 

et seq. (et sequens) and the following; "pp. 10 et seq" would 
mean pages 10 and n, though in practice the abbreviation is often 
used when the following one should be used to indicate more than 
two pages 

et seqs. or, preferably, et sqq. (et sequent es or sequentia) and the 
following (plural) ; thus "pp. 10 et sqq" would include an indefinite 
number of pages but at least three, beginning with p. 10 

f. and the following; plural, ff. ; this corresponds in usage to the 
preceding; "pp. lof." includes pages 10 and n, "pp. ioff." means 
from page 10 to page 12 or some page beyond 12 

fig. figure; plural, figs. 

fl. (floruit) flourished (generally applied to an individual when 
the approximate date of his work is known but not that of his birth 
or death; e.g. "Orm, fl. 1200)" 

idem, sometimes id. the same (used instead of ibid, when refer- 
ring in a footnote to another work by the author of the work cited in 
the immediately preceding footnote) 

i.e. (id est) that is 

infra below (referring to a subsequent part of the work in which 
it is used) ; used with supra 

1. line ; plural, 11. 

MS manuscript ; plural, MSS 

n. note ; plural, nn. 

n. d. no date (used in giving facts of publication when the date of 
publication is not given, or, better, not known ; if the date does not 
appear on the title page but can be determined, putting the date in 
brackets [1869] will serve to indicate the date and at the same 
time will show that it does not appear on the title page. Similarly, 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 307 

giving the date of the copyright 1904 is an indication that the 
date of publication does not appear in the work itself) 

no. number ; plural, nos. 

n. p. no place (used in giving facts of publication when no place 
of publication is indicated ; if the place is not stated but can be deter- 
mined, it should be put in brackets. This same abbreviation is some- 
times used to indicate that no publisher's name is given; but the 
absence of a publisher's name generally means that the book was 
privately printed and is better so described. If a work bears no in- 
formation as to its publication, we should have "(n. p.: privately 
printed, n. d.)" as the facts of publication). 

p. page ; plural, pp. 

passim here and there (throughout the work or portion of a work 
cited ; used when the detail alluded to is repeated so frequently that 
citing each instance would be too laborious and would serve no good 

pinx. (pinxit) he painted it (used, like del. to indicate the artist 
from whose work an engraving was made) 

post (after) below (referring to a subsequent part of the work in 
which it is used ; "injra" or "below" is to be preferred) ; used with 

pt. part ; plural, pts. 

q.v. (quod vide) which see (used following the title of the work 
to which it is intended to refer the reader; corresponds to 
"cf.", which precedes the name of the work to which reference is 

sc. (scilicet) that is to say, or namely 

sculp., or sculpt, (sculpsit) he carved it (used on an engraving to 
indicate the engraver ; the abbreviation follows the name) 

sec. section ; plural, sees. 

sic thus (used within brackets to indicate that an error in a 
quotation appears in the original and is not the fault of the person 
using the quotation) 

s.n. (sub nomine) under the name (used occasionally instead of 
s.v. when the reference is to a personal name in a dictionary or ency- 
clopaedia; the name follows the abbreviation) 

supra above ; opposite of infra 

308 An Introduction to Research 

s.v. (sub verbo, under the word, or voce, title) see under (fol- 
lowed by the heading of an entry in a dictionary or encyclopaedia) 

trans, or tr. translation, translator, or translated by 

v. verse ; plural, vv. 

vid., sometimes v. (vide) see ("cf." and "see" are now more com- 
monly used) 

viz. (videlicet) namely, to wit 

vol. volume ; plural, vols. 

It should be noted that some abbreviations, although they repre- 
sent foreign words, are not italicized; this group includes cf., e.g., 
etc., i.e., and viz. The difference in the formation of plurals should 
also be observed. The plurals of art., chap., col., fig., no., pt., and vol. 
are formed by adding s\ others f., 1., n., p., and v. have the plural 
formed by doubling the letter. Ed. has two plurals : eds. for editors, 
and edd. for editions. The plural of et seq. may be et seqs. but et sqq. 
is preferred. Some of these expressions are complete words and need 
no period: such are ante, circa, idem, infra, passim, post, and sic. 
Del., pinx., sculp, and sculpt, should have periods following them but 
often do not. 

If one uses "See above" to refer to an antecedent portion of the 
work in which the abbreviation occurs, "See below" should be used to 
refer to a subsequent portion; similarly "ante" and "post" go to- 
gether, as do "supra" and "infra". 

In using /., ff., et seq., or et sqq. one should always use if no 
volume number is given the plural abbreviation for pages: "pp. 
19 f." (or "pp. 19 ff."), never u p. 19 f." It is better to avoid the use of 
ff . and et sqq. ; presumably the writer knows, as he puts down the 
reference, where the passage ends as well as where it begins, and it is 
only fair to the reader to let him know whether it will take him two 
minutes or two hours to consult the passage referred to. 29 

Many students are careless in the use of the abbreviation "etc." 
They set down two or three members of a group or series and then, 
without stopping to think whether all are included that should be 
included, they throw in an "etc." to take care of possible omissions. 

29 There are situations, of course, in which the indefinite reference is wholly 
justified, as, for example, in referring to a discussion only the first part of which 
would be of interest to some readers ; whereas other readers will wish to pursue the 
matter further, and others still further. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 309 

One should first determine whether there are "others" that need to 
be included and, if so, whether they should not be included spe- 
cifically. Even when it seems best to make the inclusion indefinite, an 
expression such as "and the like" is generally better than the abbre- 

When one of the abbreviations we have been discussing stands at 
the beginning of a sentence, the first letter of it should, of course, be 
a capital letter. Thus if the author and title of a one-volume work are 
mentioned in the text, the footnote would read: "P. 18." 

In the abbreviations for manuscript and manuscripts, the letters 
are always capitals and no periods are used. 

There is no space between the letters in the abbreviations "e.g." 
and "i.e." ; "q.v.", "s.n.", and "s.v." are sometimes found with a space, 
sometimes without. 


I do not propose to take up such matters as the formula to be used 
on the title page of a thesis, or the number of spaces to be used for 
indentions, or other things that are purely details of typing. Most 
graduate schools have their regulations about such matters, and most 
theses are typed, in their final form, by professional typists who 
understand those regulations and know how to conform with them. 
There are, however, two or three matters of form that the writer of a 
thesis should observe even in the preliminary drafts. 

j In using direct quotations, the rule is that short quotations are 
run into the text and set off by quotation marks ; long quotations 
generally those of five lines or more are indented and single-spaced, 
without quotation marks. 30 The indention is usually the same as para- 
graph indention. Some difficulty arises when a short quotation has 
quotation marks within it ; one must then substitute single quotation 
marks for the double marks of the original. 31 

In quoting a passage containing contractions 32 one may wish, for 
the sake of clearness, to print contracted words in full. That a word 
represents an expanded contraction may be indicated by underlining 

30 For examples, see below, Appendix C. 

31 Some books use single quotation marks regularly instead of double ones; see 
McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography as an example. In quoting from them, 
one can reproduce a quotation within the quotations exactly as it appears. 

d< * See above, p. 119. 

310 An Introduction to Research 

(for italics) the letters not present in the original, if the original is 
in roman, or vice versa. Thus ma would be represented by man, ma 
by man, and feus fpus by fanctus fpiritus or sanctus spiritus. 

Ellipsis marks need not ordinarily be used to indicate that some- 
thing precedes or follows a passage quoted, unless the first part of 
the opening sentence or the last part of the closing one is omitted. If 
something is omitted within a quotation, the fact that there is an 
omission must be indicated. Some publishers use four periods in 
addition to whatever punctuation precedes the omission to show 
that something is left out, but the more common practice is to use 
three. Thus we might have : " ' A world without vice ! . . . without 
immorality !' cried Asem, in a rapture; 'I thank thee, O Alia! . . . 
this, this indeed will produce happiness, . . . and ease. . . . Oh, for 
an immortality, to spend it among men . . . incapable of ingratitude, 
. . . and a thousand other crimes that render society miserable ! ' " 34 
Or, the fourth omission (after ease) might be represented by five 
periods and the others by four each. It is unfortunate that there 
should be lack of uniformity in this matter ; as it is; one cannot be 
sure in a given work unless he knows the publisher's practice or can 
determine, by finding an omission indicated by five periods or by 
only three whether a sentence preceding an omission indicated by 
four ellipsis marks is complete and ends with a period or was broken 
off incomplete. 

Another detail of punctuation concerning which there is a differ- 
ence of opinion has to do with the position of a period or a comma 
used with a quotation mark. The practice in England has been to put 
the period or comma inside the quotation mark when the quotation 
marks enclose the sentence element to which the period or comma 
belongs, but to put the quotation mark inside the other when the 
quotation involves only the latter part of the sentence element. This 
is, of course, logical : "You don't have to 'cram', do you? Let's go to 

33 Asterisks were formerly used to indicate omissions but are not often found so 
used in modern printing. 

34 The passage in full: "'A world without vice! Rational beings without immo- 
rality!' cried Asem, in a rapture; 'I thank thee, O Alia! who hast at length heard 
my petitions: this, this indeed will produce happiness, ecstasy, and ease. Oh, for an 
immortality to spend it among men who are incapable of ingratitude, injustice, 
fraud, violence, and a thousand other crimes that render society miserable!" 1 
(Oliver Goldsmith, Works, Globe ed. (London: Macmillan, 1923), p. 291). 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 311 

the 'Gym'." But apparently American printers so object to the 
appearance of a period or a comma following a quotation mark that 
they have sacrificed logic to aesthetics in laying down the rule that 
a period or a comma must always be placed within the quotation 
mark. Thus the University of Chicago Press insists : 

The period is placed inside the quotation marks for appearance' sake. 
Put it inside the parentheses or brackets when the matter enclosed is an 
independent sentence forming no part of the preceding sentence; other- 
wise outside . . . : 

Tennyson's "In Memoriam." 

Put the period inside the quotation marks. (This is a rule without 


When the parentheses form a part of the preceding sentence, put the 
period outside (as, for instance here). 35 

And for the comma : 

The comma is always placed inside the quotation marks, but it follows 

the parenthesis if the context requires it at all ... 

See the sections on "Quotations," which may be found elsewhere in 
this volume. 

Here he gives a belated, though stilted (and somewhat obscure), ex- 
position of the subject. 

It seems to me that the appearance of 

Tennyson's "In Memoriam". 

See the sections on "Quotations", which . . . 

is not so alarming as to justify insistence on a treatment of the period 
and the comma different from that accorded to the semicolon, the 
colon, the exclamation point, and the interrogation point, all of which 
are put inside or outside the quotation mark as logic demands. I am 
glad, therefore, to see the more logical practice carried out in at least 
one book published by the University of Chicago Press ; there may 
be found : 

Here in the midst of his [Coleridge's] allusions to Dr. William Hunter, 
Plato, and Thelwall's own recent essay on "Animal Vitality", he re- 

35 Manual of Style, ed. 1949, p. 88. 
30 Ibid., p. 104. 

312 An Introduction to Research 

marked: "Ferriar believes in a soul, like an orthodox churchman." This 
remark would not be important except for the fact that the third volume 
of the Memoirs also contained another article by the Manchester 
virtuoso "Observations concerning the Vital Principle". 37 

When the thesis itself is completed, it is time to put the bibliog- 
raphy into its final form. With the working bibliography at hand, 
one should go through the thesis, footnote by footnote, taking from 
the working bibliography each slip representing a work referred to 
in the thesis. The resulting pile of slips represents a selected bibliog- 
raphy which includes the titles of all the works that lent material to 
the thesis. There may be other works included in the working 
bibliography which the writer considers to have been helpful, even 
though they were not cited in the thesis ; with the permission of the 
director of the thesis, such works may be added to the bibliography, 
perhaps in a separate list or in some other way distinguished from 
the works cited. 38 When the bibliographical slips have been arranged 
in alphabetical order and copied in the approved form, 39 and all the 
pages of the thesis have been put in order, the work is at last com- 

37 Arthur H. Nethercot, The Road to Tryermaine, p. 61. The period after church- 
man is put inside the quotation marks presumably because it is taken as serving 
primarily to punctuate the sentence beginning Ferriar rather than that beginning 

38 It should be noted that the bibliography especially if it includes the comments 
contained on the critico -bibliographical notes, so that it becomes a critical bibliog- 
raphy may well be the most important and most valuable part of a thesis. Articles 
that are essentially bibliographies include J. N. Douglas Bush, "English Translations 
of Homer", PMLA, XLI (1926), 335-41; Alfred Harbage, "Elizabethan and Seven- 
teenth-Century Play Manuscripts", PMLA, L (1935), 687-99; idem, "Elizabethan 
and Seventeenth -Century Play Manuscripts: Addenda", PMLA, LII (1937), 905-7; 
id"m, "A Census of Anglo-Latin Plays", PMLA, LIII (1938), 624-29; Franklin 
P. Rolfe, "On the Bibliography of Seventeenth -Century Prose Fiction", PMLA, 
XLIX (1934), 1071-86; Sybil Rosenfeld, "Dramatic Advertisements in the Burney 
Newspapers 1660-1700", PMLA, LI (1936), 123-52; R. W. Babcock, "Eighteenth- 
Century Comic Opera Manuscripts", PMLA, LII (1937), 907-8; Edgar M. Branch, 
"A Chronological Bibliography of the Writings of Samuel Clemens to June 8, 1867", 
AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [1091-59; and Eunice C. Hamilton, "Biographical and 
Critical Studies of Henry James, 1941-1948", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [4241-35. 
Good examples of critical bibliographies are those in the various learned journals 
mentioned above; see pp. 72-73. See also Morize, Problems and Methods, pp. 70-81. 

39 In typewritten bibliographies the names of the authors are often written in 
capital letters; when there are two or more works by the same author, a long dash 
is generally used for the second and subsequent entries to avoid repeating the name. 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 313 

pleted ; and the writer, doubtless with a sigh of relief and satisfaction, 
may congratulate himself on having surmounted the first major 
obstacle in the way of becoming a scholar. 

A few words of general advice to the graduate student in English 
may be appropriate here. First, as to the length of the thesis. I have 
known candidates for degrees in English who complained bitterly 
because candidates for degrees in mathematics or chemistry, perhaps, 
could satisfy the thesis requirement with a work of some twenty or 
thirty pages; whereas a thesis in English must contain a hundred 
pages or more. It is sometimes felt that English departments pay 
more attention to quantity than to quality in theses. But the situa- 
tion is not quite what it may seem offhand to be. In some fields, par- 
ticularly in the sciences, a student may be able to demonstrate in a 
few pages that he has accomplished an amount of research such as a 
thesis is supposed to represent ; but in English the amount of work 
involved is at least roughly commensurate with the length of the 
thesis. A paper of three thousand words may constitute an important 
contribution to knowledge, it may serve admirably as a term paper in 
some course, but it can hardly be accepted as a thesis. It will not 
show that the writer has learned to locate a wide variety of materials 
with which to work. It may have an impressively extensive bibliog- 
raphy ; but the impressiveness of the bibliography disappears unless 
the accompanying work proves that the materials listed have been 
studied and used. Unless there are a good many footnotes, the thesis 
will not show that its writer has learned how to handle various forms 
of documentation; and such knowledge is important not only to 
enable the student to use that knowledge himself in future work, but 
also to make intelligible to him the work of other scholars. A short 
thesis one of less than twenty thousand words, say will not serve 
as proof that its writer has experienced the training that thesis- 
writing is expected to provide. 

The student who fancies himself a creative writer is sometimes 
irked because he is not permitted to submit a novel or a play in lieu 
of a thesis. There is some merit in this complaint, and some graduate 
schools are permitting their students to fulfil the thesis requirement 
by doing creative writing. On behalf of the more conservative institu- 
tions, however, those that still insist upon the orthodox type of thesis, 
this should be said : Most of the candidates for advanced degrees in 

314 An Introduction to Research 

English are, or will be, teachers of English. Few of them will spend 
all their time in teaching creative writing. It is not enough, therefore, 
that their graduate training should make them competent novelists 
or dramatists or teachers of the art of writing ; it must also provide 
them with the knowledge of literary history and the training in 
scholarship that are part of the equipment of every good teacher of 

In addition to the writing of a thesis, most graduate schools require 
the completion of a certain number of hours of course work, and the 
passing of an examination, either written or oral. It is seldom possible 
for the candidate to take all the courses offered in his department ; 
hence it is of the first importance that he choose his courses wisely. 
Too many students succumb to the temptation of taking all the work 
offered by a favorite professor ; or they take courses of relatively little 
value to them because those courses are reputedly easy, or because 
they are given at convenient hours. Such students will find themselves 
at the end of their course work woefully ill prepared for the final 
examination. It is best, of course, for the prospective graduate student 
in English to begin his preparation at the beginning of his under- 
graduate work even earlier, if possible. Then he can build an ade- 
quate background that will later stand him in good stead. The person 
who, as a child, has read Scott and Dickens will have done a good 
deal toward grounding himself in nineteenth-century literature; it 
will be easy, when the time comes, for him to refresh his memory of 
those novels. As soon as one has decided that eventually he will be a 
graduate student in English, he should begin to choose his courses 
with that aim in view. That is not to say that he should overload him- 
self as an undergraduate with English courses ; work in other fields, 
particularly the social sciences, is just as important a part of the 
equipment of an English scholar as is a knowledge of English litera- 
ture. In graduate school, only such courses should be taken as will 
fill definite gaps in the student's background. One will doubtless wish 
to take some intensive courses in the field in which he specializes, the 
field of his thesis ; aside from those, it will generally be best to cover 
as much of the history of English literature as possible by taking 
period or survey courses. 

Such systematic preparation as has been suggested, covering a con- 
siderable period of time, will lessen the agony of -preparing for the 

Suggestions on Thesis-Writing 315 

final examination ; nevertheless, some special study for the examina- 
tion is generally necessary. The student will do well to learn as much 
as he can and graduate schools are usually teeming with such infor- 
mation about the idiosyncrasies of the various examiners. Having 
some idea of the type of question likely to be asked and the kind of 
answer expected gives the candidate poise and confidence. Examiners 
generally insist that students should know important works from 
having read them, rather than from having read about them. Some 
study of a work such as Moody and Lovett's A History of English 
Literature (New York: Scribner's, 1930) may not be amiss; but the 
bulk of one's time should be spent in reading the classics which con- 
stitute English literature. (I once knew a student who prepared for 
his doctoral examination by outlining the fourteen volumes of the 
Cambridge History of English Literature ; I think he would be the 
first to dissuade anyone from repeating the experiment.) Two kinds 
of important information graduate students are likely to overlook 
in their preparation : Every graduate student should know the sig- 
nificance of such names as Skeat, Kittredge, Manly, McKerrow, 
and Greenlaw, and those of other scholars, living and dead ; he should 
know the institution with which each was, or is, connected and know 
something, too, about the nature and importance of each one's con- 
tribution to scholarship. Graduate students should also know what 
are the best editions of various classics, especially those that may at 
this time be said to be definitive editions. 

One more word of advice to examinees: Don't "bluff". A single 
wrong guess may lead the examining committee to suspect that all 
the previous answers were likewise guesses. No candidate is expected 
to know all the answers ; an occasional "I don't know" does no irre- 
mediable damage. 

The achieving of a master's or doctor's degree is at best a laborious 
affair ; but those who survive the ordeal generally feel that the dis- 
cipline and training received to say nothing of the satisfaction of 
being the possessor of the degree make the experience wholly worth 




/ R[onald] B[runlees] McKerrow, An Introduction to Bibliography for 
Literary Students, 2nd Impression, with corrections (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 
1928), p. 350. 

2 Ed. W[ alter] WfilsonJ Greg (London: Oxford University Press, 1932), 
2 vols. 

3 McKerrow, op. cit., p. 98. 

4 Arundell Esdaile, A Student 1 s Manual of Bibliography (New York: 
Scribner's, 1931), p. 37. 

5 Edward Heawood, "The Position on the Sheet of Early Watermarks", 
The Library, 4th Series, IX (1928-29), 38-47. 

6 Esdaile, op. cit., p. 47. 

7 77/6* [London | Times Printing Number (September 10, 1912), p. 5. 

8 McKerrow, op. cit., p. 284. 

9 Esdaile, op. cit., p. 120. 

10 McKerrow, op. cit., p. n, n. 3. 

// Ibid , p. 50. 

12 Ibid., pp. 46-48. 

13 Ibid., pp. 102-6. 

14 Esdaile, op. cit., p. 236. 

/5 Robert Greene, Planetomachia (1585). 

16 Idem, Arbasto (1584). 

77 Idem, Gwydonius, the Carde of Fancie (1584). 

18 Idem, Euphues, His Censure to Philautus (1587). 

/p Idem, Perimedes the Blacke-Smith (1588). 

20 Idem, The Spanish Masquerado (1589). 

21 Idem, A Quip for an Upstart Courtier (1592). 

22 Idem, Penelope's Web (1587). 

2j Idem, The Mirrour of Modest ie (1584). 

24 McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, p. 82. 

25 Argosy Book Stores, New York, Catalogue 170, Item 53. 

26 Henry Young and Sons, Ltd., Liverpool, Part 569 (April, 1939), 
Item 52. 

sT Frank Rollings, London, Catalogue 218 (1939), Item 20. 

I 3n j 

318 Took of Research (H, 1) 



1 Henry Bartlett Van Hoesen and Frank Keller Walter, Bibliography, 
Practical, Enumerative, Historical (New York: Scribner's, 1928), p. i. 

2 Ibid., p. 3. 

3 Arthur Garfield Kennedy, A Concise Bibliography for Students of 
English, Systematically Arranged, 2nd ed. (Stanford University, California: 
Stanford University Press, 1945). 

4 John Webster Spargo, A Bibliographical Manual for Students of the 
Language and Literature of England and the United States, 2nd ed. (Chicago: 
Packard and Company, 1941). 

5 Tom Peete Cross. Bibliographical Guide to English Studies, 8th ed. 
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press [1943]). 

6 Theodore Besterman. The Beginnings of Systematic Bibliography, 
2nd ed. (London: Oxford University Press, 1936). 

7 See above, n. i. 

8 Charles Victor Langlois and Charles Seignobos, Introduction aux 
Etudes Historiques, translated by G. G. Berry (New York: Holt and Com- 
pany, 1912). 

9 Gustave Lanson, Methodcs de I'Histoire Litteraire (Paris: Societe 
d'editions "Les Belles Lettres", 1925). 

10 Martha Connor, Practical Bibliography-Making with Problems and 
Examples (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1931). 

11 Andre Morize, Problems and Methods of Literary History with Special 
Reference to Modern French Literature: A Guide for Graduate Students 
(Boston: Ginn and Company, 1922). 

12 Viv'an Hunter Galbraith. An Introduction to the Use of Public Rec- 
ords (London: Oxford University Press, 1934). 

13 Margaret Hutchins, Alice Sarah Johnson, and Margaret Stuart Wil- 
liams, Guide to the Use of Libraries: A Manual for College and University 
Students, 5th ed. (New York: H. W r . Wilson Company, 1936). 

14 Johann Georg Theodor Grasse, Tresor des Limes Rares et Precieux 
(Dresden: Kuntze, 1859-69), 7 vols. 

15 Louis Gustave Vapereau, Dictionnaire Universal des Litteratures 
(Paris: Hachette, 1893); supplement, 1895. 

16 Robert Watt, Bibliotheca Britannica (Edinburgh: Constable, 1824), 
4 vols. 

/7 Van Hoesen and Walter, op. cit., p. 239. 

18 William Prideaux Courtney. Register of National Bibliography (Lon- 
don: Constable, 190^-12), 3 vols. 

IQ Julius Petzholdt, Bibliotheca Bibliographica (Leipzig: Englemann, 

(//, 32) Tools of Research 319 

20 Henri Stein, Manuel de Bibliographic Generate: Bibliotheca Nova 
(Paris: Picard, 1897). 

21 A|_kselJ G[ustav] S[alomon] Josephson, Bibliographies of Bibliogra- 
phies Chronologically Arranged, 2nd ed. (Chicago: Bibliographical Society of 
America, 1910-13). 

22 Clark S. Northup, A Register of Bibliographies of the English Lan- 
guage and Literature (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1925). Other works 
that may be useful are: Theodore Besterman, A World Bibliography of Bibli- 
ographies (London: privately printed, 1939-40), 2 vols. (Vol. I of a 2nd ed. 
appeared in 1947); The Bibliographic Index: A Cumulative Bibliography of 
Bibliographies (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1938- ); and Lawrence 
Heyl, Current National Bibliographies: A List of Sources of Information 
Concerning Current Books of All Countries, rev. ed. (Chicago: American 
Library Association, 1942). 

23 Isadore Gilbert Mudge, Guide to Reference Books, 6th ed. (Chicago: 
American Library Association, 1936) and Reference Books of 1935-1917 
(Chicago: American Library Association, 1939); Constance M. Winchell, 
Reference Books of 1938-1940 (Chicago: American Library Association, 
1941), Reference Books of 1941-1943 (Chicago: American Library Associa- 
tion, 1944), and Reference Books of 1944-1946 (Chicago: American Library 
Association, 1047). The "British Mudge 1 ' is John Minto, Reference Books 
(London: Library Association, 1929-31), 2 vols. 

24 London Catalogue of Books in All Languages . . . Printed in Great 
Britain since 1700 (London: 1773;. There was a second edition in 1786; and 
others, by various publishers, at intervals throughout the first half of the 
nineteenth century. The last (London: T. Hodgson, 1855) covered the period 

25 British Catalogue of Books Published from October 1837 to December 
1852 (London: S. Low and Son, 1853); the main catalogue (1837-49) was 
followed by annual catalogues for 1850, 1851, and 1852. It was merged with 
the London Catalogue in the English Catalogue, published annually since 1837. 

26 United States Catalogue (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1899, 
1902, 1912, and 1928). 

27 Cumulative Book Index (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 
1898- ). 

28 British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books (London: W. Clowes 
and Sons, Ltd., 1881-1900), 95 vols. 

29 British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books Supplement (London: 
W. Clowes and Sons, Ltd., 1900-1905), 15 vols. 

30 British Museum General Catalogue of Printed Books (London and 
Beccles: W. Clowes and Sons, Ltd., 1932- ). 

31 Bibliotheque Nationale Catalogue Generate de Livres Imprimes: 
Auteurs (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1900- ). 

32 A Catalogue of Books Represented by Library of Congress Printed 
Cards Issued to July 31, 1942 (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Edwards Brothers, 
1942-46), 167 vols. A Supplement, in 42 volumes, covers the period from 

320 Tools of Research (11,33) 

August i, 1942 to December 31, 1947. The Library of Congress has con- 
tinued the project by publishing three volumes for 1948, three for 1949, and 
three for 1950; quarterly and monthly parts are being issued for the current 

33 Robert Alexander Peddie, Subject Index of Books Published before 
1880 (London: Graf ton and Company, 1933); idem, Subject Index of Books 
Published up to and Including 1880, Second Series (London: Graf ton and 
Company, 1939). 

34 The Wordsworth Collection Formed by Cynthia Morgan St. John 
and Given to Cornell University by Victor Emanuel (Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell 
University Press, 1931); Supplement (1942). 

35 Cornelius Patton, The Amherst Wordsworth Collection (Amherst, 
Mass.: Trustees of Amherst College, 1936). 

36 Catalogue of the Harriss Collection of American Poetry with Biograph- 
ical and Bibliographical Notes by J. C. Stockbridge (Providence, R. L: Brown 
University Library, 1886); Catalogue of the John Carter Brown Library in 
Brown University (Providence, R. I.: Brown University Library, 1919-31), 3 

37 A. G. S. Josephson, List of Books on the History of Science (Chicago: 
John Crerar Library, 1911-16), 2 vols. 

38 Ruth Lapham, Check List of American Revolutionary War Pamphlets 
in the Newberry Library (Chicago: Newberry Library, 1922); Pierce Butler, 
Check List of Incunabula in the Newberry Library (Chicago: Newberry 
Library, 1919); idem, Check List of Books Printed during the Fifteenth 
Century (Chicago: Newberry Library, 1924); idem, Check List of Fifteenth 
Century Books in Newberry Library and Other Libraries of Chicago (Chicago: 
Newberry Library, 1933); Mae I. Stearns, Check List of Books Printed in 
English before 1641 (Chicago: Newberry Library, 1923); Jane D. Harding, 
The Arthurian Legend: A Check List of Books in the Newberry Library 
(Chicago: Newberry Library, 1933); idem, Supplement to preceding (Chi- 
cago: Newberry Library, 1938); Gertrude L. Woodward, English Books and 
Books Printed in England before 1641 in the Newberry Library (Chicago: 
Newberry Library, 1939) ; and Virgil B. Heltzel, Check List of Courtesy 
Books in the Newberry Library (Chicago: Newberry Library, 1942). 

39 Check List or Brief Catalogue of the Library of Henry E. Hunting- 
ton English Literature to 1640, Compiled under the Direction of George 
Watson Cole (New York: privately printed, 1919); Supplement (1920). See 
also Cecil K. Edmonds, Huntington Library Supplement to the Record of the 
Books in the Short Title Catalogue of English Books 1475-1640 (Cambridge, 
Mass., 1933), Huntington Library Bulletin No. 4. 

40 Herman Ralph Mead, Incunabula in the Henry E. Huntington Library 
(San Marino, California: Huntington Library, 1937). Other catalogues of 
American incunabula include: A List of Incunabula in Ann Arbor (Ann Arbor, 
Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1940); Ada Thurston and Curt F. 
Buhler, Check List of Fifteenth Century Printing in the Pierpont Morgan 
Library (New York: Pierpont Morgan Library, 1939); and Olan V. Cook, 

(II, 51) Tools of Research 321 

Incunabula in the Hanes Collection of the Library of North Carolina (Chapel 
Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Library, 1940). A short title 
catalogue of the Chapin Library at Williams College was compiled by Lucy 
Eugenia Osborne (New York: privately printed, 1924). 

41 Seymour de Ricci and William Jerome Wilson, Census of Medieval 
and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada (New York* 
H. W. Wilson Company, 1935-40), 3 vols. See also M. B. Stillwell, Incuna- 
bula in American Libraries: A Second Census of Fifteenth Century Book\ 
Owned in the United States, Mexico, and Canada (New York: Bibliographical 
Society of America, 1940). 

42 Ernest C. Richardson, An Index Directory to Special Collections in 
North American Libraries (Yardley, Penn.: F. S. Cook and Son, 1927). 

43 Johann Samuel Ersch and Johann Gottfried Gruber, Allgeme'me 
Encykloptidie der Wissenschaften und Kunste (Leipzig: Gleditsch and Brock- 
haus, 1818-89), 99 vols. 

44 The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company 
and Encyclopedia Press, 1907-1917), 16 vols.; The Jewish Encyclopedia 
(New York: Funk and Wagnalls Co., 1925), 12 vols.; and Encyclopedia of 
Religion and Ethics, ed. James Hastings (New York: Scribner's, 1925-32), 
13 vols. The last is particularly good for mythology and folklore. 

45 The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (New York: The Century 
Company, 1911), 12 vols.; Vol. XII is the Century Cyclopedia of Names. 

46 Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, ed. Edwin R. A. Seligman and 
Alvin Johnson (New York: Macmillan, 1937), 15 vols. 

47 Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. H. C. Colles (Lon- 
don: Macmillan, 1940), 5 vols.; there is also an American supplement, ed. 
Waldo Pratt and C. N. Boyd (New York: Macmillan, 1928). 

48 For America, Paul Monroe, A Cyclopedia of Education (New York: 
Macmillan, 1911-13), 5 vols.; for England, Foster Watson, The Encyclopedic 
and Dictionary of Education (London and New York: Pitman and Sons. 
1921-22), 4 vols. 

49 Sir William A. Smith, A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 
3rd ed. (London: J. Murray, 1890-91), 2 vols.; Harry Thurston Peck, 
Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities (New York: 
American Book Co., 1923); Sir Paul Harvey, The Oxford Companion to 
Classical Literature, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, [1940]). 

50 Richard S. Bowker, Publications of Societies: A Provisional List of 
the Publications of the American Scientific, Literary, and Other Societies 
from Their Organization (New York: Publishers' Weekly Office, 1899), and 
J. David Thompson, Handbook of Learned Societies and Institutions (Wash- 
ington: Carnegie Institution, 1908). 

51 Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities (New 
York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1934- ). The earlier volumes in this series 
were compiled by Donald B. Gilchrist; those for 1939-40 to 1943-44 by Ed- 
ward A. Henry; and those for 1944-47 by Arnold H. Trotter. See also List of 
American Doctoral Dissertations Printed, published by the Library of Con- 

322 Tools of Research (11,52) 

gress annually from 1912 to 1938, and Thomas R. Palfrey and Henry H. Cole- 
oian, Guide to Bibliographies of Theses, United States and Canada (Chicago: 
American Library Association, 1940). American Literature published in Vol. 
XX (1948-49), LI 69] -230, "Doctoral Dissertations in American Literature, 

52 Helen Hefling and Eva Richards, Index to Contemporary Biography 
and Criticism (Boston: F. W. Faxon and Company, 1929). 

5j Phyllis M. Riches, An Analytical Bibliography of Universal Collected 
Biography, Comprising Books Published in the English Tongue in Great 
Britain and Ireland, America and the British Dominions (London: The 
Library Association, 1934). 

$4 John Venn and J. A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses: a Biographical 
List of All Known Students, Graduates, and Holders of Office at the University 
of Cambridge from the Earliest Times to 1900 (Cambridge: The University 
Press, 1922). 

55 Anthony a Wood, Athena Oxonienses (Oxford: Ecclesiastical History 
Society, 1848). 

5<5 Who's Who in America: A Biographical Dictionary of Notable Living 
Men and Women of the United States (Chicago: A. N. Marquis Company, 
1899- ). There is also Who Was Who in America (Chicago: A. N. Marquis 
Company, 1942), Vol. I of which covers the period 1897-^942. For England 
there are Who Was Who, 1897-1916', Who Was Who, 1916-1928] and 
Who Was Who, 1929-1940, published in London by A. and C. Black in 1920, 
1929, and 1941, respectively. 

57 Dictionary of American Biography Published under the Auspices of 
the American Council of Learned Societies (New York: Scribner's, 1928- ). 
Twenty volumes had appeared by 1936; an index to these volumes appeared 
in Vol. XXI (1937). A First Supplement (1944) brought the work down to 
December 31, 1935. 

58 Current Biography: Who's News and Why (New York: H. W. 
Wilson Company, 1940- ); there are a cumulative index and annual bound 

59 Stanley J. Kunitz and Howard Haycraft, American Authors, 1600- 
1900: A Biographical Dictionary of American Literature (New York: H. W. 
Wilson Company, 1938); Authors Today and Yesterday (New York: H. 
W. Wilson Company, 1933); and Twentieth Century Authors (New York: 
H. W. Wilson Company, 1942). Kunitz and Haycraft are also responsible for 
British Authors of the Nineteenth Century (New York: H. W. Wilson Com- 
pany, 1942). 

60 Samuel Halkett and John Laing, A Dictionary of the Anonymous and 
Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain (Edinburgh and London: Oliver 
and Boyd, 1920-34), 7 vols. 

6 1 Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (New York: H. W. Wilson ' 
Company, 1900- ). There is also the Nineteenth Century Readers' Guide 
to Periodical Literature 1890-1899, with Supplementary Indexing 1900-1922, 
ed. Helen Grant Cushing and Adah V. Morris (New York: H. W. Wilson 

(II, 72) Tools of Research 323 

Company, 1944), 2 vols. "Poole's Index" has been reprinted: Poole's Index 
to Periodical Literature, 1802-1907 (New York: Peter Smith, 1938), 6 vols. 
in 7. 

62 International Index to Periodicals Devoted Chiefly to the Humanities 
and Sciences (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1907- ). See also Arti- 
cles on American Literature Appearing in Current Periodicals 1020-1045, ed. 
Lewis Leary (Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1947). 

63 Some of the more popular magazines, such as the Atlantic Monthly ', 
and newspapers such as the New York Times and the New York Herald 
Tribune publish noteworthy book reviews. There are also the Book Review 
Digest (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1905- ) and the Review 
Index: A Quarterly Guide to Professional Reviews for College and Reference 
Libraries, ed. Louise Kaplan and Clarence S. Paine (Chicago: Follett, 
1940- ). 

64 The Cambridge History of English Literature, ed. A. W. Ward and 
R. W. Waller (Cambridge: The University Press, 1919-30), 15 vols. 

65 John G. O'Leary, English Literary History and Bibliography (Lon- 
don: Grafton and Company, 1928). 

66 Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature, ed. Frederick W. 
Bateson (New York: Macmillan, and Cambridge: The University Press, 
1941), 4 vols. 

67 Allen R. Benham, English Literature from Widsith to the Death of 
Chaucer: A Source Book (New Haven: Yale University Press, 10,16). 

68 John Edwin Wells, A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 
1050-1400 (New Haven: Yale University Press, and London: Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1916); the Seventh Supplement appeared in 1938. 

69 A Transcript of the Register of the Company of Stationers of London, 
*554-*640, ed. Edward Arber (London: privately printed, 1875-77), 5 vols.; 
A Transcript of the Registers of the Worshipful Company of Stationers from 
1640 to 1708, ed. G. E. B. Eyre (London: privately printed, 1913-14), 3 vols. 

70 Term Catalogues 16681709 A. D. f with a Number for Easter Term 
1711 A. D., ed. Edward Arber (London: privately printed, and New York: 
Dodd, 1903-06), 3 vols. 

71 William Carew Hazlitt, Handbook of the Popular Poetical, and Dra- 
matic Literature of Great Britain, from the Invention of Printing to the 
Restoration (London: J. R. Smith, 1857) and idem, Bibliographical Collec- 
tions and Notes on Early English Literature, 1475-1700 (London: Quaritch, 
1876-1903), 6 vols.; there is an index to these materials: G. J. Gray, General 
Index to Hazlitt' s Handbook and His Bibliographical Collections (London: 
Quaritch, 1893). 

72 Alfred William Pollard and Gilbert Richard Redgrave, A Short-title 
Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland and of English 
Books Printed Abroad, 1475-1640 (London: The Bibliographical Society, 
1926). The STC is not perfect, since there are omissions and since, in some 
instances, issues or printings are listed as editions; nevertheless, the book is 
immensely valuable. In using it, one should remember that it does not attempt, 

324 Tools of Research (II, 73) 

except with the rarest books, to make a census of copies. Its purpose is to 
list the most accessible copies; thus if there is a copy of a work in the British 
Museum, the presence of another copy in the Lambeth Palace Library may 
be ignored. If there is also a copy in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, that 
fact will be mentioned, as will the presence of a copy in Cambridge; but the 
presence of a second copy in Oxford or in Cambridge will not be indicated. 
For some corrections to the STC see F. B. Williams, Jr., "Corrections to the 
STC", LTLS, September 12, 1935, p. 565. There is also Donald Goddard 
Wing, Short -Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, 
Wales, and British America and of English Books Printed in Other Countries, 
1641-1700 (New York: The Index Society, 1945- ); this work is to be 
complete in three volumes, of which the first appeared in 1945. 

73 Thomas Corser, Collectanea Anglo-Poetica (Manchester: The Chat- 
ham Society, 1860-83), 5 vols. 

74 William John Courthope, A History of English Poetry (New York 
ind London: Macmillan, 1895-1910), 6 vols. 

75 George Saintsbury, Historical Manual of English Prosody (London: 
Macmillan, 1910). 

76 Thomas Warton, The History of English Poetry from the Close of 
the Eleventh Century to the Commencement of the Eighteenth Century 
(London: T. Tegg, 1840), 3 vols. 

77 John Colin Dunlop, History of Prose Fiction, ed. Henry Wilson 
(London: G. Bell and Sons, 1906), 2 vols. 

78 Ernest Albert Baker, The History of the English Novel (London: 
Witherby, 1924-39), 10 vols. 

79 William Frank Bryan and Ronald Salmon Crane, The English Familiar 
Essay (Boston: Ginn, 1916) 

80 Ronald Salmon Crane and Frederick Benjamin Kaye, A Census of 
British Newspapers and Periodicals 1620-1800 (Chapel Hill, N. C: University 
of North Carolina Press, and London: Cambridge University Press, 1927). 

81 Tercentenary Handlist of English and Welsh Newspapers, Magazines, 
and Reviews (London: The Times, 1920). 

82 Wilhelm Creizenach, Geschichte des neueren Dramas (Halle: M. 
Niemeyer, 1911-23), 5 vols. 

83 Allardyce Nicoll, The Development of the Theatre: a Study of The- 
atrical Art from the Beginnings to the Present Day (New York: Harcourt 
Brace, 1937). 

84 Roy Caston Flickinger, The Greek Theatre and Its Drama , 4th ed. 
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1936). 

85 Kathleen Marguerite Lea, Italian Popular Comedy (Oxford: Claren- 
don Press, 1934), 2 vols. 

86 Karl Young, The Drama of the Medieval Church (Oxford: Clarendon 
Press, 1933)* 2 vols. 

87 [Sir] E[dmund] K[erchever] Chambers, The Mediaval Stage (Lon- 
don: Oxford University Press, 1903), 2 vols. 

88 Idem, The Elizabethan Stage (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923), 4 vols 

(11, 100) Tools of Research 325 

89 Allardyce Nicoll, A History of Restoration Drama, 1660-1700 (Cam- 
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1923); idem, A History of Early Eight- 
eenth Century Drama, 1700-1750 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
1925) ; idem, A History of Late Eighteenth Century Drama, 1750-1800 (Cam- 
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1927); and idem, A History of Early 
Nineteenth Century Drama, 1800-1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University 
Press, 1930). See also idem, British Drama, an Historical Survey from the. 
Beginnings to the Present Time (London: G. G. Harrap, 1925); 3rd ed. rev 
(New York: Crowell, 1932). 

go Walter Wilson Greg, A Bibliography of the English Printed Drama 
to the Restoration (London: Bibliographical Society, 1939- ); only Vol. J 
has thus far appeared. 

91 John Payne Collier, The History of English Dramatic Poetry to the 
Time of Shakespeare and Annals of the Stage to the Restoration (London: 
G. Bell and Sons, 1879), 3 vols. 

92 Frederick! G|ardl Fleay, A Bigraphical Chronicle of the English 
Drama 1559-1642 (London: Reeves and Turner, 1891). 2 vols. 

pj Gerard Langbaine, An Account of the English Dramatick Poets (Ox- 
ford: printed for L. L. by G. West and H. Clements, 1691). 

04 [Sir! Afdolphus| Wfilliam] Ward, A History of English Dramatic 
Literature to the Death of Queen Anne (London and New York: Macmillan, 
1899), 3 vols. 

95 Cambridge History of American Literature, ed. William P. Trent, 
John Erskine, Stuart P. Sherman, and Carl Van Doren (New York: Mac- 
millan, and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1931), 4 vols. A more 
recent work is Literary History of the United States, ed. R. E. Spiller (New 
York: Macmillan, 1948), 3 vols. 

06 John George Bartholomew, A Literary and Historical Atlas of America 
(New York: Button, and London: J. M. Dent and Sons, 1930). 

97 Charles Evans, American Bibliography (New York: Peter Smith, 
1941-42), 12 vols. 

98 Willard 0. Waters, American Imprints, 1640-1797, in the Huntington 
Library (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1933). See also 
Edward H. O'Neill, A Description and Analysis of the Bibliography of Ameri- 
can Literature (Philadelphia: The Pennsylvania Historical Survey, 1941). The 
American Imprints Inventory, prepared by the Division of Women's and Pro- 
fessional Projects, Works Progress Administration, and published during the 
years 1937 to 1942, consists of some thirty-five volumes covering such fields 
as Missouri, 1808-50; Minnesota, 1849-65; Arizona, 1860-90; Chicago, 
1851-71; Kentucky, 1787-1810 and 1811-20; Nevada, 1859-90; Alabama, 
1807-40; New Jersey, 1784-1800; Kansas, 1854-76; Sag Harbor, Long Island, 
1791-1820; and the like. 

99 Perry Miller and Thomas Herbert Johnson, The Puritans (New York: 
American Book Co., 1938*'). 

100 Moses Coit Tyler, A History of American Literature During the 
Colonial Times 1607-1765 (New York and London: Putnam 's, 1897), 2 vols. 

326 Tools of Research (II, 101) 

101 Idem, The Literary History of the American Revolution 1763-1783 
(New York: Putnam's, 1897), 2 vols. 

102 Patrick Kevin Foley, American Authors, 1795-1895 (Boston: pri- 
vately printed, 1897). See also Merle Devore Johnson, American First Edi- 
tions, revised and enlarged by Jacob Blanck (New York: R. R. Bowker, 

103 Fred Benjamin Millet, Contemporary American Authors: a Critical 
Survey of 210 Bio-bibliographies (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1940). 

104 Gay Wilson Allen, American Prosody (New York: American Book 
Co., 1935). 

105 Oscar Wegelin, Early American Poetry: A Compilation of the Titles 
of Volumes of Verse and Broadsides by Writers Born or Residing in North 
America, North of the Mexican Border, 2nd ed. (New York: Peter Smith, 
J 93)> 2 vols. in i. See also Horace Gregory and Marya Zaturenska, History 
of American Poetry 1900-1940 (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1946). 

106 Lyle Henry Wright, American Fiction, 1774-1850: A Contribution 
toward a Bibliography (San Marino, California: The Huntington Library, 


107 Arthur H[obson] Quinn, American Fiction: an Historical and Critical 
Survey (New York and London: Appleton-Century, 1936). 

108 Adeline M. Conway, The Essay in American Literature (New York: 
New York University, 1914). 

109 Hariette Merrifield Forbes, New England Diaries 1602-1800 (Tops- 
field, Mass.: privately printed, 1923). 

no Clarence S[aundersJ Brigham, History and Bibliography of Ameri- 
can Newspapers 1690-1820 (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Soci- 
ety, 1947). 

in Winifred Gregory, American Newspapers 1821-1036 (New York: 
H. W. Wilson Company, 1937). See also Union List of Serials in the United 
States and Canada, ed. Winifred Gregory (New York: H. W. Wilson Com- 
pany, 1943). 

112 Arthur Hfobson] Quinn, A History of the American Drama from the 
Beginning to the Civil War (New York and London: Harper's, 1923), and 
idem, A History of the American Drama from the Civil War to the Present 
Day (New York: Crofts, 1936), 2 vols. 

113 George C. D. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage (New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1927- ); Vol. XV, covering the period 1891- 
94, appeared in 1949. 

114 [Robert] Burns Mantle, The Best Plays of 1919/20 [to 1924-25] and 
the Year Book of the Drama in America (Boston: Small Maynard, 1920-25); 
ibid., 1925/26- (New York: Dodd Mead, 1926- ); see also idem, The 
Best Plays of 1899 to 1909 . . . (Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1944) and The 
Best Plays of 1909 to 1919 . . . (New York: Dodd Mead, 1933). 

1 15 Eleanor Prescott Hammond, Chaucer: A Bibliographical Manual 
(New York: Macmillan, 1908); Dudley David Griffin. Bibliography of 
Chaucer, 1008 to 1924 (Seattle, Washington: University of Washington, 

(11,129) Tools of Research 327 

1926); William Edgar Martin, Jr., Chaucer Bibliography 1925-1933 (Dur- 
ham, N. C.: Duke University Press, IQ35); and Caroline Frances Eleanor 
Spurgeon, Five Hundred Years of Chaucer Criticism and Allusion (1357- 
1900) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1925), 3 vols. 

116 Richard Herne Shepherd, The Bibliography of Coleridge (London: 
F. Rollings, 1900); John Louis Haney, A Bibliography of Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge (Philadelphia: privately printed, 1903); Thomas J. Wise, A 
Bibliography of the Writings in Prose and Verse of Samuel Taylor Coleridge 
(London: Bibliographical Society, 1913); idem, Coleridgiana: Being a 
Supplement to the Bibliography of Coleridge (London: Bibliographical So- 
ciety, 1919); Virginia Wadlow Kennedy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge: A Selected 
Bibliography . . . (Baltimore: Enoch Pratt Free Library, 1935). 

7/7 John C. Eckel, First Editions of the Writings of Charles Dickens and 
Their Values: A Bibliography (London: Chapman, 1913). 

118 Geoffrey Keynes, A Bibliography of Dr. John Donne , Dean of Saint 
Paul's, 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932). 

IIQ Hugh Macdonald, John Dryden: A Bibliography of Early Editions 
and of Drydeniana (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939). 

120 Clark S. Northup, Bibliography of Thomas Gray (New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1917). 

121 A. P. Webb, Bibliography of the Works of Thomas Hardy, 1865-1916 
(London: Hollings, 1916). 

122 Robert Wooster Stallman, "Annotated Bibliography of A. E. Hous- 
man: A Critical Study", PMLA, LX (1945), 463-502. 

123 David Harrison Stevens, Reference Guide to Milton from 1800 to 
the Present Day (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1930); and Harris 
Francis Fletcher, Contributions to a Milton Bibliography , 1800-1930: Being 
a List of Addenda to Stevens' Reference Guide to Milton (Urbana, Illinois: 
University of Illinois, 1931). 

124 Reginald Harvey Griffith, Alexander Pope, A Bibliography (Austin, 
Texas: University of Texas, 1922). 

725 Thomas J. Wise and J. P. Smart, Complete Bibliography of the 
Writings in Prose and Verse of John Ruskin, with a List of the More Im- 
portant Ruskiniana (London: Clay, 1893), 2 vols. 

126 William Ruff, A Bibliography of the Poetical Works of Sir Walter 
Scott, 1796-1832 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Bibliographical Society, 1938). 

127 Walter Ebisch and Levin Schucking, A Shakespeare Bibliography 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1931); idem. Supplement for the Years 1930-33 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1937). 

128 C. L. and V. M. Broad, Dictionary to the Plays and Novels of Be, - 
nard Shaw, with a Bibliography of His Works and of the Literature Concern- 
ing Him, with a Record of the Principal Shavian Productions (London : Black, 


129 Frederic Ives Carpenter, A Reference Guide to Edmund Spenser 
('Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1923); Francis R. Johnson, A Critical 
Bibliography of the Works of Edmund Spenser Printed Before 1700 (Balti- 

328 Tools of Research (11,130) 

more: Johns Hopkins Press, 1933); and Dorothy F. Atkinson, Edmund Spen- 
ser: A Bibliographical Supplement (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937). 

130 H. Teerink, Bibliography of the Writings in Prose and Verse of 
Jonathan Swift (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1937). 

131 Geoffrey H. Wells, The Works of H. G. Wells, 1887-1925: A Bibliog- 
raphy, Dictionary, and Subject Index (London: Rutledge, and New York: 
H. W. Wilson Company, 1926). 

132 Robert E. Spiller and Philip C. Blackburn, A Descriptive Bibliography 
of the Writings of James Fenimore Cooper (New York: R. R. Bowker, 1934). 

133 Ames W. Williams and Vincent Starrett, Stephen Crane: A Bibliog- 
raphy (Glendale, California: John Valentine, 1948). 

134 Thomas Herbert Johnson, Printed Writings of Jonathan Edwards, 
1703-1758: A Bibliography (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 

135 George Willis Cooke, A Bibliography of Ralph Waldo Emerson (Bos- 
ton and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1908). 

136 Nina Eliza Browne, Bibliography of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin, 1915). 

137 William M. Gibson and George Arms, A Bibliography of William 
Dean Howells (New York: New York Public Library, 1948). 

138 William R. Langfield, Washington Irving: A Bibliography . . . (New 
York: New York Public Library, 1933), and Stanley T. Williams and Mary 
Allen Edge, A Bibliography of the Writings of Washington Irving (New 
York: Oxford University Press, 1936). 

ijp Eunice C. Hamilton, "Biographical and Critical Studies of Henry 
James, 1941-1948", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [4241-35. 

140 George Willis Cooke, A Bibliography of James Russell Lowell (Bos- 
ton and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1906), and Luther Samuel Livingston, 
A Bibliography of the First Editions in Book Form of the Writings of James 
Russell Lowell (New York: privately printed, 1914). 

141 Edgar M. Branch, "A Chronological Bibliography of the Writings of 
Samuel Clemens to June 8, 1867", AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [1091-59. 

142 Thomas James Holmes, Cotton Mather: A Bibliography of His Works 
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1940). 

143 Idem, Increase Mather: A Bibliography (Cleveland, Ohio: privately 
printed, 1930). 

144 Paul Stephen Clarkson, A Bibliography of William Sidney Porter 
(0. Henry), (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 1938). 

145 Moriz Grolig, Edgar Allan Poe Bibliographie (Nimden (Westfalen) : 
J. C. C. Bruns hof-buchhandlung, 1907), and Charles Frederick Heartman, 
A Bibliography of First Printings of the Writings of Edgar Allan Poe (Hat- 
tiesburg, Miss.: The Book Farm, 1943). 

146 Lucius Beebe and Robert J. Bulkley, Jr., A Bibliography of the 
Writings of Edwin Arlington Robinson (Cambridge, Mass.: Dunston House 
Book Shop, 1931); Charles Beecher Hogan, A Bibliography of Edwin Arling- 
ton Robinson (New Haven: Yale University Press, and London: Oxfor<\ 

(II, 164) Tools of Research 329 

University Press, 1936) ; and Lillian Lippincott, A Bibliography of the Writ- 
ings and Criticisms of Edwin Arlington Robinson (Boston: F. W. Faxon, 


147 Samuel Arthur Jones, Bibliography of Henry David Thoreau, with 
an Outline of His Life (New York: Rowfant Club of Cleveland, 1894), and 
J. S. Wade, "A Contribution to the Bibliography from 1909 to 1936 of Henry 
David Thoreau", Journal of the New York Entomological Society, XLV11 
(1939), [i63]-203. 

148 Gay Wilson Allen, Twenty- five Years of Walt Whitman Bibliography, 
1918-1942 (Boston: H. W. Faxon, 1943), and Frank Shay, The Bibliography 
of Walt Whitman (New York: Friedmans', 1920). 

149 Thomas Franklin Currier, A Bibliography of John Greenleaf Whittier 
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1937). 

750 Albert S. Cook, A Concordance to Beowulf (Halle: M. Niemeyer, 

751 Alexander Cruden, A Complete Concordance to the Old and New 
Testaments (London and New York: F. Warne, i936 e ). 

152 Leslie N. Broughton and Benjamin F. Stelter, A Concordance to the 
Poems of Robert Browning (New York: G. E. Stechert, 1924-25), 2 vols. 

1 53 J- B. Reid, Complete Word and Phrase Concordance to the Poem* 
and Songs of Robert Burns (Glasgow: Kerr, 1889). 

154 John S. P. Tatlock and Arthur G. Kennedy, Concordance to the 
Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer and to The Romaunt of the Rose 
(Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution, 1927). 

155 Sister Eugenia Logan, A Concordance to the Poetry of Samuel 
Taylor Coleridge (St. Mary of the Woods, Indiana: privately printed, 1940) 

156 Bradford Allen Booth and Claude E. Jones, Concordance to the 
Poetical Works of William Collins (Berkeley, California: University of 
California Press, 1939). 

1 57 J nn Nave, Concordance to the Poetical Works of William Cowper 
(London: S. Low, 1887). 

158 Homer Carroll Combs and Zay Rusk Sullens, A Concordance to the 
English Poems of John Donne (Chicago: Packard, 1940). 

I$Q John Ramsden Tutin, Concordance to FitzGerald's Translation of The 
Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam (London and New York: Macmillan, 1900). 

160 William Doremus Paden and Clyde Kenneth Hyder, Concordance to 
the Poems of Oliver Goldsmith (Lawrence, Kansas: privately printed, 

161 Albert S. Cook, Concordance to the English Poems of Thomas Gray 
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1908). 

162 Malcolm MacLeod, Concordance to the Poems of Robert Herrick 
(London: Oxford University Press, 1936). 

163 Clyde Kenneth Hyder, A Concordance to the Poems of A. E. Hous- 
man (Lawrence, Kansas: privately printed, 1940). 

164 Dane Lewis Baldwin, Concordance to the Poems of John Keatr 
(Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution, 1917). 

330 Tools of Research (II, 165) 

1 6$ Charles Crawford, Concordance to the Works of Thomas Kyd 
(Louvaui: Uystpruyst, 1 906-10). 

166 Idem, The Marlowe Concordance (Louvain: Uystpruyst, 1911-32), 
3 vols. 

167 John Bradshaw, Concordance to the Poetical Works of John Milton 
(London: Sonnenschein, 1894), and Lane Cooper, Concordance to the Latin, 
Greek, and Italian Poems of John Milton (Halle: Niemeyer, 1923). See also 
Laura Emma Lockwood, Lexicon to the English Poetical Works of John 
Milton (London and New York: Macmillan, 1907), and Frank Allen Patter- 
son, An Index to the Columbia Edition of the Works of John Milton (New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1940), 2 vols. 

168 Edwin Abbott, A Concordance to the Works of Alexander Pope 
(London: Chapman and Hall, 1875). 

160 Mary Victoria Cowden-Clarke, Complete Concordance to Shakespeare 
(London: Vickers, and New York: Scribner's, 1889); John Bartlett, New 
and Complete Concordance or Verbal Index to Words, Phrases, and Passages 
in the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare, with a Supplementary Concordance 
to the Poems (London: Macmiilan, 1894); and Helen Kate Furness, Con- 
cordance to Shakespeare's Poems, 4th ed. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 

170 Frederick S. Ellis, Lexical Concordance to the Works of Percy Bysshe 
Shelley (London: Quaritch, 1892). 

777 Charles Grosvenor Osgood, A Concordance to the Poems of Edmund 
Spenser (Washington, D. C.: Carnegie Institution, 1915). 

172 Arthur Ernest Baker, Concordance to the Poetical and Dramatic 
Works of Alfred Lord Tennyson (London: K. Paul, and New York: Mac- 
millan, 1914); idem, Concordance to The Devil and the Lady (London: 
Golden Vista Press, 1931). 

/7j Lane Cooper, Concordance to the Poems of William Wordsworth 
(London: Smith, Elder, and New York: Button, 1911). 

174 Eva Catherine Hangen, Concordance to the Complete Works of Sir 
Thomas Wyatt (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1941). 

175 George Shelton Hubbell, A Concordance to the Poems of Ralph 
Waldo Emerson (New York: H. W. Wilson Company, 1932). 

176 Evangeline M. O'Connor, Analytical Index to the Works of Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1882). 

177 Philip Graham and Joseph Jones, A Concordance to the Poems of 
Sidney Lanier (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1939). 

178 Bradford Allen Booth and Claude Edward Jones, A Concordance to 
the Poetical Works of Edgar Allan Poe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 

179 Charles Mills Gayley, An Introduction to the Methods and Materials 
of Literary Criticism (Boston: Ginn, 1889). 

180 Charles Mills Gayley and Benjamin Kurtz, Methods and Materials 
of Literary Criticism (Boston: Ginn, 1920). 

181 George Saintsbury, A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in 

(II, 196) Tools of Research 331 

Europe from the Earliest Texts to the Present Day (Edinburgh and London: 
Blackwood, 1900-04). 

182 G[eorge] Gregory Smith, Elizabethan Critical Essays (Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1904), 2 vols. 

183 Joel E. Spingarn, Critical Essays of the Seventeenth Century (Oxford: 
Clarendon Press, 1908-09), 3 vols. 

184 A. Bosker, Literary Criticism in the Age of Johnson (Groningen: 
J. B. Wolters, 1930); John W. Draper, Eighteenth Century English ^Es- 
thetics: A Bibliography (Heidelberg: C. Winter, 1931); Willard H. Durham, 
Critical Essays of the Eighteenth Century, 1700-1725 (New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1915); and James Edward Tobin, Eighteenth Century Eng- 
lish Literature and Its Background: A Bibliography (New York: Fordham 
University Press, 1939). 

185 George E. DeMille, Literary Criticism in America: A Preliminary 
Survey (New York: L. MacVeagh, and Toronto: Longmans Green, 1931). 
See also Irving Babbitt et al., Criticism in America (New York: Harcourt 
Brace, 1924); Norman Foerster, American Criticism: A Study in Literary 
Theory from Poe to the Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928); Morton 
D. Zabel, Literary Opinions in America (New York: Harper, 1937); Henri 
Peyre, Writers and Their Critics (Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 
1944); and Carl H. Grabo, The Creative Critic (New York: Doubleday, 

1 86 Sister Mary Cleophas Costello, Between Fixity and Flux: A Study 
of the Concept of Poetry in the Criticism of T. S. Eliot (Washington, D. C.: 
Catholic University of America Press, 1947). 

187 Leonard Bloomfield, Language (New York: Holt, 1933). 

188 Willem L. Graff, Language and Languages (New York and London: 
Appleton, 1932). 

189 Louis Hferbert] Gray, The Foundations of Language (New York: 
Macmillan, J939). 

IQO Albert C[roll] Baugh, A History of the English Language (New York 
and London: Appleton-Century, 1935). 

191 Edward D. Myers, The Foundations of English (New York: Mac- 
millan, 1940). 

192 A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles Founded Mainly 
on the Materials Collected by the Philological Society, ed. Sir J. A. H. 
Murray et al. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888-1928), 10 vols. 

103 Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 
2nd ed. (Springfield, Mass.: G. and C. Merriam, 1942). 

iQ4 Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller, An Anglo-Saxon Dic- 
tionary (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1898), with a Supplement by T. Northcote 
Toller (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908-21). 

19$ Francis H|einrich] Stratmann, A Middle English Dictionary, ed. 
Henry Bradley (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891). 

10,6 Joseph Wright, The English Dialect Dictionary (London: H. Froude, 
and New York: Putnam's, 1898-1905). See also Nathan Bailey, English 

332 Tools of Research (II, 197) 

Dialect Words of the Eighteenth Century as Shown in the "Universal Etymo- 
logical Dictionary" of Nathaniel Bailey (London: Triibner, 1882). 

107 A Dictionary of American English on Historical Principles, ed. Sir 
William A. Craigie and James R. Hulbert (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1938-44), 4 vols. 

198 George P[hilip] Krapp, The English Language in America (New 
York: Century, 1925), 2 vols. 

igg HfenryJ L[ouis] Mencken, The American Language: An Inquiry into 
the Development of English in the United States, 4th ed. (New York: Knopf, 
1936), and idem, Supplement I: The American Language (New York: Knopf, 
1945); see also Harold Wentworth, American Dialect Dictionary (New York: 
Crowell, 1944), and Lester V. Berry and Melvin Van Den Bark, The American 
Thesaurus of Slang with Supplement: A Complete Reference Book of Collo- 
quial Speech (New York: Crowell, 1947). 

200 McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, pp. 145-62. 

20 1 Esdaile, Student's Manual of Bibliography, pp. 248-71. 

202 W. W. Greg, "A Formulary of Collation", The Library, 4th Series, 
XIV (1933-34), 365-82; see also the introduction to his A Bibliography of 
the English Printed Drama to the Restoration, Vol. I. 

203 The Text of the Canterbury Tales, ed. John Matthews Manly and 
Edith Rickert, 8 vols. (Chicago: University of Chicago* Press, 1940), I, 


204 Ibid. 

205 Ibid., p. 562. 

206 Ibid., p. 94. 

207 Ibid., p. 26. 

208 Haselden, Scientific Aids for the Study of Manuscripts, pp. 64-65. 
2ocj John Livingston Lowes, The Road to Xanadu, rev. ed. (Boston and 

New York: Houghton Mifflin, [1930]). 


Chapter One: Problems of Editing 

1 Robert Greene, Works, ed. Alexander] B[alloch] Grosart, 15 vols. 
(London: privately printed, 1881-83), II, [ix-xi]. 

2 Andre Morize, Problems and Methods, p. 38. 

j Thomas Nashe, Works, ed. Rfonald] B[runlees] McKerrow, 5 vols. 
(London: A. H. Bullen [for Vols. I-IVJ and Sidgwick and Jackson [for 
Vol. V], I904-[i9io]), I, 147-48. 

4 Bernard Mandeville, Fable of the Bees, ed. F Frederick] B[enjamin] 
Kaye, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1924), I, xxxiii-xxxv. 

$ Ibid., p. ix. 

(7/7, i, 7) Problems of Editing 333 

6 G. I. Duthie, The 'Bad' Quarto oj Hamlet (Cambridge: Cambridge 
University Press, and New York: Macmillan, 1941). 

Textual studies devoted to collation and attempts to establish the filiation 
of texts include: Charlotte D'Evelyn, "An East Midland Recension of The 
Pricke of Conscience", PMLA, XLV (1930), 180-200; Marion Crane 
Carroll and Rosemond Tuve, "Two Manuscripts of the Middle English 
Anonymous Riming Chronicle", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 115-54; Margaret 
Kilgour, "The Manuscript Source of Caxton's Second Edition of the Canter- 
bury Tales", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 186-201, with a comment by W. W. Greg, 
"The MS Source of Caxton's Second Edition of the Canterbury Tales 11 , 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1251-53, and a reply by Margaret Kilgour, ibid., 
p. 1253; E. E. Neil Dodge, "The Text of the Gerusalemme Liberata in the 
Versions of Carew and Fairfax", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 681-95, with a com- 
ment by Walter L. Bullock, "Carew's Text of the Gerusalemme Liberata," 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 330-35. Studies concerned mainly with the evolution of 
a text are: J. S. P. Tatlock, "The Canterbury Tales in 1400", PMLA, L 
(i935), 100-39; Arthur M. Sampley, "The Text of Peele's David and Beth- 
sabe," PMLA, XLVI (1931), 659-71; Joseph S. G. Bolton, "The Authentic 
Text of Titus Andronicus", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 765-88; Gerda Okerlund, 
"The Quarto Version of Henry V as a Stage Adaptation," PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 810-34; Allison Gaw, "Is Shakespeare's Much Ado a Revised Earlier 
Play?" PMLA, L (1935), 715-38; and Bertrand Harris Bronson, "The Cale- 
donian Muse", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1202-20. Two studies by Kenneth 
Walter Cameron, "Othello, Quarto i, Reconsidered", PMLA, XLV1I (1932), 
671-83, and "The Text of Othello: An Analysis", PMLA, XLIX (i934> 
762-96, are devoted chiefly to the evaluation of a text. An article by Clara 
Marburg, "Notes on the Cardigan Chaucer Manuscript", PMLA, XLI (1926), 
229-51, involves description and collation. Roberta D. Cornelius, "A New 
Text of an Old Ballad", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1025-33, and George Win- 
chester Stone, Jr., "Garrick's Long Lost Alteration of Hamlet", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 890-921, give transcriptions of a text. Oliver Farrar Emerson, "More 
Notes on Pearl," PMLA, XLII (1927), 807-31, is devoted to suggested 
emendations. W. W. Greg, "Text of The Gypsies Metamorphosed", PMLA, 
XLIX (1934), 963; Samuel A. Tannenbaum, "Corrections to the Text of 
Believe As You List", PMLA, XLII (1927), 777-81; and Robert Witbeck 
Babcock, "The Reverend Montague Summers as Editor of Otway", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 948-52, point out editorial errors. 

7 C. F. Tucker Brooke, "The Authorship of the Second and Third 
Parts of 'King Henry VF ", Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences, XVII (1912), 141-211; Madeleine Doran, Henry VI Parts II 
and III, Their Relation to the Contention and the True Tragedy (Iowa City: 
State University of Iowa, [1928]), University of Iowa Humanistic Studies, 
Vol. IV, No. 4; Peter Alexander, Shakespeare's Henry VI and Richard III 
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1929); Robert A. Law, "Shake- 
speare's Earliest Plays", SP, XXVIII (1931), 631-38; Clayton Alvis Greer, 
"The Relation of Richard III to The True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York 

334 Methods of Research (HI, i, 8) 

and The Third Part of Henry VI", SP, XXIX (1932), 543~5o; idem, "The 
York and Lancaster Quarto-Folio Sequence", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 655- 
704; W. W. Greg, "Henry VI and the Contention Plays", PMLA, L (1935), 
919-20; Lucille King, "Text Sources of the Folio and Quarto Henry VI", 
PMLA, LI (1936), 702-18; Clayton Alvis Greer, "The Place of i Henry VI 
in the York-Lancaster Tetralogy", PMLA, LIII (1938), 687-701. 

8 James R. Kreuzer, "The Twelve Profits of Anger", PMLA, LIII 
(1938), 78-85. 

Q Mendal G. Frampton, "The Brewbarret Interpolation in the York Play 
the Sacrificium Cayme and Abell", PMLA, LII (1937), 895-900. 

10 Germaine Dempster, "A Chapter of the Manuscript History of the 
Canterbury Tales", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 456-84. 

// Raymond A. Houk, "The Evolution of The Taming of the Shrew", 
PMLA,LVll (1942), 1009-38. 

12 Leo Kirschbaum, "An Hypothesis Concerning the Origin of the Bad 
Quartos", PMLA, LX (1945), 697-715. 

jj John S. Diekhoff, "The Text of Comus, 1634 to 1645", PMLA, LII 

(1937), 705-27. 

14 John Edwin Wells, "Lyrical Ballads, 1800: Cancel Leaves", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 207-29. 

75 Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, II, 196-97. 

16 Morize, Problems and Methods, pp. 53-54. 

17 Ibid., p. 51. 

18 Edwin Wolf, 2nd, " 'If Shadows Be a Picture's Excellence': An Experi- 
ment in Critical Bibliography", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 831-57. 

IQ W. W. Greg, Principles of Emendation in Shakespeare (London: 
Oxford University Press, 1928) ; this is the Annual Shakespeare Lecture of the 
British Academy for 1928, with some forty pages of notes added, and was first 
printed in the Proceedings of the British Academy, XIV (1928), 147-216. 

20 I bid., p. [3]. 

21 Ibid., p. 5. 

22 The Plays and Poems of William Shakespeare, ed. Malone, 21 vols. 
(F. C. and J. Rivington and others, 1821), XVII, 318-20. 

23 W. W. Greg, Principles of Emendation in Shakespeare, p. 4. 

24 Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, I, 33. 

25 Shakspere, Hamlet, ed. W. G. Clark and W. Aldis Wright, I, ii, 129. 

26 W. W. Greg, op. cit., pp. 27-28. 

27 Ronald B. McKerrow, Prolegomena for the Oxford Shakespeare 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939), pp. vi-viii. 

28 Ibid., p. vii. 

2Q John Robert Moore, in a personal letter to me. 

30 The Mirror for Magistrates, ed. Lily B[ess] Campbell (Cambridge: 
Cambridge University Press, 1938). 

jj Sir Thomas More, The English Works of Sir Thomas More, ed. W. E. 
Campbell and others (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1931- ), in 7 vols., 
of which the first two have appeared. 

(777, i, 49) Problems of Editing 335 

32 Michael Drayton, The Works of Michael Drayton, ed. J. William 
Hebel (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1931-33), 4 vols. 

33 Christopher Marlowe, The Works and Life of Christopher Marlowe, 
ed. R. H. Case and others (London: Methuen, [1930-33]), 6 vols. 

34 Edmund Spenser, The Works of Edmund Spenser, ed. Edwin Green- 
law and others (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1932-47), 8 vols. in 9. 

J5 Roger Boyle, The Dramatic Works of Roger Boyle, Earl of Orrery, 
ed. William Smith Clark, II (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 
i937)> 2 vols. 

36 George Herbert, The Works of George Herbert, ed. F. E. Hutchinson 
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1941). 

37 Ben Jonson, Ben Jonson, ed. C. H. Herford and Percy and Evelyn 
Simpson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1925- ), in 10 vols., of which 
eight have now appeared. 

38 John Milton, The Works of John Milton, ed. Frank Allen Patterson 
and others (New York: Columbia University Press, and London: Humphrey 
Milford, 1931-38), 18 vols. in 21. 

39 Joseph Addison, Letters, ed. Walter Graham (London: Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 1941). 

40 James Boswell, Life of Johnson, ed. George Birkbeck Hill, revised by 
L. F. Powell (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1934), 6 vols. 

41 Lord Chesterfield, Letters of the 4th Earl of Chesterfield, ed. Bonamy 
Dobree (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1932), 6 vols. 

42 John Dennis, The Critical Works of John Dennis, ed. Edward N. 
Hooker (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1939-43), 2 v l s - 

43 Alexander Pope, The Twickenham Edition of the Poems of Alexander 
Pope, ed. John Butt and others (New York: Oxford University Press, 
1939- ) ; to be complete in 10 vols. Vol. II, The Rape of the Lock and Other 
Poems, ed. Geoffrey Tillotson, was published in 1940; Vol. IV, Imitations of 
Horace, ed. John Butt, appeared in 1939; and Vol. V, Dunciad, ed. James 
Sutherland, in 1943. 

44 Jonathan Swift, The Poems of Jonathan Swift, ed. Harold Williams 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1937), 3 vols. 

45 Idem, The Prose Works of Jonathan Swift, ed. Herbert Davis 
(Oxford: Basil Blackwell for the Shakespeare Head Press, 1939-40), 3 vols. 

46 Horace Walpole, Horace Walpole's Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis 
and others (New Haven: Yale University Press, and London: Humphrey 
Milford, 1937-39), 8 vols. 

47 John Keats, The Poetical Works of John Keats, ed. H. W. Garrod 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1939). 

48 William Wordsworth, The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, 
ed. E[rnest] DeSelincourt and Helen Derbishire (New York: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, 1940- ); four vols. have appeared. 

49 William Byrd, The Writings of "Colonel William Byrd, of Westover 
in Virginia, esq r ", ed. John Spencer Bassett (New York: Doubleday Page, 

336 Methods of Research (HI, i, 50) 

50 Benjamin Franklin, The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert 
Henry Smythe (New York and London: Macmillan, 1905-07), 10 vols. 

51 Sidney Lanier, The Centennial Edition of the Writings of Sidney 
Lanier, ed. Charles R. Anderson (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1945), 
10 vols. 

52 Nathaniel Hawthorne, The American Notebooks, ed. Randall Stewart 
(New Haven: Yale University Press, and London: Humphrey Milford, 1932). 

5j Edgar Allan Poe, Poems, ed. Killis Campbell (Boston: Ginn, 1917). 
54 Herman Melville, Collected Poems of Herman Melville, ed. Howard P. 
Vincent (Chicago: Packard, 1947- ); only Vol. I has thus far appeared. 

Chapter Two: Problems in Biography 

1 Samuel Johnson, The Rambler, No. 60. 

2 James Boswell, The Life of Samuel Johnson, Modern Library ed. 
(New York: Modern Library, [1931]), p. 10. 

j Hazelton Spencer, The Art and Life of William Shakespeare (New 
York: Harcourt Brace, 1940), pp. 47-50, 69-70. 

4 See, for example, [Sir] E[dmund] K|erchever] Chambers, William 
Shakespeare, 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930*), II, 35-52; also 
Rupert Taylor, "John Shakespeare, Corviser of Stratford-on-Avon and the 
Balsali Shakespeares", PMLA, LV (1940), 721-26. 

5 Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, V, 1-34. 

6 John Edwin Bakeless, Christopher Marlowe (New York: William 
Morrow, 1937), pp. 353-58; and Frederick Sfamuel] Boas, Christopher 
Marlowe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1940), pp. 315-28. 

7 J[ohn] Leslie Hotson, The Death of Christopher Marlowe (London: 
Nonsuch Press, and Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1925); a 
more popular and equally interesting account of this discovery is contained in 
Professor Hotson's article "Tracking Down a Murderer", Atlantic Monthly, 
CXXXV (1925), 733-41. Other contributions to the story are mentioned by 
Dr. Boas in Christopher Marlowe, pp. 304-5. 

8 M. S. Giuseppi, A Guide to the Manuscripts in the Public Record 
Office (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1923), 2 vols. 

9 E. K. Chambers, op. cit., II, 41-52. 

10 Bakeless, op. cit., p. 240. 

11 A. C. Baugh, "Kirk's Life Records of Thomas Chaucer", PMLA, 

XLVII (1932), 461-515. 

12 Idem, "Thomas Chaucer, One Man or Two?", PMLA, XLVIII 
(i933), 328-39; see also John M. Manly, "Thomas Chaucer, Son of Geoffrey", 
[London] Time* Literary Supplement, August 3, 1933, p. 525. 

13 Russel Krauss, "William Chaumbre, Kinsman of Thomas Chaucer", 
PMLA, XLIX (1934), 954-55- 

14 Nellie Slayton Aurner, "Sir Thomas Malory Historian?", PMLA f 
XLVIII (1933), 362-91. 

(7/7, tt, 38) Problems in Biography 337 

15 Pearl Hogrefe, "Sir Thomas More's Connection with the Roper 
Family", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 523-33. 

16 Edwin R. Casady, "A Reinterpretation of Surrey's Character and 
Actions", PMLA, LI (1936), 626-35. 

77 Raymond Jenkins, "Spenser and the Clerkship in Munster", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 109-21. 

18 Austin K. Gray, "Some Observations on Christopher Marlowe, Gov- 
ernment Agent", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 682-700. 

19 Hubert H. Hoeltje, "Emerson, Citizen of Concord", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [3671-78. 

20 G. E. Bentley, "Records of Players in the Parish of St. Giles Cripple- 
gate", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 789-826. 

21 Emma Marshall Denkinger, "Actors' Names in the Registers of St. 
Botolph Aldgate", PMLA, XLI (1926), 91-109. 

22 Fred S. Tupper, "Mary Palmer, Alias Mrs. Andrew Marvell", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 367-92. 

23 Kenneth Forward, "De Quincey's Cessio Bonorum", PMLA, LIV 

24 Alwin Thaler, "Fairc Em (and Shakspere's Company?) in Lancashire", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 647-58. 

25 Claude Lloyd, "Edmund Waller as a Member of the Royal Society", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 162-65 and idem, "John Dryden and the Royal 
Society", PMLA, XLV (1930), 967-76. 

26 Henslowe's Diary, ed. W. W. Greg (London: A. H. Bullen, 1904-8), 
2 vols. 

27 E. H. C. Oliphant, "Who Was Henry Porter?", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 

28 Alfred Jackson, "Play Notices from the Burney Newspapers 1700- 
1703", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 815-49. 

29 Reproduced in Thomas Kyd, Works, ed. F. S. Boas (Oxford: Claren- 
don Press, 1901), and in English Literary Autographs, 1550-1650: Part I. 
Dramatists, ed. W. W. Greg, no. XV (b). 

jo Bakeless, Christopher Marlowe, pp. 169-70. 

31 Gabriel Harvey, Foure Letters and Certeine Sonnets, ed. G. B. Harri- 
son (London: John Lane, U<)22|), pp. 18-24. 

32 Nashe, Works, ed. McKerrow, I, 287-88. 

33 Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, I, xlvii. 

34 The Plays and Poems of Robert Greene, ed. J. Churton Collins (Ox- 
ford: Oxford University Press, 1905), I, 49. 

35 Greene, The Blacke Bookes Messenger, ed. G. B. Harrison (London: 
John Lane, [1924]), p. viii. 

36 Ed. W. W. Greg, Vol. I, passim. 

37 Harold Jenkins, The Life and Work of Henry Chettle (London: 
Sidgwick and Jackson, 1934), p. 29. 

38 Ibid., p. 10. 

338 Methods of Research (HI,ii,39) 

39 Henry Chettle, Kind-hartes Dreame, ed. G. B. Harrison (London: 
John Lane, [1923]), PP- 6-7. 

40 J. S. P. Tatlock, "Muriel: The Earliest English Poetess", PMLA, 
XLVIII (i933\3i7-2i. 

41 Marguerite Hearsey, "New Light on the Evidence for Swift's Mar- 
riage", PMLA, XLII (1927), 157-61. 

42 Helen Sard Hughes, "More Popeana: Items from an Unpublished 
Correspondence", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1090-98. 

43 Randall Stewart, "Recollections of Hawthorne by His Sister Eliza- 
beth", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [3i6]-3i. 

44 Jennie A. Morgan, "Early Reminiscences of Walt Whitman", AmLit, 
XIII (1941-42), [Ql-17. 

45 Cambridge History of English Literature, IX, 76. 

46 Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, I, 157, n. c * 

47 Ibid., p. 1 6. 

48 Ibid., p. 19, n. i. 

4P Coolidge Otis Chapman, "The Musical Training of the Pearl Poet", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), i77-8i. 

50 Rudolf Kirk, "References to the Law in Piers the Plowman", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 322-37- 

57 William Nelson, "Skelton's Quarrel with Wolsey", WILA, LI (1936), 

52 Charles A. Rouse, "Was Heywood a Servant of the Earl of South- 
ampton?", PMLA, XLV (1930), 787-90. 

5j J. Milton French, "A New Letter by John Milton", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 1069-70. 

54 Idem, "Milton as a Historian", PMLA, L (1935), 469-79. 

55 Fannie E. Ratchford, "Charlotte Bronte's Angrian Cycle of Stories", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 494-501. 

56 Tremaine McDowell, "A Freshman Poem by Emerson", PMLA, XLV 
(1930), 326-29. 

57 Irving T. Richards, "Longfellow in England: Unpublished Extracts 
from His Journal", PMLA, LI (1936), 1123-40. 

5# K. L. Knickerbocker, "Browning's Letters to Isabella Blagden", 
PMLA, LIV (1939), 565-78, and William O. Raymond, "Browning's Letters 
lo Isabella Blagden: An Addendum", PMLA, LV (1940), 614-15. 

59 Donald Ramsay Roberts, "The Death Wish of John Donne", PMLA, 
LXII (1947), 958-76. 

60 Gerald Giles Grubb, "The Editorial Policies of Charles Dickens", 
PMLA,LV1II (1943), 1110-24. 

61 Herbert E. Greene, "Browning's Knowledge of Music", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 1095-99. 

62 Arthur H. Nethercot, "Oscar Wilde and the Devil's Advocate", 
PMLA,LIX (1944), 833-50. 

63 Charlton G. Laird, "Tragedy and Irony in Knickerbocker's History", 
AmLit, XII (1940-41), [1571-72. 

(7/7, it, S3) Problems in Biography 339 

64 J. W. Thomas, "A Hitherto Unpublished Poem by Margaret Fuller", 
AmLit, XV (1943-44), [4111-15. 

65 Merton M. Sealts, "Herman Melville's 'I and My Chimney' ", AmLit, 
XIII (1941-42), [I42J-54. 

66 Walter Blair, "Mark Twain, New York Correspondent", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [-471-591 John B. Hoben, "Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee: 
A Genetic Study", AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [1971-218; Bradford A. Booth, 
"Mark Twain's Friendship with Emeline Beach", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), 
[ 2I 9]-3; and Arthur L. Vogelback, "Mark Twain: Newspaper Contributor", 
AmLit, XX (1948-49), [in]-28. 

67 Bradford A. Booth, "Bret Harte Goes East: Some Unpublished 
Letters", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [3181-35. 

68 G. E. Jensen, "Bunner's Letters to Gilder", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), 

69 Victor A. Elconin, "Stephen Crane at Asbury Park", AmLit, XX 
(1948-49), [2751-89. 

70 Reginald L. Cook, "Robert Frost's Asides on His Poetry", AmLit, 

XIX (1947-48), I350-59- 

71 Theodore Howard Banks, "Sidney's Astrophel and Stella Recon- 
sidered", PMLA, L (1935), 403-12. 

72 W. Nelson Francis, "The Original of the Ayenbite of Inwit", PMLA, 
LII (i937), 893-95. 

73 Donald Weeks, "Samuel Rogers: Man of Taste", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 472-86; another article on Samuel Rogers is Joseph J. Firebaugh, 
"Samuel Rogers and American Men of Letters", AmLit, XIII (1941-42), 


74 B. B. Gamzue, "Elizabeth and Literary Patronage", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 1041-49. 

75 Helen Estabrook Sandison, "Arthur Gorges, Spenser's Alcyon and 
Ralegh's Friend", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 645-74. 

76 Austin Warren, "To Mr. Pope: Epistles from America", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 61-73. 

77 Lewis Mansfield Knapp, "The Naval Scenes in Roderick Random", 
PMLA, XLIX (1934), 593-98. 

78 James H. Pershing, "Keats: When Was He Born and When Did He 
Die?", PMLA, LV (1940), 802-14. 

79 William Charvat, "Melville's Income", AmLit, XV (1943-44), 

80 Sculley Bradley, "Lowell, Emerson, and the Pioneer", AmLit, XIX 
(1947-48), [2311-44. 

81 William Charvat, "Thomas Bancroft", PMLA, XLVII (1932). 753-58. 

82 Townsend Scudder, 3rd, "A Chronological List of Emerson's Lectures 
on His British Lecture Tour of 1847-1848", PMLA, LI (1936), 243-48. 

83 T. P. Harrison. Jr.. "The Relations of Spenser and Sidney", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 712-31; but see also J. M. Purcell, "The Relations of Spenser 
and Sidney", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 940. 

340 Methods of Research (HI, ii, 84) 

84 Charles E. Ward, "The Publication and Profits of Dryden's Virgil", 
PMLA, LIII (1938), 807-12. 

85 Kathleen M. Lynch, "Congreve's Irish Friend, Joseph Keally", 
PMLA, LIII (1938), 1076-87, and idem, "Henrietta, Duchess of Marl- 
borough", PMLA, LII (1937), 1072-93. 

86 Dixon Wecter, "The Missing Years in Edmund Burke's Biography", 
PMLA, LIII (1938), 1102-25. 

87 Thomas W. Copeland, "Burke and Dodsley's Annual Register", 
PMLA,L1V (1939), 223-45- 

88 J. Delancey Ferguson, "New Light on the Burns-Dunlop Estrange- 
ment", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1106-15. 

89 Robert T. Fitzhugh, "Burns' Highland Mary", PMLA, LII (1937), 

go Earl Leslie Griggs, "Coleridge and Byron", PMLA, XLV (1930), 

91 Clarence DeWitt Thorpe, "Keats's Interest in Politics and World 
Affairs", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1228-45. 

92 Franklin Gary, "Charlotte Bronte and George Henry Lewes", PMLA, 
LI (1936), 518-42. 

93 Ruth Crosby, "Robert Mannyng of Brunne: A New Biography", 
PMLA, LVII (1942), 15-28. 

94 Leah Dennis, "Thomas Percy: Antiquarian vs. Man of Taste", 
PMLA, LVII (1942), 140-54. 

95 Kenneth Neill Cameron, "Shelley vs. Southey: New Light on an Old 
Quarrel", PMLA, LVII (1942), 489-512. 

96 Edwin H. Zeydel, "Washington Irving and Tieck", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 946-47- 

97 Oscar Cargill, "Nemesis and Nathaniel Hawthorne", PMLA, LII 
( J 937)> 848-62, and Austin Warren, "Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, and 'Neme- 
sis' ", PMLA, LIV (1939), 615-18. 

98 Harry R. Warfel, "Margaret Fuller and Ralph Waldo Emerson", 
PMLA, L (1935), 576-94. 

99 Harold Blodgett, "Hawthorne as Poetry Critic: Six Unpublished 
Letters to Lewis Mansfield", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [i73l~84. 

100 Max L. Griffin, "Whittier and Hayne: A Record of Friendship", 
AmLit, XIX (1947-48), Ui]-58. 

101 S. V. Gapp, "Notes on John Cleveland", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1075-86. 

102 J. Milton French, "George Wither in Prison", PMLA, XLV (1930), 

103 John C. Hodges, "Fresh Manuscript Sources for a Life of William 
Congreve", PMLA, LIV (1939), 432-38. 

104 Harrison Gray Platt, Jr., "Astrea and Celadon: An Untouched Por- 
trait of Aphra Behn", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 544-59. 

105 Lewis M. Knapp, "Ann Smollett, Wife of Tobias Smollett", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 1035-49. 

(777, ii, 111) Problems in Biography 341 

106 Sidney L. Gulick, Jr., "The Publication of Chesterfield's Letters to 
His Son", PMLA, LI (1936), 165-77. 

107 Donald Francis Connors, "Thomas Morton of Merry Mount: His 
First Arrival in New England", AmLit, XI (1939-40), [i6ol-66. 

108 David V. Erdman, "Lord Byron as Rinaldo", PMLA, LVII (1942), 

log Dixon Wecter, "Walt Whitman as Civil Servant", PMLA, LVIII 
(1943), 1094-1109. 

no Lewis P. Curtis, "The First Printer of Tristram Shandy", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 777-89; see also John M. Yoklavich, "Notes on the Early 
Editions of Tristram Shandy", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 508-19. 

Among other recent articles dealing with biography may be mentioned 
Marjorie Anderson, "Alice Chaucer and Her Husbands", PMLA, LX (1945), 
24-47; William Nelson, "Thomas More, Grammarian and Orator", PMLA, 
LVIII (1943), 337-52; Charles Eaton Burch, "Defoe and His Northern 
Printers", PMLA, LX (1945), 121-28; Rae Blanchard, "Was Sir Richard 
Steele a Freemason?", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 903-17; Cecilia Hennel Hen- 
dricks, "Thomas De Quincey, Symptomatologist", PMLA, LX (1945), 838-40; 
Wallace W. Douglas, "Wordsworth as Business Man", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 
625-41; Harold E. Briggs, "Keats's Conscious and Unconscious Reactions to 
Criticism of Endymion", PMLA, LX (1945), 1106-29; John Tyree Fain, 
"Ruskin and His Father", PMLA, LIX (1944), 236-42; Stewart W. Holmes, 
"Browning: Semantic Stutterer", PMLA, LX (1945), 231-55; Gertrude 
Reese, "Robert Browning and His Son", PMLA, LXI (1946), 784-803; Edgar 
Finley Shannon, Jr., "Tennyson and the Reviewers 1830-1842", PMLA, 
LVIII (1943), 181-94; Cecil Lang, "Swinburne and American Literature: 
With Six Hitherto Unpublished Letters", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [336 HO; 
Dixon Wecter, "Thomas Paine and the Franklins", AmLit, XII (1940-41), 
[306]-! 7; idem, "Francis Hopkinson and Benjamin Franklin", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [2001-17; W. C. Desmond Pacey, "Washington Irving and Charles 
Dickens", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [3321-39; John T. Flanagan, "Joseph 
Kirkland, Pioneer Realist", AmLit, XI (1939-40), [2731-84; Richard G. 
Lillard, "Contemporary Reaction to The Empire City Massacre' ", AmLit, 
XVI (1944-45), [1981-203; Fred W. Lorch, "Mark Twain and the 'Cam- 
paign that Failed'", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [4541-70; Bradford A. Booth, 
"Unpublished Letters of Bret Harte", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), 1 1311-42; 
Robert R. Hubach, "Three Uncollected St. Louis Interviews of Walt Whit- 
man", Amlit, XIV (1942-43), [1411-47; Luther W. Courtney, "O. Henry's 
Case Reconsidered", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), (3611-71; and Edwin Harrison 
Cady, "The Neuroticism of William Dean Howells", PMLA, LXI (1946), 

/// Alexander] C[orbin] Judson, Life of Edmund Spenser (Baltimore: 
Johns Hopkins Press, 1945) ; this is Vol. VIII of the Variorum Spenser, edited 
by Edwin Greenlaw and others (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1932-47), 
8 vols. in 9. 

342 Methods of Research (III, ii, 112) 

112 J. E. Bakeless, Christopher Marlowe, and F. S. Boas, Christopher 

113 E. K. Chambers, William Shakespeare] Hazelton Spencer, The Art 
and Life of William Shakespeare', and Marchette [Gaylordl Chute, Shake- 
speare of London (New York: Button, 1949). 

114 Arthur Bryant, Samuel Pepys (New York: Macmillan, and Cam- 
bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1933-35), 2 vols. 

7/5 George Wiley Sherburn, The Early Career of Alexander Pope (Ox- 
ford: Oxford University Press, 1934). 

1 16 Joseph Wood Krutch, Samuel Johnson (New York: Holt, 1944. 

117 Alan Dugald McKillop, Samuel Richardson, Printer and Novelist 
(Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1936). 

118 David Morris Low, Edward Gibbon, 1737-1794 (London: Chatto and 
Windus, 1937). 

up Lewis Gibbs [Joseph Walter Cove], Sheridan: His Life and His 
Theatre (New York: Morrow, 1948). 

120 Newman Ivey White, Shelley (New York: Knopf, 1940). 

121 Hyder Edward Rollins, The Keats Circle (Cambridge, Mass.: Har- 
vard University Press, 1948). 

122 Peter Quennel, John Ruskin; the Portrait of a Prophet (New York: 
Viking Press, 1949). * 

123 Ola Elizabeth Winslow, Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758 (New York: 
Macmillan, 1940). 

124 Ralph Leslie Rusk, Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York: Scrib- 
ner's, 1949). 

125 Odell Shepard, Pedlar's Progress: The Life of Bronson Alcott (Bos- 
ton: Little, Brown, 1937). 

126 Randall Stewart, Nathaniel Hawthorne; a Biography (New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1948), and Robert Cantwell, Nathaniel Hawthorne, the 
American Years (New York: Rinehart, 1948), to be complete in two volumes. 

127 Lawrance [Roger] Thompson, Young Longfellow (New York: Mac- 
millan, 1938), and Carl L. Johnson, Professor Longfellow of Harvard [Univer- 
sity of Oregon Monographs, Studies in Literature and Philology, No. 5], 
(Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon Press, 1944). 

128 Joy Bayless, Rufus Wilmot Griswold: Poe's Literary Executor (Nash- 
ville, Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press, 1943). 

129 Henry Seidel Canby, Thoreau (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939), and 
Joseph Wood Krutch, Henry David Thoreau (New York: Sloane, 1948). 

130 George Frisbie Whicher, This Was a Poet (New York and London: 
Scribner's, 1938). 

131 DeLancey Ferguson, Mark Twain: Man and Legend (Indianapolis, 
Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943). 

1 32 William Peirce Randel, Edward Eggleston (New York : King's Crown 
Press, 1946). 

133 Vera McWilliams, Lafcadio Hearn (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1946). 

(777, Hi, 16) Problems of Authenticity and Attribution 343 

134 Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln, Sangamon ed. (New York: Scrib- 
ner's, 1940), 6 vols. 

jj5 Robert Greene, Plays and Poems, ed. Collins, I, 12. 

136 J. Leslie Hotson, "Tracking Down a Murderer," Atlantic Monthly, 
CXXXV (1925), 736-40. 

/J7 Storojenko, for example (Robert Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, I, 155), 
and Collins (op. cit., I, 52). 

Chapter Three: Problems of Authenticity and Attribution 

1 H. M. Paull, Literary Ethics (New York: Button, 1929), p. 43. 

2 Dictionary of National Biography, s. n. "Ritson, Joseph", 
j Camb. Hist. Eng. Lit., II, 203-4. 

4 Samuel A. Tannenbaum, " 'More About the Bookie of Sir Thomas 
Moore'", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 767-78; W. W. Greg, " T. Goodal' in Sir 
Thomas More", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 633-34; Samuel A. Tannenbaum, "Dr. 
Greg and the 'Goodal' Notation in Sir Thomas Moore", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
934-38; W. W. Greg, " T. Goodal' in Sir Thomas More", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 268-71; idem, PQ, XI (1932), 410; Samuel A. Tannenbaum, "Dr. 
Tannenbaum Replies", PQ, XII (1933), 88-90. 

5 A [If red] W[illiaml Pollard, Shakespeare Folios and Quartos (Lon- 
don: Methuen, 1909), pp. 93-94. 

6 John Carter and Graham Pollard, An Enquiry into the Nature of Cer- 
tain Nineteenth Century Pamphlets (London: Constable, and New York: 
Scribner's, 1934), pp. 44 and 47. 

7 Ibid., pp. 56-70. 

8 Ronald SJalmonJ Crane, New Essays by Oliver Goldsmith (Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1927), p. xx. 

K[atherineJ C. BaWerston, "Dr. Johnson and Burney's History of 
Music", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 966-68. 

10 Thomas Wellsted Copeland, "Edmund Burke and the Book Reviews 
in Dodsley's Annual Register", PMLA, LVII (1942), 448-68. 

11 Carolyn W. and Lawrence H. Houtchens, "Three Early Works At- 
tributed to Dickens", PMLA, LIX (1944), 226-35. 

12 Rollo G. Silver, "Whitman in 1850: Three Uncollected Articles", 
AmLity XIX (1947-48), [3011-17. 

ij Richard Bentley, Dissertations upon the Epistles of Phalaris . . . and 
upon the Fables of ALsop, ed. Alexander Dyce, 2 vols. (London: Macpherson, 
1836), I, 355-430; II, 222-37. 

14 Frederick Lafayette Jones, "An Experiment with Massinger's Verse", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 727-40. 

15 Ibid., p. 740. 

16 John Archer Gee, "Tindale and the 1533 English Enchiridion of 
Erasmus", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 460-71. 

344 Methods of Research (HI, Hi, 17) 

17 Wilbur L. Cross, The History of Henry Fielding, 3 vols. (New 
Haven: Yale University Press, 1918), I, 307. 

18 Robert Joseph Kane, "Joseph Hall and Work for Chimney-Sweepers", 
PMLA, LI (1936), 407-13- 

ig Bernard Freyd, "Spenser or Anthony Munday? A Note on the 
Axiochus", PMLA, L (1935), 903-8; Professor Padelford, in a reply (pp. 
908-13) did not find the suggestion convincing, pointing out that the spellings 
referred to can be found in Spenser. 

20 Edward S. Parsons, "The Authorship of the Anonymous Life of 
Milton", PMLA, L (1935), 1057-64. 

21 Hope Emily Allen, "On the Author of the Ancren Riwle", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 635-80. 

22 Arthur M. Sampley, "Plot Structure in Peele's Plays as a Test of 
Authorship", PMLA, LI (1936), 689-701. 

23 George C. Williams, "Did Thomson Write the Poem To the Memory 
of Mr. Congreve?" PMLA, XLV (1930), 1010-13. 

24 Agnes Duncan Kuersteiner, "E. K. is Spenser", PMLA, L (1935), 

25 Encyclopedia Britannica, i4th ed., s.v. "Scottish Literature". 

26 Oscar Cargill, "The Langland Myth", PMLA, L (1935), 35~56- 

27 Raymond A. Houk, "Versions of Lindsay's Satift of the Three Es- 
tates", PMLA, LV (1940), 396-405. 

28 Henry David Gray, "Thomas Kyd and the First Quarto of Hamlet", 
PMLA,XL1I (1927), 721-35- 

29 John Robert Moore, "The Songs in Lyly's Plays", PMLA, XLII 
(1927), 623-40. 

jo John Carter and Graham Pollard, An Enquiry . . . igth Century 
Pamphlets, p. 228. 

31 Ibid., pp. 302-4. 

32 Oscar Cargill, "The Authorship of the Secunda Pastorum", PMLA, 
XLI (1926), 810-31. 

33 Frances A. Foster, "Was Gilbert Pilkington Author of the Secunda 
Pastorum?", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 124-36. 

34 Henry B. Hinckley, "The Date, Author, and Sources of the Owl and 
the Nightingale", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 329-59; the discussion of authorship 
covers pages 341-43- 

35 Edwin Johnston Howard, "Cynewulf's Christ 1665-1693", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 354-67. 

36 Carleton Brown, "Chaucer's Wrecked Engendring", PMLA, L (1935), 
997-1011; J. S. P. Tatlock, "Has Chaucer's Wretched Engendering Been 
Found?" MLN, LI (1936), 275-84; Germaine Dempster, "Did Chaucer 
Write An Holy Medytacion?" MLN, LI (1936), 284-95; Carleton Brown, 
"An Affirmative Reply", MLN, LI (1936), 296-300; Germaine Dempster, 
"Chaucer's Wretched Engendering and An Holy Meditation", UP, XXXV 
(i937-38), 27-29; Beatrice D. Brown, "Chaucer's Wrecked Engendrynge" , 

(HI, in, 59) Problems of Authenticity and Attribution 345 

MP, XXXV (1937-38), 325-33; Mildred Webster, "The Vocabulary of An 
Holy Medytacion", PQ, XVII (1938), 359-64. 

37 Coolidge Otis Chapman, "The Authorship of the Pearl", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 346-53- 

38 Fred L. Jones, "The Trial of Chivalry, a Chettle Play", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 304-24- 

39 Harold Jenkins, The Life and Work of Henry Chettle, pp. 255-60. 

40 Wilbur D. Dunkel, "The Authorship of Anything for a Quiet Life", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 793-99. 

41 Idem, "The Authorship of The Puritan", PMLA, XLV (1930), 804-8. 

42 Idem, "The Authorship of The Revenger's Tragedy", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 781-85. 

43 Idem, "Did Not Rowley Merely Revise Middleton?" PMLA, XLVIII 

d933), 799-805. 

44 Cyrus L. Day, "Thomas Randolph's Part in the Authorship of Hey 
for Honesty", PMLA, XLI (1926), 325-34. 

45 Idem, "Thomas Randolph and The Drinking Academy", PMLA, 
XLIII (1928), 800-9. 

46 G. C. Moore Smith, "The Drinking Academy and Its Attribution to 
Thomas Randolph", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 631-33. 

47 The Drinking Academy, ed. Hyder E. Rollins and Samuel A. Tan- 
nenbaum (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930). 

48 G. C. Moore Smith, review of Thomas Randolph, The Drinking 
Academy in RES, VI (1930), 476-83. 

49 Hyder E. Rollins, "Thomas Randolph, Robert Baron, and The Drink- 
ing Academy", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 786-801. 

50 Roswell G. Ham, "Dryden's Dedication for The Music of the Proph- 
etesse, 1691", PMLA, L (1935), 1065-75. 

$i Archie M. Bangs, "Mephistophiles in England; Or, The Confessions 
of a Prime Minister", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 200-19. 

52 Ibid., p. 210. 

5? Mendal G. Frampton, "Gilbert Pilkington Once More", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 622-35. 

54 Ernest Brennecke, Jr., "Shakespeare's Musical Collaboration with 
Morley", PMLA, LIV (1939), 139-44- 

55 John Cuyus Hodges, "The Ballad in Congreve's Love for Love", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 953-54- 

56 Rae Blanchard, "A Prologue and Epilogue for Nicholas Rowe's 
Tamerlane", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 772-76. 

57 Frances Winwar, "Dante Gabriel's or William Michael's?" PMLA, 

XLVIII (1933), 312-15. 

58 Robert H. Elias, "The First American Novel", AmLit, XII (1940- 
41), [4I91-34. 

59 Lewis P. Curtis, "Forged Letters of Laurence Sterne", PMLA, L 
(1935), 1076-1106. 

346 Methods of Research (III, m, 60) 

60 Ronald S. Crane, New Essays by Oliver Goldsmith, p. 98, n. i. 

61 Helen Pennock South, "The Question of Halsam' ", PMLA, L 

(i935), 362-71- 

62 Camb. Hist. Eng. Lit., II, 184, 190. 

63 Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, I, Ixix. 

64 Camb. Hist. Eng. Lit., V, 151-52. 

6$ Cfharles] Mfills] Gayley, Representative English Comedies, 3 vols. 
(New York and London: Macmillan, 1913-16), I, 401. 

66 Maxwell B. Gold, "Swift's Admission to Mrs. Whiteway Confirmed", 
PMLA, XLIX (1934), 964-65. 

67 Sidney L. Gulick, Jr., "Jonathan Swift's The Day of Judgment' ", 
PMLA,XLVIII (1933), 850-55- 

68 Myron F. Brightfield, "Lockhart's Quarterly Contributors", PMLA, 
LIX (1944)- 49I-5I2. 

69 John D. Kern, Elisabeth Schneider, and Irwin Griggs, "Lockhart to 
Croker on the Quarterly", PMLA, LX (1945), 175-98. 

70 Frederick L. Jones, "Hogg and The Necessity of Atheism", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 423-26. 

71 Kenneth Forward, " 'Libellous Attack' on De Quincey", PMLA, LII, 
(1937), 244-60. 

72 William Reitzel, "Sir Walter Scott's Review of Jan Austen's Emma", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 487-93. 

73 Walter Graham, "Scot and Mr. Reitzel", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 


74 William Reitzel, PMLA, XLIV (1929), 310. 

75 Charles Beecher Hogan, "Sir Walter Scott and Emma", PMLA, XLV, 
(1930), 1264-66. 

76 Kenneth Thorpe Rowe, "The Countess of Pembroke's Editorship of 
the Arcadia", PMLA, LIV (1939), 122-38; see also idem, "Elizabethan 
Morality and the Folio Revisions of Sidney's Arcadia", MP, XXXVII 
(i939)> 151-72. 

77 Charles A. Rouse, "Thomas Heywood and The Life and Death of 
Hector", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 151-72. 

78 Thomas F. Mayo, "The Authorship of The History of John Bull", 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 274-82. 

7p Richard J. Hooker, "John Dickinson on Church and State", AmLit, 
XVI (1944-45), [821-93. 

80 Erwin G. Gudde, "An American Version of Munchausen", AmLit, 
XIII (1941-42), [372]--90. 

81 For an application of the method advocated in the text see Chauncey 
Elwood Sanders, "Robert Greene and his 'Editors' ", PMLA, XLVI1I (1933), 
392-417; Harold Jenkins, "On the Authenticity of Greene's Groatsworth of 
Wit and The Repentance of Robert Greene", RES, XI (1935), 28-41, points 
out the weaknesses in the case set forth in that article but does not prove 
that the two works in question are all that they purport to be. 

Among other articles dealing with matters of attribution may be mentioned 

(III,iv,10) Problems of Source-Study 347 

Donald J. McGinn, "Nashe's Share in the Marprelate Controversy", PMLA, 
LIX (1944), 952-84; idem, "The Real Martin Marprelate", PMLA, LVIII 
(1943), 84-107; Ralph W. Derringer, "Thomas Campion's Share in A Booke 
of Ayres", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 938-48; Percy Simpson, "The Problem of 
Authorship of Eastward Ho", PMLA, LIX (1944), 715-25; Karl J. Arndt, 
"The Cooper-Sealsneld Exchange of Criticism". AmLit, XV (1943-44), [i8j- 
24; Ralph M. Wardle, "Who Was Morgan Odoherty?", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 
617-27; and Randolph C. Randall, "Authors of the Port Folio Revealed by 
the Hall Files", AmLit, XI (1939-40), [3791-416. Two articles dealing with 
authenticity are: Austin Wright, "The Veracity of Spence's Anecdotes", 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 123-29, and Sidney E. Lind, "Poe and Mesmerism", 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 1077-94. 

Chapter Four: Problems of Source-Study 

1 Robert W. Kenny, "Ralph's Case of Authors: Its Influence on Gold- 
smith and Isaac DTsraeli", PMLA, LII (1937), 104-13. 

2 Robert H. Wilson, "Reed and Warton on the Old Wives Tale", 
PMLA, LV (1940), 605-8. 

j H. CLhichester] Hart, "Robert Greene's Prose Works", Notes and 
Queries, loth Series, IV (1905), 1-5, 81-84, 162-64, 22 4- 2 7, 483-85; Roselle 
Gould Goree, "Concerning Repetitions in Greene's Romances", PQ, III 
(1924), 69-75; C. J. Vincent, "Further Repetitions in the Works of Robert 
Greene", PQ, XVIII (1939), 73~77- 

4 Cooper used, in The Two Admirals, material from his own The His- 
tory of the Navy of the United States of America, but added material from 
Lord Collingwood's Letters] see Richard H. Ballinger, "Origins of James 
Fenimore Cooper's The Two Admirals", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [2o]-3O. 
Whitman turned some of his own early prose into poetry; see Willie T. 
Weathers, "Whitman's Poetic Translations of His 1855 Preface", AmLit, XIX 
(1947-48), [211-40. 

5 Hyder E. Rollins, "Deloney's Sources for Euphuistic Learning", 
PMLA, L (1935), 413-22. 

6 J. M. Purcell, "Sidney's Astrophel and Stella and Greville's Ccelica", 
PMLA, L (1935)^ 413-22. 

7 Maurice Kelley, "Milton's Debt to Wolleb's Compendium Theologies 
Christiana", PMLA, L (1935), 156-65. 

8 Ibid., p. 165. 

p Miriam Gabriel and Paul Mueschke, "Two Contemporary Sources of 
Sheridan's The Rivals", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 249-50. 

10 Pierrepont H. Nichols, "William Dunbar as a Scottish Lydgatian", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 224. Other studies emphasizing the author's originality 
include W. K. Wimsatt. Jr., "Poe and the Chess Automaton", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [1381-51, and Charles Roberts Anderson, "The Genesis of Billy 
Budd", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [3291-46. 

348 Methods of Research (III, iv, 11) 

11 Roger Sherman Loomis, "The Visit to the Perilous Castle", PMLA y 
XLVIII (1933), 1000-35. 

12 Beatrice Daw Brown, "Exemplum Materials Underlying Macbeth". 
PMLA y L (1935), 700-14. 

jj Lee Monroe Ellison, "Elizabethan Drama and the Works of Smollett", 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 842-62. 

14 The influence of Wilkins and Ross upon Milton is brought out in 
Grant McColley, "Milton's Dialogue on Astronomy: The Principal Immediate 
Sources", PMLA, LII (1937), 128-62, and that of Servetus in Martin A. 
Larson, "Milton and Servetus: A Study in the Sources of Milton's Theology", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 891-934. The influence of John Norris upon James 
Thomson is discussed in Herbert Drennon, "James Thomson and John Nor- 
ris", PMLA, LIII (1938), 1094-1101; and that of Thomas Taylor on William 
Blake in Frederick Pierce, "Blake and Thomas Taylor", PMLA, XLIII 
(1928), 1121-41, and on Shelley in James A. Notopoulos, "Shelley and 
Thomas Taylor", PMLA, LI (1936), 502-17. Another study of this sort is 
Victor M. Hamm, "A Seventeenth-Century French Source for Kurd's Letters 
on Chivalry and Romance", PMLA, LII (1937), 820-28. 

15 Keith Huntress, "Melville's Use of a Source for White-Jacket", 
AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [661-74. 

16 Problems and Methods of Literary History, pp. 87-96. 

17 John Livingston Lowes, The Road to Xanadu. 

18 Ibid., p. 4, n. * 

ip Lucille King, "Text Sources of the Folio and Quarto Henry VI", 
PMLA, LI (1936), 702-18. 

20 Ibid., p. 718 

21 J. Burke Severs, "The Source of Chaucer's Melibeus", PMLA, L 
(1935), 92-99. 

22 Douglas Bush, "Notes on Marlowe's Hero and Leander", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 760-64. 

23 Rupert Taylor, "A Tentative Chronology of Marlowe's and Some 
Other Elizabethan Plays", PMLA, LI (1936), 643-88. 

24 Mary Matheson Wills, "Marlowe's Role in Borrowed Lines", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 902-5. 

25 Fred L. Jones, "The Trial of Chivalry, a Chettle Play", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 304-24- 

26 Harold Jenkins, The Life and Work of Henry Chettle, pp. 259-60. 

27 Douglas Bush, "Notes on Keats's Reading", PMLA, L (1935), 785- 

28 Alice Harmon, "How Great Was Shakespeare's Debt to Montaigne?", 
PMLA, LVII (1942), 988-1008. 

Other studies based on parallel passages include Keith Huntress, "Another 
Source for Poe's Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), 
[i9]-25 (see also D. M. McKeithan, "Two Sources of Poe's Narrative of 
Arthur Gordon Pym", University of Texas Bulletin, XIII (1933), 127-37, 
and J. 0. Bailey, "Sources for Poe's Arthur Gordon Pym, 'Hans Pfaal', and 

(Ill, iv, 46) Problems of Source-Study 348 

Other Pieces", PMLA, LVII (1942), 513-35); J- 0. Bailey, "Poe's 'Pal. 
aestine'", AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [441-58; Gladys Carmen Bellamy, "Mark 
Twain's Indebtedness to John Phoenix", AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [291-43; 
Paul G. Brewster, "Jurgen and Figures of Earth and the Russian Skazki", 
AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [3051-19-, and Clara Blackburn, "Continental In- 
fluences on Eugene O'Neill's Expressionistic Dramas", AmLit , XIII (1941- 
42), [1091-33. 

29 PMLA, XLV (1930), 169-79. 

30 David H. Greene, "The Shadow of the Glen and The Widow of 
Ephesus", PMLA, LXII (1947), 233-38. 

31 Proceedings of the British Academy, XII (1926), 98 ff. 

32 Marie Padgett Hamilton, "Notes on Chaucer and the Rhetoricians", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 403-9- 

33 Don Cameron Allen, "The Classical Scholarship of Francis Meres", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 418-25. 

34 J. Burke Severs, "Chaucer's Source MSS for the Clerkes Tale", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 431-52. 

35 Clyde K. Hyder, "Swinburne's Laus Veneris and the Tannhauser 
Legend", PMLA, XLV (1930), 1202-13. 

36 John C. Pope, "Prufrock and Raskolnikov", AmLit, XVII (1945- 
46), [2I3J-30. 

37 Idem, "Prufrock and Raskolnikov Again: A Letter from Eliot", 
AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [319.1-21. 

38 R. B. McKerrow, "A Note on 'Henry VI, Part II' and The Conten- 
tion of York and Lancaster'", RES, IX (1933), 157-69, and Lucille King, 
"2 and 3 Henry VI Which Holinshed?", PMLA, L (1935), 745-51- 

39 Problems and Methods of Literary History, pp. 96-127. 

40 D. T. Starnes, "Barnabe Riche's 'Sappho Duke of Mantua'", SP, 
XXX (1933), 455-72. 

41 Willard Thorp, "Redburn's Prosy Old Guidebook", PMLA, LIII 
(1938), 1146-56. 

42 Coolidge Otis Chapman, "Virgil and the Gawain-Poet" , PMLA, LX 
(1945), 16-23. 

43 John E. Hankins, "Spenser and the Revelation of St. John", PMLA, 
LX (1945), 364-81, and Dorothy F. Atkinson, "The Pastorella Episode in 
The Fane Queene", PMLA, LIX (1944), 361-72. 

44 Vincent Luciani, "Bacon and Guicciardini", PMLA, LXII (1947), 


45 Willie T. Weathers, "Edward Taylor, Hellenistic Puritan", AmLit, 

XVIII (1946-47), [i8|-26, and Nathalia Wright, "The Morality Tradition 
in the Poetry of Edward Taylor", AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [i]-i7. 

46 George E. Hastings, "How Cooper Became a Novelist", AmLit, XII 
(1940-41), [20 ]-5i, and Harold H. Scudder, "Cooper's The Cmter", AmLit, 

XIX (1947-48), [1091-26; see also Dorothy Dondore, "The Debt of Two 
Dyed-in-the-Wool Americans to Mrs. Grant's Memoirs: Cooper's Satanstoe 
and Paulding's The Dutchman's Fireside", AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [521-58. 

350 Methods of Research (III, iv, 47) 

47 J. D. Yohannan, "The Influence of Persian Poetry upon Emerson's 
Work", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [>5l-4X. 

48 Problems and Methods, pp. 101-2. 

49 Pauline Aiken, "Arcite's Illness and Vincent of Beauvais", PMLA, LI 

Raymond Jenkins, "The Sources of Drayton's Battaile of Agincourt", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 280-93. 

51 Mildred Gayler Christian, "Middleton's Acquaintance with the Merrie 
Conceited Jests of George Peele", PMLA, L (1935), 753-60. 

52 Lane Cooper, "Dr. Johnson on Oats and Other Grains", PMLA, LII 
(i937), 785-802. 

53 Charles B. Qualia, "French Dramatic Sources of Bulwer-Lytton's 
Richelieu", PMLA, XLII (1927), 177-84. 

54 Clyde K. Hyder, "Wilkie Collins and The Woman in White", PMLA, 
LIV (1939), 297-303. 

55 Perry D. Westbrook, "Horace's Influence on Shakespeare's Antony 
and Cleopatra", PMLA, LXII (1947), 392-98. 

56 Edgar Hill Duncan, "Jonson's Alchemist and the Literature of 
Alchemy", PMLA, LXI (1946), 699-710. 

57 Harold H. Scudder, "Cooper and the Barbary Co^st", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 784-92. 

58 John Robert Moore, "A New Source for Gulliver's Travels", SP, 
XXXVIII (1941), 66-80. 

59 Ralph L. Collins, "Moore's The Foundling An Intermediary", PQ, 
XVII (1938), 139-43- 

60 Carleton Brown, "Beowulf and the BUckling Homilies and Some 
Textual Notes", PMLA, LIII (1938), 905-16. 

61 James A. Work, "Echoes of the Anathema in Chaucer", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 419-30. 

62 Oliver Farrar Emerson, "Saint Ambrose and Chaucer's Life of St. 
Cecilia", PMLA, XLI (1926), 252-61. 

63 Roberta D. Cornelius, "Corones Two", PMLA, XLII (1927), 1055- 


64 Donald C. Dorian, "Milton's Epitaphium Damonis, Lines 181-97", 
PMLA, LIV (1939), 612-13. 

65 Wilbur Gaffney, "The Allegory of the Christ-Knight in Piers Plow- 
man", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 155-68. 

66 G. R. Owst, "The 'Angel' and the 'Goliardeys' of Langland's Pro- 
logue", MLR, XX (1925), 270-79. 

67 Clara W. Crane, "A Source for Spenser's Story of Timias and 
Belphoebe", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 635-44. 

68 Merrit Y. Hughes, "Virgillian Allegory and The Fane Queene," 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 696-705. 

60 Roland M. Smith, "Una and Duessa", PMLA, L (1935), 917-19. 
70 Israel James Kapstein, "Shelley and Cabanis", PMLA, LII (1937), 

(III,iv,93) Problems of Source-Study 351 

71 Henry B. Hinckley, "The Date, Author, and Sources of the Owl and 
the Nightingale", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 329-59. 

72 Albert C. Baugh, "A Source for the Middle English Romance, Athel- 
ston", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 377-82. 

7j Sanford Brown Meech, "Chaucer and the Ovide Moralise A Further 
Study", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 182-204. 

74 Coolidge Otis Chapman, "Chaucer on Preachers and Preaching", 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 178-85. 

75 John Livingston Lowes, "Moneta's Temple", PMLA, LI (1936), 

76 I. J. Kapstein, "The Symbolism of the Wind and the Leaves in 
Shelley's 'Ode to the West Wind' ", PMLA, LI (1936), 1069-79. 

77 Leicester Bradner, "The Growth of Wuthering Heights 9 ', PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 129-46. 

78 Clyde K. Hyder, "The Mediaeval Background of Swinburne's The 
Leper", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1280-88. 

79 Henry A. Pochmann, "Irving's German Tour and Its Influence on 
His Tales", PMLA, XLV (1930), 1150-87. 

80 H. Arlin Turner, "Hawthorne's Literary Borrowings", PMLA, LI 
(1936), 543-62. 

81 Robert Lee Wolff, "The Genesis of The Turn of the Screw' ", AmLit, 
XIII (1941-42), [iJ-8, and Francis X. Roellinger, Jr., "Psychical Research 
and The Turn of the Screw' ", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [4Oi]-23. 

82 Rosemond Tuve, "The Red Cross Knight and Mediaeval Demon 
Stories", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 714; the article covers pp. 706-14. 

83 Aurelien Digeon, "Autour de Fielding: I. Miss Fielding, son frere, et 
Richardson", Revue Germanique, XI (1920), 209-19. 

84 Roland M. Smith, "Spenser's Irish River Stories", PMLA, L (1935), 

85 Sara Ruth Watson, "Sidney at Bartholomew Fair", PMLA, LIII 
(1938), 125-28. 

86 "Equine Quartering in The Owl and the Nightingale", PMLA, LII 

(1937), 935-45- 

87 Ibid., p. 944. 

88 Charles Washburn Nichols, "Fielding's Satire on Pantomime", PMLA, 
XLVI (1931), 1107-12. 

89 Lewis Mansfield Knapp, "The Naval Scenes in Roderick Random", 
PMLA,XLIX (1934), 593-98. 

go Ruth C. Wallerstein, "Personal Experience in Rossetti's House of 
Life", PMLA, XLII (1927), 492-504. 

QI Nathalia Wright, "The East Tennessee Background of Sidney 
Lanier's Tiger- Lilies", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [1271-38. 

92 George Witter Sherman, "The Influence of London on The Dynasts", 
PMLA,LXIII (1948), 1017-28. 

03 Theodore Howard Banks, "Sidney's Astrophel and Stella Reconsid- 
ered", PMLA, L (1935), 412; the article begins on p. 403. 

352 Methods of Research (III, iv, 94) 

94 George Winchester Stone, Jr., "A Midsummer Night's Dream in the 
Hands of Garrick and Coleman", PMLA, LIV (1939), 467-82. 

95 Leicester Bradner, "The First English Novel: A Study of George 
Gascoigne's Adventures of Master F. J", PMLA, XLV (1930), 543-52. 

9 6 John W. Draper, " 'Honest lago' ", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 724-37- 

97 Nadine Page, "The Public Repudiation of Hero", PMLA, L (1935), 


98 John W. Draper, "Olivia's Household", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 806; 
the article begins on p. 797. 

99 Roy W. Battenhouse, "Measure for Measure and Christian Doctrine 
of the Atonement", PMLA, LXI (1946), 1029-59. 

100 See, for example, Fred Manning Smith, "The Relation of Coleridge's 
Ode on Dejection to Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality", 
PMLA, L (1935), 224-34. 

101 Leslie Spence, "Tamburlaine and Marlowe", PMLA, XLII (1927), 

102 Paul Mueschke and Jeannette Fleisher, "Jonsonian Elements in the 
Comic Underplot of Twelfth Night", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 722-40. 

joj Arthur H. Nethercot, "The Dramatic Background of Royall Tyler's 
The Contrast", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [435.1-46. 

104 Bertrand Evans, "Manfred's Remorse and Dnfmatic Tradition", 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 752-73. 

105 E. Wayne Marjarum, "Wordsworth's View of the State of Ireland", 
PMLA, IN (1940), 608-11. 

106 Eleanor Dickinson Blodgett, "Bacon's New Atlantis and Campanula's 
Civitatis Soils: A Study in Relationships", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 763-80. 

107 S. Foster Damon, "Milton and Marston", PMLA, XLII (1927), 


108 Daniel Morley McKeithan, "The Occasion of MacFlecknoe", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 766-71. 

109 John Harrington Smith, "Genesis of The Borderers", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 922-30. 

no Wayne Burns and Emerson Grant Sutcliffe, "Uncle Tom and Charles 
Reade", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [3331-47- 

in Efustace] M[andeville] W[etenhall] Tillyard, Milton (London: 
Chatto and Windus, 1946, and New York: Macmillan, 1947), p. 298. 

112 Wylie Sypher, "Chatterton's African Eclogues and the Deluge", 
PMLA, LIV (1939), 246-60. 

nj Wallace Cable Brown, "Prose Fiction and English Interest in the 
Near East, 1775-1825", PMLA, LIII (1938), 827-36. 

114 Charles B. Woods, "Notes on Three of Fielding's Plays", PMLA, LII 

(i937), 359-73- 
US Ibid., p. 360. 

116 Ibid., pp. 362-68. 

117 Ibid., p. 373. 

(HI, it;, 158; Problems of Source-Study 353 

118 Helen Sandison, "An Elizabethan Basis for a Hardy Tale?", PMLA, 
LIV (1939), 610-12. 

IIQ Gertrude Van Arsdale Ingalls, "Some Sources of Goldsmith's Shi 
Stoops to Conquer", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 565-68. 

120 Wayne Burns, "The Sheffield Flood: A Critical Study of Charles 
Reade's Fiction", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 686-95. 

121 Henry F. Pommer, "Herman Melville and the Wake of the Essex", 
AmLit,XX (1948-49), [290.1-304. 

122 Elisabeth Lee Buckingham, "Campion's Arte of English Poesie and 
Middleton's Chaste Maid in Cheapside", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 784-92. 

123 Francis P. Magoun, Jr., "The Source of Chaucer's Rime of Sir 
Thopas", PMLA, XLII (1927), 833-44; tne source suggested is the He d'Or 
episode in Libeaus Desconus. 

124 Thomas H. McNeal, "The Clerk's Tale as a Possible Source for 
Pandosto", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 453-60. 

125 Oscar James Campbell, "The Relation of Epicane to Aretino's // 
Marescalco", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 752-62. 

126 T. P. Harrison, Jr., "A Probable Source of Beaumont and Fletcher's 
Philaster", PMLA, XLI (1926), 294-303. 

127 C. R. Baskervill, "Sidney's Arcadia and The Tryall of Chevalry", 
MP, X (1912), 197-201, and Frederic L. Jones, "Another Source for The 
Trial of Chivalry", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 668-70. 

128 Joseph Toy Curtiss, "Butler's Sidrophel", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
1077-78; the article begins on p. 1066. 

129 Charles J. Hill, "Shenstone and Richard Graves's Cohtmella", PMLA, 
XLIX (1934), 566-76. 

i jo M. Ray Adams, "Joseph Fawcett and Wordsworth's Solitary", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 508-28. 

131 Paul Mueschke and Earl Leslie Griggs, "Wordsworth as the Prototype 
of the Poet in Shelley's Alastor", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 229-45, and Marcell 
Kessel, "The Poet in Shelley's Alastor", PMLA, LI (1936), 302-12. 

132 A. Lionel Stevenson, "Vanity Fair and Lady Morgan", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 547-51- 

133 Alfred A. Kern, "Hawthorne's Feathertop and R. L. R.", PMLA, LII 
(1937), 503-10. 

134 Hallett D. Smith, "A Woman Killed with Kindness", PMLA, LIII 
(1938), 138-47- 

135 Robert T. Fitzhugh, "Burns' Highland Mary", PMLA, LII (1937), 

136 Olin H. Moore, "Shakespeare's Deviations from Romeus and luliet", 
PMLA, LII (1937), 68-74. 

137 Beatrice Daw Brown, "Marlowe, Faustus, and Simon Magus". 
PMLA,IAV (1939), 82-121. 

138 M. F. Ashley Montagu, "Tyson's Orang-Outang, Sive Homo Sylves- 
tris", PMLA, LIX (1944), 84-89. 

354 Methods of Research (III, iv, 139) 

jjp Carlos Baker, "The Source-Book for Hudson's Green Mansions", 
PMLA,LXl (1946), 252-57. 

140 Roger Sherman Loomis, "Gawain, Gwri, and Chuchulinn", PMLA, 
XLIII (1928), 384-96. 

141 Robert W. Seitz, "The Irish Background of Goldsmith's Social and 
Political Thought", PMLA, LII (1937), 405-11. 

142 C. M. Webster, "The Satiric Background of the Attack on the 
Puritans in Swift's A Tale of a Tub", PMLA, L (1935), 210-23, and Clarence 
M. Webster, "Swift and Some Earlier Satirists of Puritan Enthusiasm", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), H4I-53. 

143 George Arms, "The Literary Background of Howells's Social Criti- 
cism", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [2601-76. 

144 Among these may be mentioned Edwin Greenlaw, "Spenser and 
Lucretius", SP, XVII (1920), 320-59; idem, "Some Old Religious Cults", 
SP, XX (1923), 216 ff.; idem, "Spenser's 'Mutabilitie'", PMLA, XLV 
(1930), 684-703; H. M. Belden, "Alanus de Insulis, Giles Fletcher, and the 
'Mutabilitie' Cantos", SP, XXVI (1929), 142-44; Ronald B. Levinson, 
"Spenser and Bruno", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 675-81; and Evelyn May 
Albright, "Spenser's Cosmic Philosophy and His Religion", PMLA, XLIV 
(1929), 7I5-59. 

14$ Constance Miriam Syford, "The Direct Source of the Pamela- 
Cecropia Episode in the Arcadia", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 472-89. 

146 Newton P. Stallknecht, "Wordsworth and Philosophy", PMLA, XLIV 
(1929), 116-43, a d idem, "Wordsworth's Ode to Duty and the Schb'ne Seele", 
PMLA, LII (1937), 230-37. 

147 Dorothy S. Bucks and Arthur H. Nethercot, "Ibsen and Herne's 
Margaret Fleming: A Study of the Early Ibsen Movement in America", 
AmLit, XVII (1945-46), |.3ii]-33. See also Arthur Hobson Quinn, "Ibsen 
and Herne Theory and Facts", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [i7i|"77 and 
Dorothy S. Bucks and Arthur H. Nethercot, "A Reply to Professor Quinn", 
ibid., pp. 177-80. 

148 Harold Colder, "Bunyan and Spenser", PMLA, XLV (1930), 237; 
the article begins on p. 216. 

149 Wilson C. Clough, "Henry Vaughan and the Hermetic Philosophy". 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 1108-30. 

750 Herbert Drennon, "Henry Needier and Shaftesbury", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 1095-1106. 

151 Grace Warren Landrum, "More Concerning Chapman's Homer and 
Keats", PMLA, XLII (1927), 986-1009. 

i $2 Hugh H. MacMullan, "The Satire of Walker's Vagabond on Rousseau 
and Godwin", PMLA, LII (1937), 215-29; see also above, n. 15. 

i$3 Wilbur Gaffney, "The Allegory of the Christ-Knight in Piers Plow- 
man", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 155-68. 

i$4 Benjamin S. Harrison, "Medieval Rhetoric in the Book o) the 
Duchess", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 428-42. 

(HI, iv, 166) Problems of Source-Study 355 

155 Gordon Hall Gerould, "The Gawain Poet and Dante: A Conjecture", 
PMLA, LI (1936), 31-36. 

156 William Ringler, "The Immediate Source of Euphuism", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 678-86. 

157 Ruth C. Wallerstein, "The Style of Drummond of Hawthornden in 
Its Relation to His Translations", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 1090-1107; this 
article speaks of indebtedness to Petrarch, Tasso, Marino, Sannazarro, and 
others. Herbert H. Umbach, "The Rhetoric of Donne's Sermons", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 354-58, traces Donne's style to Keckermann's Rhetorics Eccle- 
siastics and to Tertullian as well as to the King James Bible. A difference of 
opinion exists as to the reason for a change in Abraham Cowley's prose 
style; see Richard F. Jones, "Science and English Prose. Style in the Third 
Quarter of the Seventeenth Century", PMLA, XLV (1930), 977-1009; idem, 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 965-67; and Arthur H. Nethercot, "Concerning 
Cowley's Prose Style", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 962-65. 

158 David H. Greene, "Synge's Unfinished Deirdre", PMLA, LXIII 
(1948), 1314-21. 

159 F. DeWolfe Miller, "The Basis for Poe's The Island of the Fay' ", 
AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [1351-40- 

160 Margaret Farrand Thorp, "Shakespeare and the Fine Arts", PMLA, 
XLVI (1931), 672-93. 

161 John M. Manly, "Shakespeare Himself", Memorial Volume to Shake- 
speare and Harvey (Austin. Texas: University of Texas, 1916). 

162 Walter Dexter and J fames] W[illiam] T[homas] Ley, The Origin of 
Pickwick (London: Chapman and Hall, r j 936]). 

163 Robert Louis Stevenson, Works, South Seas edition (New York: Scrib- 
ner's, 1925), VI, xvi-xvii and xxvii-xxviii. 

164 J. Milton French, "Othello among the Anthropophagi", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 807-9. 

165 Claude Lloyd, "Shadwell and the Virtuosi", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 


166 Harold H. Scudder, "Thackeray and Sir Martin Archer Shee", PMLA, 
LXI (1946), 203-10. 

Additional examples of source study are: Dudley R. Johnson, " 'Homicide* 
in the Parson's Tale", PMLA, LVII (1942), 51-56; Marshall W. Stearns, 
"The Planet Portraits of Robert Henryson", PMLA, LIX (1944), 911-27; 
Robert H. Wilson, "The 'Fair Unknown' in Malory", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 
1-21; Elizabeth M. Nugent, "Sources of John Rastell's The Nature of the 
Four Elements' 1 , PMLA, LVII (1942), 74-88; Johnstone Parr, "More Sources 
of Rastell's Interlude of the Four Elements", PMLA, LX (1945), 48-58; G. J. 
Engelhardt, "The Relation of Sherry's Treatise of Schemes and Tropes to 
Wilson's Arte of Rhetorique", PMLA, LXII (1947), 76-82; D. T. Starnes, 
"Shakespeare and Apuleius", PMLA, LX (1945), 1021-50; Fred Manning 
Smith, "The Relation of Macbeth to Richard the Third", PMLA, LX (1945), 
1003-20; Raymond A. Houk, "Doctor Faustus and A Shrew", PMLA, LXII 

356 Methods of Research (III, v, 1) 

(1947), 950-57; Ralph H. Singleton, "Milton's Comus and the Comus of 
Erycius Puteanus", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 949-57; Gretchen Ludke Finney, 
"Chorus in Samson Agonistes", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 649-64; Samuel Kliger, 
"The 'Urbs /Eterna' in Paradise Regained", PMLA, LXI (1946), 474-91 ; John 
F. Moore, "The Originality of Rochester's Satyr Against Mankind", PMLA, 
LVIII (1943), 393-401; E. L. McAdam, Jr., "Johnson's Lives of Sarpi, Blake, 
and Drake", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 466-76; Winifred Lynskey, "Pluche and 
Derham, New Sources of Goldsmith", PMLA, LVII (1942), 435-45; William 
Palmer Hudson, "Archibald Alison and William Cullen Bryant", AmLit, XII 
(1940-41), (.591-68; W. K. Wimsatt, Jr., "What Poe Knew about Cryptog- 
raphy", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 754-79; Nathalia Wright, "Biblical Allusion in 
Melville'sProse", AmLit, XII (1940-41), |i85]-99; Lyndon Upson Pratt, 
"A Possible Source of The Red Badge of Courage", AmLit, XI (1939-40), 
[i]-io; and Russell K. Alspach, "Some Sources of Yeats's The Wanderings 
of Oisin", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 849-66. 

Chapter Five: Problems in Chronology 

1 Problems and Methods, p. 133. 

2 See McKerrow, Introduction to Bibliography, p. 101, n. i. 

j C. M. Briquet, Les Filigranes is the standard work on watermarks; 
see above, p. 12. 

4 John Carter and Graham Pollard, An Enquiry . . . Nineteenth 
Century Pamphlets, pp. 42-55. 

5 See McKerrow, Printers' and Publishers' Devices . . . 1485-1640, 


6 Leicester Bradner, "Henry Cheke's Freewyl", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 

7 E[velyn] M[ay] Albright, "Spenser's Reason for Rejecting the 
Cantos of Mutability", SP, XXV (1928), 93-127; idem, "On the Dating of 
Spenser's Mutability Cantos", SP, XXVI (1929), 482-98. 

8 Douglas Bush, "The Date of Spenser's Cantos of Mutability", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 954-57- 

o Lisle C. John, "The Date of the Marriage of Penelope Devereux", 
PMLA, XLIX (1934), 961-62. 

10 Ella T. Riske, "The Date and Occasion of Waller's Panegyric to My 
Lord Protector", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 1201-2. 

n John C. Hodges, "The Composition of Congreve's First Play", PMLA, 
LVIII (1943), 971-76. 

12 James F. Fullington, "The Dating of Shenstone's Letters", PMLA, 
XLVI (1931), .128-36. 

13 George W. Whiting, "A Pseudonymous Reply to Milton's Of Pre- 
latical Episcopacy", PMLA, LI (1936), 430-35. 

14 Haldeen Braddy, "The Two Petros in the 'Monkes Tale' ", PMLA, 
L (i935), 69-80. 

(HI,v,34) Problems in Chronology 357 

15 Leicester Bradner, "Henry Cheke's Freewyl", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 

16 Philip H. Gray, Jr., "Lenten Casts and the Nursery: Evidence for the 
Dating of Certain Restoration Plays", PMLA, LIII (1938), 781-94. 

17 Charles Eugene Ward, "The Dates of Two Dryden Plays", PMLA, 
LI (1936), 186-92. 

18 See Henry B. Hinckley, "The Date, Author, and Sources of the Owl 
and the Nightingale", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 329-59; Frederick Tupper, "The 
Date and Historical Background of The Owl and the Nightingale" PMLA, 
XLIX (1934), 406-27; and Kathryn Huganir, "Further Notes on the Date 
of The Owl and the Nightingale", Anglia, LXIII (1939), 113-34. 

19 Leicester Bradner, "Henry Cheke's Freewyl", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 

20 Minnie E. Wells, "The South English Legendary in Its Relation to the 
Legenda Aurea," PMLA, LI (1936), 337-60. 

21 Oscar Cargill, "The Date of the A-Text of Piers Ploughman", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 354-62; Bernard F. Huppe, "The A-Text of Piers Plowman 
and the Norman Wars", PMLA, LIV (1939), 37-64; and Eleanor H. Kellogg, 
"Bishop Brunton and the Fable of the Rats", PMLA, L (1935), 57-68. 

22 Sister Mary Aquinas Devlin, "The Chronology of Bishop Brunton's 
Sermons", PMLA, LI (1936), 300-2; a later article by the same author is 
"Bishop Thomas Brunton and His Sermons", Speculum, XIV (1939), 324-44. 

23 Mendal G. Frampton, "The Date of the Flourishing of the 'Wakefield 
Master' ", PMLA, L (1935), 631-60. 

24 William Nelson, "Skelton's Speak, Parrot", PMLA, LI (1936), 59-82. 

25 H. L. R. Edwards, "The Dating of Skelton's Later Poems", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 601-11; for a reply, rejoinder, and sur-rejoinder, see ibid., pp. 

26 See above, n. 19. 

27 William Cliff Martin, "The Date and Purpose of Spenser's Veue". 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 137-43- 

28 Garrett Mattingly, "The Date of Shakespeare's Sonnet CVII", PMLA. 
XLVIII (1933), 705-21; see also below, p. 363, n. 16. 

20. Donald J. McGinn, "A New Date for Antonio's Revenge", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 129-37. 

30 Louise Pound, "On the Dating of the English and Scottish Ballads", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 10-16. 

31 Albert H. Tolman, "Mary Hamilton: The Group Authorship of 
Ballads", PMLA, XLII (1927), 422-32. 

32 J. Milton French, "That Late Villain Milton", PMLA, LV (1940), 
102-15; see also Maurice Kelley, "Addendum: The Later Career of Daniel 
Skinner", PMLA, LV (1940), 116-18. 

33 Eleanor Grace Clark, "The York Plays and the Gospel of Nicho- 
demus", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 153-61. 

34 Rupert Taylor, "A Tentative Chronology of Marlowe's and Some 
Other Elizabethan Plays", PMLA, LI (1936), 643-88. 

358 Methods of Research (HI, v, 35) 

35 Mary Matheson Wills, "Marlowe's Role in Borrowed Lines", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 92-5- 

36 Raymond A. Houk, "Shakespeare's Shrew and Greene's Orlando", 
PMLA,LXII (1947), 657-71. 

37 John C. Hodges, "The Dating of Congreve's Letters", PMLA, LI 
(1936), 153-64. 

38 M. Channing Linthicum, "The Date of Cambyses", PMLA, XLIX 

(i934), 959-6i. 

39 Mendal G. Frampton, "The Date of the 4 Wakefield Master': Biblio- 
graphical Evidence", PMLA, LIII (1938), 86-117. 

40 John Harrington Smith, "The Date of Some Wakefield Borrowings 
from York", PLMA, LIII (1938), 595-600. 

41 Frederick M. Padelford, "The Cantos of Mutabilitie: Further Con- 
siderations Bearing on the Date", PMLA, XLV (1930), 704-11. 

42 J. M. Purcell, "The Date of Spenser's Mutabilitie Cantos", PMLA, L 
(1935), 917; the article begins on p. 914. 

43 Ibid., p. 917. 

44 Roland Bassett Botting, "The Composition of the Shepheardes Calen- 
der", PMLA, L (1935), 423-34. 

45 Mody C. Boatright, "Scott's Theory and Practice Concerning the Use 
of the Supernatural in Prose Fiction in Relation to the Chronology of the 
Waverley Novels", PMLA, L (1935), 235-61, and Robert* D. Mayo, "The 
Chronology of the Waverley Novels: The Evidence of the Manuscripts", 
PMLA, LXIII (1948), 935-49- 

Other studies in chronology include Johnstone Parr, "The Date and Revi- 
sion of Chaucer's Knitfit's Tale", PMLA, LX (1945), 307-24; Mendal G. 
Frampton, "The Processus Talentorum (Towneley XXIV)", PMLA, LIX 
(1944), 646-54; Emmett L. Avery and A. H. Scouten, "A Tentative Calendar 
of Daily Theatrical Performances in London, 1700-1701 to 1704-05", PMLA, 
LXIII (1948), 114-80; James A. Notopoulos, "The Dating of Shelley's 
Prose", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 477-98; Arthur Stuart Pitt, "The Sources, 
Significance, and Date of Franklin's 'An Arabian Tale' ", PMLA, LVII (1942), 
155-68; William B. Hamilton, "The Theater in the Old Southwest: The First 
Decade at Natchez", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [4711-85; Roger P. McCutch- 
eon, "The First English Plays in New Orleans", AmLit, XI (1939-40), [183]- 
99; and Carl F. Strauch, "The Background for Emerson's 'Boston Hymn'", 
AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [36]-47. 

Chapter Six: Problems of Success and Influence 

1 Clarence Gohdes, "The 1876 English Subscription for Whitman", 
MLN, L (1935), 252-58. 

2 Bernard M. Wagner, "New Allusions to A Game at Chesse", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 827-34. 

(HI, vi, 23) Problems of Success and Influence 359 

j Kenneth N. Cameron and Horst Frenz, "The Stage History of 
Shelley's The Cenci", PMLA, LX (1945), 1080-1105. 

4 Charles C. Bell, "A History of Fairfax Criticism", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 644-56. 

5 Austin Warren, "Crashaw's Reputation in the Nineteenth Century", 
PMLA,LI (1936), 769-85. 

6 Frederic T. Blanchard, Fielding the Novelist: A Study in Literary 
Reputation (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1926). 

7 Lee Elbert Holt, "Samuel Butler's Rise to Fame", PMLA, LVII 
(1942), 867-78. 

8 J. D. Jump, "Ruskin's Reputation in the Eighteen-Fif ties : The 
Evidence of the Three Principal Weeklies", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 678- 


g Walter Blair, "The Popularity of Nineteenth-Century American 
Humorists", AmLit, III (1931-32), [1751-84. 

10 Elmer B. Potter, "The Paradox of Congreve's Mourning Bride", 
PMLA, LVIII (1943), 977-1001. 

// Willard Thorp, " 'Grace Greenwood' Parodies Typee", AmLit, IX 
(1937-38), [4551-57. 

12 Erwin G. Gudde, "E. Th. A. Hoffmann's Reception in England", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 1005-10. 

13 Austin Warren, "To Mr. Pope: Epistles from America", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 61-73- 

14 Thomas P. Haviland, The Roman de Longue Haleine on English Soil 
(Philadelphia: privately printed, 1931); see also idem, "The Serpent in 
Milady's Library", University of Pennsylvania Library Chronicle, IV (1936), 

15 E. Preston Dargan, "Byron's Fame in France", Virginia Quarterly 
Review, II (1926), 530-41. 

16 Clarence Gohdes, "Longfellow and His Authorized British Publishers", 
PMLA,IM (1940), 1165-79. 

17 Harold Blodgett, "Walt Whitman in England", American Mercury, 
XVII (1929), 490-96. 

1 8 Charles Anderson, "Melville's English Debut", AmLit, XI (1939-40), 

19 George Sanderlin, "The Repute of Shakespeare's Sonnets in the Early 
Nineteenth Century", MLN, LIV (1939), 462-66. 

20 Charles E. Burch, "Notes on the Contemporary Popularity of Defoe's 
Review", PQ, XVI (1937), 210-13. 

21 Charles R. Anderson, "Contemporary American Opinions of Typee 
and Omoo", AmLit, IX (1937-38), [il-25. 

22 Hyder Edward Rollins, Keats' Reputation in America to 1848 (Cam- 
bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1946). 

23 Richard Clarence Harrison, "Walt Whitman and Shakespeare", 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1201-38. 

360 Methods of Research (HI, vi, 24) 

24 David Lee Clark, "Shelley and Shakespeare", PMLA, LIV (1939), 
287; the article extends from p. 261 to p. 287. See also Sara Ruth Watson, 
"Shelley and Shakespeare: An Addendum", PMLA, LV (1940), 612-13. 

25 Edith Peairs, "The Hound, the Bay Horse, and the Turtle-Dove: A 
Study of Thoreau and Voltaire", PMLA, LII (1937), 863-69. 

26 Earle Vonard Weller, "Keats and Mary Tighe", PMLA, XLII (1927), 

27 Merrit Y. Hughes, "Virgil and Spenser", University of California 
Publications in English, II (1929), 263-418. 

28 Afshley] H[orace] Thorndike, The Influence of Beaumont and 
Fletcher on Shakespeare (Worcester, Mass.: C. B. Wood, 1901). 

2Q Floyd Dell, "Keats' Debt to Robert Burton", Bookman, LXVII 
(1928), 13-17. 

30 H. E. Briggs, "Swift and Keats", PMLA, LXI (1946), noi-8. 

31 John F. Ross, "The Character of Poor Richard: Its Sources and 
Alteration", PMLA, LV (1940), 785-94. 

32 Thomas P. Haviland, "A Measure for the Early Freneau's Debt to 
Milton", PMLA, LV (1940), 1033-40. 

33 John Livingston Lowes, "The Witch of Atlas and Endymion", PMLA, 
LV (1940), 203-6. 

34 Hill Shine, "The Influence of Keats upon Rossetti", Englische 
Studien, LXI (1926-27), 183-210. 

35 Clarice Short, "William Morris and Keats", PMLA, LIX (1944), 


36 Wilmon Brewer, Shakespeare's Influence on Walter Scott (Boston: 
Cornhill, 1925). 

37 P. L. Carver, "The Influence of Maurice Morgann", RES, VI (1930), 

38 John Hawley Roberts, " 'Vision and Design' in Virginia Woolf ", 
PMLA, LXI (1946), 835-47. 

39 Vivienne Koch Macleod, "The Influence of Ibsen on Joyce", PMLA, 
LX (1945), 879-98- 

40 Joseph M. Beatty, Jr., "Churchill's Influence on Minor Eighteenth 
Century Satirists", PMLA, XLII (1927), 162-76. 

41 Jesse Sidney Goldstein, "Two Literary Radicals: Garland and Mark- 
ham in Chicago, 1893", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [i52]-6o. 

42 Rufus A. Coleman, "Trowbridge and Whitman", PMLA, LXIII 
(1948), 262-73. 

43 Norman L. Torrey, "Bolingbroke and Voltaire A Fictitious Influ- 
ence", PMLA, XLII (1927), 788-97. 

44 Edmund L. Freeman, "Bacon's Influence on John Hall", PMLA, XLII 

(1927), 385-99. 

45 Elizabetn Atkins, "Points of Contact between Byron and Socrates", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 402-23. 

46 John Brooks Moore, "Emerson on Wordsworth", PMLA, XLI (1926), 

(Ill, vi, 65) Problems of Success and Influence 361 

47 David Lee Clark, "Shelley and Bacon", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 
p. 546; the article begins on p. 529. 

48 Eleanor Sickels, "Shelley and Charles Brockden Brown", PMLA. 
XLV (1930), 1116-28. 

49 Albert Morton Turner, "A Study of Clough's Man Magno", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 569-89- 

50 Reuben Arthur Brower, "Dryden's Epic Manner and Virgil", PMLA, 
LV (1940), 119-38. 

51 John H. Wilson, "The Influence of Beaumont and Fletcher on 
Restoration Drama", Ohio State University Contributions in Language and 
Literature, No. 4 (1928). See also Donald J. Rulfs, "Beaumont and Fletcher 
on the London Stage 1776-1833", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 1245-64. 

52 Ralph M. Wardle, "Thomas Vaughan's Influence upon the Poetry of 
Henry Vaughan", PMLA, LI (1936), 936-52. 

5j A[lexanderJ C[orbin] Judson, "The Source of Henry Vaughan's Ideas 
Concerning God in Nature", SP, XXIV (1937), 529-606. 

54 Wayne Burns, "Pre-Raphaelitism in Charles Reade's Early Fiction", 
PMLA, LX (1945), 1149-64, and A. Dwight Culler, "Edward Bysshe and the 
Poet's Handbook", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 858-85. 

55 Pierrepont Herrick Nichols, "Lydgate's Influence on the Aureate 
Terms of the Scottish Chaucerians", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 516-22. 

56 Henry R. Fairclough, "The Influence of Virgil upon the Forms of 
English Verse", Classical Journal, XXVI (1930-31), 74-94. 

57 James R. Foster, "The Abbe Prevost and the English Novel", PMLA, 
XLII (1927), 443-64- 

58 R. W. Babcock, "The Mediaeval Setting of Chaucer's Monk's Tale", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 205-13. 

59 Grace Jameson, "Irish Poets of Today and Blake", PMLA, LIII 
(i938), 575-92. 

60 Ralph Hinsdale Goodale, "Schopenhauer and Pessimism in Nineteenth 
Century English Literature", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 260; the article covers 
pp. 241-61. 

61 James H. Warner, "The Reaction in Eighteenth-Century England to 
Rousseau's Two Discours", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 471-87. 

62 Ruth 0. Rose, "Poetic Hero- Worship in the Late Eighteenth Century", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 1182-1202. 

63 William P. Cummings, "The Influence of Ovid's Metamorphoses on 
Spenser's 'Mutabilitie' Cantos", SP, XXVIII (1931), 241-56. 

64 Richmond P. Bond, "-IAD: A Progeny of the Dunciad", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 1099-1105. 

65 William S. Clark, "The Sources of the Restoration Heroic Play", 
RES, IV (1928), 49-63; Kathleen M. Lynch, "Conventions of Platonic 
Drama in the Heroic Plays of Orrery and Dryden", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
456-71; William S. Clark, "The Platonic Element in the Restoration Heroic 
Play", PMLA, XLV (1930), 623-24; reply by Professor Lynch, ibid., pp. 

362 Methods of Research (III, vi, 66; 

66 C. H, Maynadier, "Ivanhoe and Its Literary Consequences", MLN t 
XLI (1926), 45-47. 

67 Charles Sears Baldwin, "Cicero on Parnassus", PMLA, XLII (1927), 

68 Robert Withington, " 'Vice' and 'Parasite'. A Note on the Evolution 
of the Elizabethan Villain", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 743~5i. 

69 Theodore Hornberger, "Painters and Paintings in the Writings of 
F. Hopkinson Smith", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [i]-io. 

70 Lieut. Cyrille Arnsvon, "Theodore Dreiser and Painting", AmLit, 
XVII (1945-46), [ii3]-26. 

71 Eleanor K. Hemingham, "Old English Precursors of The Worcester 
Fragments", PMLA, LV (1940), 291-307. 

72 Clark H. Slover, "Early Literary Channels between Britain and Ire- 
land", [University of Texas) Studies in English, No. 6 (1926), pp. 5-52; 
idem, "Early Literary Channels between Ireland and Britain", [University of 
Texas] Studies in English, No. 7 (1927), pp. 5-111; Arthur C. L. Brown, 
"The Irish Element in King Arthur and the Grail", Mediceval Studies in 
Memory of Gertrude Schoepperle Loomis (Paris: H. Champion, and New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1927), pp. 95-111. 

73 James H. Warner, "fimile in Eighteenth-Century England", PMLA, 
LIX (1944), 773-91- 

74 Stephen Leacock, "Homer and Humbug", in Behind the Beyond (New 
York: Dodd Mead, 1919), p. 189. 

Other treatments of success include Thomas P. Haviland, "Preciosite 
Crosses the Atlantic", PMLA, LIX (1944), 131-41; Dudley R. Hutcherson, 
"Poe's Reputation in England and America, 1850-1909", AmLit, XIV (1942- 
43), [2ii]-33; Joseph Remenyi, "Walt Whitman in Hungarian Literature", 
AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [i8i]-85; Arthur Lawrence Vogelback, "The Pub- 
lication and Reception of Huckleberry Finn in America", AmLit, XI (1939- 
40),! 2601-72; idem, "The Prince and the Pauper: A Study in Critical Stand- 
ards", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [481-54; David H. Dickason, "Stephen Crane 
and the Philistine^, AmLit, XV (1943-44), [2791-87; Clarence Gohdes, 
"British Interest in American Literature During the Latter Part of the Nine- 
teenth Century as Reflected by Mudie's Select Library", AmLit, XIII (1941- 
42), [3561-62; and Martin Staples Schockley, "The Reception of The Grapes 
of Wrath in Oklahoma", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [35i]-6i. 

Examples of studies in influence include Joshua H. Neumann, "Milton's 
Prose Vocabulary", PMLA, LX (1945), 102-20; Lyon N. Richardson, "What 
Rutherford B. Hayes Liked in Emerson", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [221-32; 
Dagmar Renshaw LeBreton, "Orestes Brownson's Visit to New Orleans in 
1855", AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [1101-14; Maurice Browning Cramer, 
"Browning's Literary Reputation at Oxford 1855-1859", PMLA, LVII (1942), 
232-40; and Lee Elbert Holt, U E. M. Forster and Samuel Butler", PMLA, 
LXI (1946), 804-19. 

(Ill, vii, 20) Problems of Interpretation 363 

Chapter Seven: Problems of Interpretation 

1 Tyrus Hillway, "Taji's Quest for Certainty", AmLit, XVIII (1946- 

47), [271-34- 

2 Gordon Hall Gerould, "The Social Status of Chaucer's Franklin", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 262-79. 

j Emma P. M. Dieckmann, "The Meaning of burdoun in Chaucer", 
UP, XXVI (1928-29), 279-82. 

4 Harbert Hartman, "Prince Hal's 'Shew of Zeale' ", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 720-23. 

5 Waldo H. Dunn, "Hamlet's 'Fatness' ", LTLS, May 26, 1927, p. 375. 

6 Hubert H. Hoeltje, "L'Allegro, Lines 53-55", PMLA, XLV (1930), 

7 Mallie J. Murphy, "The Rambler, No. 191", PMLA, L (1935), 

8 Kerby Neill, "Spenser's Acrasia and Mary Queen of Scots", PMLA, 
LX (1945), 682-88; Allan H. Gilbert, "Belphoebe's Misdeeming of Timias", 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 622-43. 

9 Paul E. McLane, "Spenser's Morrell and Thomalin", PMLA, LXII 

(i947), 936-49. 

10 Donald J. McGinn, "The Allegory of the 'Beare' and the Toxe' in 
Nashe's Pierce Penilesse", PMLA, LXI (1946), 431-53. 

11 Lloyd Douglas, " 'A Severe Animadversion on Bossu' ", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 690-706. 

12 Marion Clyde Wier, "Shelley's 'Alastor' Again", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 947-50, and Evan K. Gibson, "Alastor: A Reinterpretation", PMLA, 
LXII (1947), 1022-45. 

13 J. M. Ariail, "The Grammarian's Funeral' A Note", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 954-56. 

14 Theodore H. Banks, "Spenser's Rosalind: A Conjecture", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 335-39- 

75 Genevieve Crotty, "The Exeter Harrowing of Hell: A Re-Interpreta- 
tion", PMLA, LIV (1939), 349-58. 

16 Garrett Mattingly, "The Date of Shakespeare's Sonnet CVII", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 705-21 ; a number of contributions on the same subject were 
published in the "Correspondence" columns of the [London] Times Literary 
Supplement during the year 1933. 

17 E. P. Kuhl, "Malvolio's Tlease One, and Please All' ", PMLA, XLVII 
(1932), 903-4. 

18 B. Sprague Allen, "Tom Coryat and Juliet's 'Balcony' ", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 945-43. 

IQ Florence Teager, "Chaucer's Eagle and the Rhetorical Colors", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 410-18. 

20 Kemp Malone, "A Note on Beowulf 1231", MLN, XLI (1926), 

364 Methods of Research (III, vii, 21) 

21 Franz Montgomery, "A Note on the Reeve's Prologue", PQ, X 
(1931), 404-5- 

22 Alwin Thaler, "Queen Elizabeth and Benedick's 'Partridge Wing' ", 
MLN,XLI (1926), 527-29. 

23 W. Roy Mackenzie, "Standing Water", MLN, XLI (1926), 283-93. 

24 John W. Draper, "Shakespeare's 'Star-Crossed Lovers' ", RES, XV 
(1939), 16-34. 

25 Donald R. Roberts, "Miching Mallico", LTLS, April 18, 1936, p. 336. 

26 George M. Harper, "Milton's Two-Handed Engine' ", LTLS, June 
16, 1927, p. 424; Donald C. Dorian, "Milton's Two-Handed Engine'", 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 204-15; Donald A. Stauffer, "Milton's Two-Handed 
Engine'", MLR, XXXI (.936), 57-60; and Marian H. Studly, "That Two- 
Handed Engine", English Journal, College Edition, XXVI (1937), 148-51. 

27 George W. Whiting, "The Golden Compasses in Taradise Lost'", 
N & Q, CLXXII (1937), 294-95, and Grant McCollay, "Milton's Golden 
Compasses", N 6- Q, CLXXVI (1939), 97-98. 

28 Newell F. Ford, "The Meaning of 'Fellowship with Essence' in Endy- 
mion", PMLA, LXII (1947), 1061-76. 

29 Tyrus Hillway, "Taji's Abdication in Herman Melville's Mardi", 
AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [2041-7. 

30 Ichiye Hayawaka, "A Note on the Madmen's Scene in Webster's 
The Duchess of Malfi", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 907-9. * 

31 Theodore H. Banks, "The Banquet Scene in Paradise Regained", 
PMLA, LV (1940), 773~76. 

32 Kenneth Neill Cameron, "The Planet-Tempest Passage in Epipsychi- 
dion", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 950-72. 

33 Elisabeth Schneider, "The 'Dream' of Kubla Khan", PMLA, LX 
(1945), 784-801, and Charles S. Bouslog, "The Symbol of the Sod-Seat in 
Coleridge", PMLA, LX (1945), 802-10. 

34 A. H. Krappe, "Who Was the Green Knight?", Speculum, XIII 
(1938), 206-15. 

35 Paul L. Wiley, "The Phaeton Symbol in John Brown's Body", AmLit, 
XVII (1945-46), [23i]-42. 

36 R. E. Watters, "Melville's 'Isolatoes' ", PMLA, LX (1945), 1138-48. 

37 Louise Dauner, "The Pernicious Rib: E. A. Robinson's Concept of 
Feminine Character", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [i39]-58; see also idem, "Avon 
and Cavender: Two Children of the Night", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [55]-65. 

38 William Savage Johnson, "The 'Savior' in the Poetry of Robinson 
Jeffers", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [i59]~68. 

30 Arthur E. Du Bois, "The Unity of Beowulf", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 


40 Arthur Mizener, "Character and Action in the Case of Criseyde", 
PMLA,LIV (1939), 65-81. 

41 George Winchester Stone, Jr., "An Interpretation of the A-Text of 
Piers Plowman", PMLA, LIII (1938), 656-77, and Howard William Troyer, 
"Who Is Piers Plowman?", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 368-84. 

( HI, vii, 56) Problems of Interpretation 365 

42 S. A. Small, "The Political Import of the Norton Half of Gorboduc", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 641-46. 

43 Irving T. Richards, "The Meaning of Hamlet's Soliloquy", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 741-66, and Harold L. Walley, "Shakespeare's Conception of 
Hamlet", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 777-98. 

44 Dorothy Waples, "Suggestions for Interpreting The Marble Faun", 
AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [2241-39. 

45 Walter H. French, "The Meaning of Chaucer's Envoy to Scogan", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 289-92. 

46 Walter Clyde Curry, "Destiny in Chaucer's Troilus", PMLA, XLV 
(1930), 129-68. 

47 Elizabeth Nitchie, "The Moral of the Ancient Mariner Reconsidered", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 867-76; for the article to which this is a reply, see 
below, n. 65. 

48 George G. Williams, "Who Was 'Cenus' in the Poem To the Memory 
of Mr. Congrever\ PMLA, XLIV (1929), 495~5oo. 

49 Raymond Jenkins, "Drayton's Relation to the School of Donne, as 
Revealed in the Shepherd's Sirena", PMLA, XXXVIII (1923), 557-87; 
J. William Hebel, "Drayton's Sirena", PMLA, XXXIX (1924), 814-36; and 
Raymond Jenkins, "Drayton's Sirena Again", PMLA, XLII (1927), 129-39. 

50 Nelson Sherwin Bushnell, "Natural Supernaturalism in The Tempest", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 684-98, and Elmer Edgar Stoll, "The Tempest", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 699-726. 

51 Rosalie Feltenstein, "Melville's 'Benito Cereno' ", AmLit, XIX (1947- 
48), [2441-55. 

52 Charlotte Lefever, "Richardson's Paradoxical Success", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 856-60. 

53 John Arthos, "The Poetry of E. E. Cummings", AmLit, XIV (1942- 
43), [3721-90. 

54 William Nelson, "Skelton's Quarrel with Wolsey", PMLA, LI (1936), 

55 Claude L. Finney, "Keats's Philosophy", PQ, V (1926), 1-19; Royall 
Snow, "Heresy Concerning Keats", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 1142-49; Mary 
Evelyn Shipman, "Orthodoxy Concerning Keats", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
929-34; John Hawley Roberts, "Poetry of Sensation or of Thought?", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 1129-39; idem, "The Significance of Lamia", PMLA, L (1935), 
550-61; and James Ralston Caldwell, "The Meaning of Hyperion", PMLA, 
LI (1936), 1080-97. On Shelley, Raymond D. Havens, "Shelley's Alastor", 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 1098-1115; Paul Mueschke and Earl L. Griggs, "Words- 
worth as the Prototype of the Poet in Shelley's Alastor", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 229-45; Marcel Kessel, "The Poet in Shelley's Alastor: A Criticism 
and a Reply", PMLA, LI (1936), 302-12 (a rejoinder by Paul Mueschke and 
Earl L. Griggs is on pp. 310-12); and E. Wayne Marjarum, "The Symbolism 
of Shelley's 'To a Skylark' ", PMLA, LII (1937), 911-13. 

56 F. Barren Freeman, "The Enigma of Melville's 'Daniel Orme'", 
AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [208]-!!. 

366 Methods of Research (III, mi, 57) 

57 Frederic I. Carpenter, "The Values of Robinson Jeffers", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [353]-66. 

58 H. Willard Reninger, "Norris Explains The Octopus: A Correlation of 
His Theory and Practice", AmLit, XII (1940-41), |_2i8]-27. 

59 Kemp Malone, "Hrethric", PMLA, XLII (1927), 268-313. 

60 S. J. Herben, "Beowulf, Hrothgar, and Grendel", Archiv, CLXXIII 
(1938), 24-30. 

61 L. J. Mills, "The Meaning of Edward II", MP, XXXII (1934), 


62 Alexander Corbin Judson, "Spenser's Theory of Courtesy", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 122-36. 

63 Viola B. Hulbert, "A New Interpretation of Spenser's Muipotmos", 
SP, XXV (1931), 128-48; Josephine Waters Bennett, "Spenser's Garden of 
Adonis", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 46-80; Brents Stirling, "The Philosophy of 
Spenser's 'Garden of Adonis'", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 501-38; Isabel E. 
Rathborne, "Another Interpretation of Muipotmos", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 
1050-68; and Rudolf B. Gottfried, "Spenser's View and Essex", PMLA, LII 
(i937), 645-51. 

64 Albert W. Upton, "Allusions to James I and His Court in Marston's 
Fawn and Beaumont's Woman Hater", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1048-65. 

65 Newton P. Stallknecht, "The Moral of the Ancient farmer", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 559-69; for a reply to this article, see above, n. 47. 

66 Samuel Kliger, "Hebraic Lore in Maxwell Anderson's Winterset", 
AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [2i9]-32. 

67 Frederick Tupper, "The Date and Historical Background of The Owl 
and the Nightingale", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 406-27. 

68 Irene Pettit McKeehan, "Guillaume de Palerme", PMLA, XLI (1926), 

69 John M. Manly, "Sir Thopas: A Satire", Essays and Studies by Mem- 
bers of the English Association, XIII (1928), 52-73. 

70 Theodore W. Douglas, "What Is the Parlement of Foules?", MLN, 
XLIII (1929), 378-84; Haldeen Braddy, "The Parlement of Foules: A New 
Proposal", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1007-19; idem, "The Parlement of Foules 
in Its Relation to Contemporary Events", in Three Chaucer Studies (New 
York: Oxford University Press, 1932). Professor Manly 's review of the last- 
named work (RES, X (1934), 257-73) evoked a reply by the author (RES, 
XI (1935), 204-9) an< 3 a rejoinder by Professor Manly (RES, XI (1935), 

71 Oscar Cargill and Margaret Schlauch, "The Pearl and Its Jeweler", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 105-23. 

72 Oscar Cargill, "The Date of the A-Text of Piers Ploughman", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), '54-62. 

73 Bernard F. Huppe, "The A-Text of Piers Plowman and the Norman 
Wars", PMLA, LIV (1939), 37-6 4 . 

74 Nellie Slayton Aurner, "Sir Thomas MaloryHistorian?", PMLA r 
XLVIII (1933), 362-91- 

(Ill, vii, 95) Problems of Interpretation 367 

75 William Nelson, "Skelton's Speak, Parrot", PMLA, LI (1936), 59-82. 

76 C. W. Lemmi, "The Allegorical Meaning of Spenser's Muipotmos", 
PMLA,XLV (1930), 732-48. 

77 Emma Marshall Denkinger, "Spenser's Muipotmos Again", PMLA, 
XL VI (1931), 272-76; one of the points in this argument is based upon the 
assumption that the marriage of Penelope Devereux to Lord Riche took place 
in the spring of 1581. On this matter, see above, p. 200. Another reply to 
Mr. Lemmi 's article is Ernest A. Strathmann, "The Allegorical Meaning of 
Spenser's Muipotmos", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 940-45. 

78 J. M. Purcell, PMLA, XLVI (1931), 945~46. 

79 Raymond Jenkins, "Spenser: The Uncertain Years 1584-89", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 350-62. 

80 William Cliff Martin, "The Date and Purpose of Spenser's Veue," 

/>ML,4, XLVII (1932), 137-43- 

81 John W. Draper, "Classical Coinage in the Fcerie Queene", PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 97-108. 

82 Ruth Hudson, "Greene's James IV and Contemporary Allusions to 
Scotland", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 652-67. 

83 Dixon Wecter, "Shakespeare's Purpose in Timon of Athens", PMLA y 
XLIII (1928), 701-21. 

84 Michele De Filippis, "Milton and Manso: Cups or Books?", PMLA, 
LI (1936), 745-56. 

85 John Robert Moore, "Contemporary Satire in Otway's Venice Pre- 
served", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 166-81. 

86 John Stafford, "Patterns of Meaning in Nights with Uncle Remus", 
AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [8gJ-io8. 

87 Evelyn May Albright, "The Folio Version of Henry V in Relation to 
Shakespeare's Times", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 722-56. 

88 Greene, Works, ed. Grosart, III, 128-39; the source material is found 
on pp. 439-45 of the 1614. edition of Bowes' translation of Primaudaye. 

89 C. W. Lemmi, "The Allegorical Meaning of Spenser's Muipotmos", 
PMLA, XLV (1930), 732-48; the significance of this evidence was challenged 
by Ernest A. Strathmann (see above, n. 77), and Mr. Lemmi replied in 
"Astery's Transformation in Muipotmos", PMLA, L (1935), 913-14. 

go A. Philip McMahon, "Francis Bacon's Essay Of Beauty", PMLA, LX 
(1945), 716-59. 

91 Winfield H. Rogers, "The Significance of Fielding's Temple Beau", 
PMLA, LV (1940), 440-44. 

92 Harold E. Briggs, "Keats, Robertson, and That Most Hateful Land", 
PMLA, LIX (1944), 184-99. 

93 Donald Weeks, "Image and Idea in Yeats' The Second Coming", 
PMLA, LXIII (1948), 281-92. 

94 James R. Caldwell, "Dating a Spenser-Harvey Letter", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 568-74. 

9$ James H. Hewlett, "Interpreting a Spenser-Harvey Letter", PMLA, 
XLII (1927), 1060-65. 

368 Methods of Research (111, vii, 96) 

96 See above, n. 69, and Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, ed. J. M. Manly 
(New York: Holt, 1928), pp. 629 ff. 

97 William Witherle Lawrence, "Satire in Sir Thopas", PMLA, L (1935), 

98 Specimens of the Pre-Shaksperean Drama, ed. John Matthews Manly, 
2 vols. (Boston: Ginn, 1897), II, 53-54* 59~6o. 

99 O. F. Emerson, "The Punctuation of Beowulf and Literary Interpreta- 
tion", MP, XXIII (1926), 393-405. 

100 Joseph S. Graydon, "Defense of Criseyde", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
141-77; there is a reply to this article by J. Milton French, "A Defense of 
Troilus", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1246-51, and another by Joseph M. Beatty, 
"Mr. Graydon's Defense of Criseyde", SP, XXVI (1929), 470-81. 

101 Graydon, op. cit., pp. 156-57. 

102 Bertrand H. Bronson, "A Note on Gadshill, Our Setter", PMLA, XLV 
(1930), 749-53- 

103 Laura Hibbard Loomis, "Arthur's Round Table", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 771-84. 

104 M. Channing Linthicum, " 'My Jewish Gaberdine' ", PMLA, XLIII 
(1928), 757-66. 

10$ Pauline K. Angell, "Light on the Dark Lady : A Study of Some Eliza- 
bethan Libels", PMLA, LII (1937), 652-74; a reply to this article T. W. 
Baldwin, "Light on the Dark Lady", PMLA, LV (1940), 598-99 evoked 
further contributions (PMLA, LV (1940), 599-602). 

106 John Robert Moore, "The Contemporary Significance of Middleton's 
Game at Chesse", PMLA, L (1935), 761-68. 

707 Fredson T. Bowers, "Middleton's Fair Quarrel and the Duelling 
Code", JEGP, XXXVI (1937), 40-65. 

108 Brother Augustine Philip, "The Exeter Scribe and the Unity of the 
Crist", PMLA, LV (1940), 903-9. 

xop Haldeen Braddy, "Chaucer and Graunson: The Valentine Tradition", 
PMLA, LIV (1939), 359-68. 

, no Henry Willis Wells, "The Philosophy of Piers Plowman", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 339-49- 

in Maurice Kelley, "The Theological Dogma of Paradise Lost, III, 
173-202", PMLA, LII (1937), 75-79- 

112 G. R. Elliott, "Spectral Etching in the Poetry of Thomas Hardy", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 1185-95. 

jjj Evelyn May Albright, "Shakespeare's Richard II and the Essex Con- 
spiracy", PMLA, XLII (1927), 686-720; Ray Heffner, "Shakespeare, Hay- 
ward, and Essex", PMLA, XLV (1930), 754-80; Evelyn May Albright, 
"Shakespeare's Richard II, Hayward's History of Henry IV, and the Essex 
Conspiracy", PHLA, XLVI (1931), 694-719; Ray Heffner, "Shakespeare, 
Hay ward, and Essex Again", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 898-99; reply by Miss 
Albright, pp. 899-901. 

Among other studies in interpretation may be mentioned: Marie Padgett 
Hamilton, "The Religious Principle in Beowulf 19 , PMLA, LXI (1946), 309-30; 

(Ill, viii, 10) Problems in Technique 369 

Margaret Schlauch, "The Marital Dilemma in the Wife of Bath's Tale", 
PMLA, LXI (1946), 416-30; Allan H. Gilbert, "Spenserian Armor", PMLA. 
LVII (1942), 981-87; Jefferson B. Fletcher, "The Puritan Argument in 
Spenser", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 634-48; Mary K. Woodworth, "The Muta- 
bility Cantos and the Succession", PMLA, LIX (1944), 985-1002; W. W. 
Lawrence, "Hamlet and Fortinbras", PMLA, LXI (1946), 673-98; Ernest 
William Talbert, "The Interpretation of Jonson's Courtly Spectacles", 
PMLA, LXI (1946), 454-73; Howard J. Bell, Jr., "The Deserted Village and 
Goldsmith's Social Doctrines", PMLA, LIX (1944), 747-72; Kenneth Neill 
Cameron, "The Political Symbolism of Prometheus Unbound", PMLA, LVIII 
(1943), 728-53; Elmer Edgar Stoll, "Symbolism in Coleridge", PMLA, LXIII 
(1948), 214-33; J. O. Bailey, "An Early American Utopian Fiction", AmLit, 
XIV (1942-43), [2851-93; Edgar Hill Duncan, "Lowell's 'Battle of the 
Kettle and the Pot'", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [1271-38; Louise Dauner, 
"Myth and Humor in the Uncle Remus Fables", AmLit, XX (1948-49), 
[1291-43; and Genevieve W. Foster, "The Archetypal Imagery of T. S. 
Eliot", PMLA, LX (1945), 567-85- 

Chapter Eight: Problems in Technique 

1 Helene B. Bullock, "Thomas Middleton and the Fashion in Play- 
making", PMLA, XLII (1927), 766-76. 

2 Robert Ralston Cawley, "Sir Thomas Browne and His Reading", 
PMLA, XL VIII (1933), 426-70. 

3 John S. Diekhoff, "Critical Activity of the Poetical Mind: John 
Milton", PMLA, LV (1940), 748-72. 

4 Frank T. Thompson, "Emerson's Theory and Practice of Poetry", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 1170-84. Among other studies of the origin of a tech- 
nique might be mentioned "Weldon M. Williams, "The Genesis of John Old- 
ham's Satyrs upon the Jesuits", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 958-70, and Bard 
McNulty, "Milton's Influence on Wordsworth's Early Sonnets", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 745-51- 

5 Agnes K. Getty, "The Mediaeval-Modern Conflict in Chaucer's 
Poetry", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 385-402. 

6 Erma M. Gill, "The Plot-Structure of The Comedy of Errors in Rela- 
tion to Its Sources", [University of Texas] Studies in English, X (1930), 

7 Paul Mueschke and Jeannette Fleisher, "A Re-Evaluation of Van- 
brugh", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 848-89. 

8 Rudolf Kirk, "References to the Law in Piers the Plowman", PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 322-27. 

9 Roland Bassett Botting, "The Composition of the Shepheardes Calen- 
der", PMLA, L (1935), 423-34. 

10 Allison Gaw, "Is Shakespeare's Much Ado a Revised Earlier Play?", 
PMLA, L (1935), 715-38. 

370 Methods of Research (HI, viii, 11) 

11 Mody C. Boatright, "Scott's Theory and Practice Concerning the Use 
of the Supernatural in Prose Fiction in Relation to the Chronology of the 
Waverley Novels", PMLA, L (1935), 235-61; but see also Chapter V, n. 45. 

12 Karl Young, "Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde' as Romance", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 38-63. 

13 Robert A. Pratt, "Chaucer's Use of the Teseide", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 598-621. 

14 Freda L. Townsend, "Sidney and Ariosto", PMLA, LXI (1946), 

15 Daniel C. Boughner, "The Psychology of Memory in Spenser's Farie 
Queene", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 89-96. 

16 Helen Phipps Houck, "Mabbe's Paganization of the Celestina", 
PMLA,LIV (1939), 422-31. 

17 John William Ashton, "Conventional Material in Munday's John a 
Kent and John a Cumber", PMLA, XL1X (1934), 752-61. 

18 Janette Harrington, "Wordsworth's Descriptive Sketches and The 
Prelude, Book VI", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 1144-58, and Edward Niles 
Hooker, "Descriptive Sketches and The Prelude, Book VI", PMLA, XLV 
(1930), 619-23. 

19 Willard Thorp, "Redburn's Prosy Old Guidebook", PMLA, LIII 
(1938), 1146-56. 

20 Jared Wenger, "Character-Types of Scott, Balzac, Dickens, Zola", 
PMLA,LXll (1947), 213-32. 

21 Arthur E. Du Bois, "The Unity of Beowulf", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 

22 Henry W. Wells, "The Construction of Piers Plowman'', PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 123-40. 

23 Clark H. Slover, "Sire Degarre: A Study of a Mediaeval Hack 
Writer's Methods", [University of Texas] Studies in English, XI (1931), 6-23. 

24 Arthur M. Sampley, "Plot Structure in Peele's Plays as a Test of 
Authorship", PMLA, LI (1936), 689-701. 

25 Alwin Thaler, "The 'Lost Scenes' of Macbeth", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 


26 Edgar C. Knowlton, "The Plots of Ben Jonson", MLN, XLIV 
(1929), 77-86. 

27 Wilbur D. Dunkel, The Dramatic Technique of Thomas Middleton 
in His Comedies of London Life (Chicago: privately printed, 1925). 

28 Theodore Baird, "The Time-Scheme of Tristram Shandy and a 
Source", PMLA, LI (1936), 803-20. 

29 Rufus Putney, "The Plan of Peregrine Pickle", PMLA, LX (1945), 

30 Katherine F. Gleason, The Dramatic Art of Robert Browning (Bos- 
ton: privately printed [1927]). 

31 Emerson Grant Sutcliffe, "Plotting in Reade's Novels". PMLA, 
XLVII (1932), 834-63; idem, "Unique and Repeated Situations and Themes 
in Reade's Fiction", PMLA, LX (1945), 221-30. 

(Ill, viii, 51) Problems in Technique 371 

32 R. F. Blackmur, "The Craft of Herman Melville", Virginia Quarterly 
Review, XLV (1938), 266-82. 

33 Carl J. Weber, "Chronology in Hardy's Novels", PMLA, LIII (1938), 
314-20; John P. Emery, "Chronology in Hardy's Return of the Native", 
PMLA, LIV (1939), 618-19; reply by Mr. Weber, PMLA, LIV (1939), 620. 
See also Albert A. Murphree and Carl F. Strauch, "The Chronology of The 
Return of the Native", MLN, LIV (1939), 491-97. 

34 Carleton Brown, "The Evolution of the Canterbury 'Marriage 
Group' ", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 1041-59; idem, "Author's Revision in the 
Canterbury Tales", PMLA, LVII (1942), 29-50. 

35 George Wesley Whiting, "Conrad's Revision of Six of His Short 
Stories", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 552-57; idem, "Conrad's Revision of The 
Lighthouse' in Nostromo", PMLA, LII (1937), 1183-90. 

36 Phyllis Bartlett, "Chapman's Revisions in His Iliads", ELH, II (1935), 

37 Willa McClung Evans, "An Early Lovelace Text", PMLA, LX 
(1945), 382-85. 

38 Kerby Neill, "Structure and Symbol in Crashaw's Hymn in the 
Nativity", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 101-13. 

39 Tremaine McDowell, "Bryant's Practice in Composition and Re- 
vision", PMLA, LII (1937), 474-502. 

40 Leon T. Dickinson, "Mark Twain's Revisions in Writing The Inno< 
cents Abroad", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [i39]-57. 

41 Royal A. Gettmann, "Henry James's Revision of The American", 
AmLit, XVI (1944-45), [2791-95. 

42 Idem, "George Moore's Revisions of The Lake, The Wild Goose, and 
Esther Waters", PMLA, LIX (1944), 540-55. 

43 Theodore H. Banks, Jr., "Miltonic Rhythm; A Study of the Relation 
of the Full Stops to the Rhythm of Paradise Lost", PMLA, XLII (1927), 


44 John S. Diekhoff, "Rhyme in Paradise Lost", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 


45 R. W. Short, "The Metrical Theory and Practice of Thomas Cam- 
pion", PMLA, LIX (1944), 1003-18. 

46 Arnold Stein, "Donne's Prosody", PMLA, LIX (1944), 373-97. 

47 Louise Propst, An Analytical Study of Shelley's Versification (Iowa 
City: The University, [1932]), University of Iowa Humanistic Studies, 
Vol. V, No. 3. 

48 Elizabeth Jackson. "Notes on the Stanza of Rossetti's The Blessed 
Damozel'", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 1050-56. 

49 Kathryn Anderson McEuen, "Emerson's Rhymes", AmLit, XX 
(1948-49), [313-42. 

50 W. L. Werner. "Poe's Theories and Practice in Poetic Technique", 
AmLit, II (1930-31). [1561-65. 

57 Bruce Robert McElderry, Jr.. "Archaism and Innovation in Spenser's 
Poetic Diction", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 144-70. 

372 Methods of Research (III, viii, 52) 

52 Wilson C. Clough, "The Use of Color Words by Edgar Allen [sic] 
Poe", PMLA, XLV (1930), 598-613. A more extensive study of color in 
literature is Sigmund Skard, The Use of Color in Literature: A Survey of 
Research (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1946),' first pub- 
lished in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, XC (1946), 

53 Clough, op. cit., p. 613. 

54 Karl Litzenburg, "The Diction of William Morris: A Discussion of 
His Translations from the Old Norse with Particular Reference to His Pseudo- 
English Vocabulary, with Some Remarks on the Theory of Translating from 
the Old Norse", Arkiv for Nordisk Filologi, LIII (1938), 327-63. 

55 Helen Casey, "Synge's Use of the Anglo-Irish Idiom", English Jour- 
nal, College Edition, XXVII (1938), 773-76. 

56 Joseph Prescott, "James Joyce: A Study in Words", PMLA, LIV 

(i939), 304-15- 

57 John Boal Douds, "Donne's Technique of Dissonance", PMLA, LII 
(1937), 1051-61. Another study of metaphysical poetry is Alice Stayert 
Brandenburg, "The Dynamic Image in Metaphysical Poetry", PMLA, LVII 
(1942), 1039-45. 

58 Douds, op. cit., p. 1061. 

59 James Whaler, "The Miltonic Simile", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1034- 


60 Idem, "Animal Simile in Paradise Lost", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 


61 Lorena M. Gary, "Rich Colors and Ominous Shadows", South Atlantic 
Quarterly, XXXVII (1938), 41-45. 

62 Lois Ware, "Poetic Conventions in Leaves of Grass", SP, XXVI 
(1929), 47-57. 

63 Autrey Nell Wiley, "Reiterative Devices in Leaves of Grass", AmLit, 
I (1929-30), [i6i]-7o. 

64 C. C. Batchelor, "The Style of the Beowulf: A Study of the Com- 
position of the Poem", Speculum, XII (1937), 330-42. 

65 Germaine Dempster, Dramatic Irony in Chaucer, in Stanford Univer- 
sity Publications, University Series, Language and Literature, IV (1932), 
No. 3. 

66 Paull F. Baum, "Characterization in the 'Knight's Tale'", MLN, 
XLVI (1931), 302-4. 

67 A. C. Howell, "A Note on Ben Jonson's Literary Methods", SP, 
XXVIII (1931), 710-19. 

68 Daniel C. Boughner, "Notes on Hooker's Prose", RES, XV (1939), 

6p John S. Diekhoff, "The Punctuation of Comus", PMLA, LI (1936), 

70 Tom B. Haber, "The Chapter-Tags in the Waverley Novels", PMLA, 
XLV (1930), 1140-49. 

(7/Z, vlii, 91) Problems in Technique 373 

71 Richard Gordon Lillard, "Irony in Hardy and Conrad", PMLA, L 
(1935), 316-22. 

72 Phillip Shaw, "The Position of Thomas Dekker in Jacobean Prison 
Literature", PMLA, LXII (1947), 366-91. 

73 Herbert H. Umbach, "The Rhetoric of Donne's Sermon?", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 354-58. 

74 Arnold Stein, "Donne and the Couplet", PMLA, LVII (1942), 676- 

75 Wallace Cable Brown, "Gay's Mastery of the Heroic Couplet", 
PMLA, LXI (1946), 114-25. 

76 J. Milton French, "Milton as Satirist", PMLA, LI (1936), 414-29. 

77 Harold H. Watts, "Lytton's Theories of Prose Fiction", PMLA, L 
(i935), 274-89. 

78 Robert Price, "Mrs. Catherwood's Early Experiments with Critical 
Realism", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [i4o]~5i. 

79 Robert M. Estrich, "Chaucer's Maturing Art in the Prologues to the 
Legend of Good Women", JEGP, XXXVI (1937), 326-37. 

80 David H. Greene, "The Tinker's Wedding, A Revaluation", PMLA, 
LXII (1947), 824-27. 

81 Frederick Brache, "Understatement in Old English Poetry", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 915-34. 

82 Roger Sherman Loomis, "The Visit to the Perilous Castle: A Study 
of the Arthurian Modification of an Irish Theme", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 

83 Mary A. Hill, "Rhetorical Balance in Chaucer's Poetry", PMLA, 
XLII (1927), 845-61. 

84 Ola E. Winslow, Low Comedy as a Structural Element in English 
Drama from the Beginnings to 1642 (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Libraries, 1926). 

85 Robert Withington, "" 'Vice' and 'Parasite 1 . A Note on the Evolution 
of the Elizabethan Villain", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 743-51. 

86 Alwin Thaler, "Shakspere and the Unhappy Happy Ending", PMLA, 
XLII (1927), 736-61, and Samuel Asa Small, "The Ending of The Two Gen- 
tlemen of Verona", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 767-76. 

87 Kathleen M. Lynch, "Conventions of Platonic Drama in the Heroic 
Plays of Orrery and Dryden", PMLA, XLIV (1939), 456-71. 

88 Fletcher Collins, Jr., "Music in the Craft Cycles", PMLA, XLVII 
(1932), 613-21. 

89 Harvey Eagleson, "Costume in the Middle English Metrical Ro- 
mances", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 339-45. 

go Earle R Davis, "Dickens and the Evolution of Caricature", PMLA, 
LV (1940), 231-40. 

pi Alexander Brede, "Theories of Poetic Diction in Wordsworth and 
Others and in Contemporary Poetry", Papers of the Michigan Academy, XIV 
), 537-65. 

374 Methods of Research (HI, viii, 92) 

92 Houghton W. Taylor, " 'Particular Character': An Early Phase of a 
Literary Evolution", PMLA, LX (1945), 161-74. 

93 Carl J. Weber, "The Restoration of Hardy's Starved Goldfinch", 
PMLA, LV (1940), 617-19. 

94 Alan S. Downer, "Nature to Advantage Dressed: Eighteenth Century 
Acting", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 1002-37. 

95 A. E. Zucker, "The Genealogical Novel, A New Genre", PMLA, 
XLIII (1928), 551-60; other contributions to this discussilon are: Arthur 
Burkhard, "The Genealogical Novel in Scandinavia," PMLA, XLIV (1929), 
310-13; A. E. Zucker, "The Genealogical Novel Again", PMLA, XLIV 
(1929), 925-27; and Arthur Burkhard, "Thomas Mann's Indebtedness to 
Scandinavia", PMLA, XLV (1930), 615. 

96 Alan Reynolds Thompson, "Melodrama and Tragedy", PMLA, XLIII 
(1928), 810-35; there is a reply to this article by Clara F. Mclntyre, "The 
Word 'Universality' as Applied to Drama", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 927-29. 

97 Harold C. Binkley, "Essays and Letter-Writing", PMLA, XLI (1926), 

98 Louise Pound, "A Recent Theory of Ballad-Making", PMLA, XLIV 
(1929), 622-30; this article was prompted by Gordon Hall Gerould's "The 
Making of Ballads", MP, XXI (1923-24), 15-28. 

99 R. W. Babcock, "The Mediaeval Setting of Chaucer's Monk's Tale", 
PMLA,XLVl (1931), 205-13. 

100 Philip Schuyler Allen, The Romanesque Lyric. Studies in Its Back- 
ground and Development from Petronius to the Cambridge Songs (50-1050), 
with Renderings into English Verse by Howard Mum ford Jones (Chapel 
Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1928). 

/or Henry B. Hinckley, "The Framing Tale", MLN, XLIX (1934), 69-80. 

102 T. H. Vail Motter, The School Drama in England (London: Oxford 
University Press, and New York: Longmans, 1929). 

103 Charles Read Baskervill, The Elizabethan Jig and Related Song 
Drama (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, [1929]). 

104 Francis White Weitzmann, "Notes on the Elizabethan Elegie", PMLA, 

L (1935), 435-43- 

105 John Erskine, The Elizabethan Lyric (New York: Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, 1905). 

106 DeWitt Talmage Starnes, "Bilingual Dictionaries of Shakespeare's 
Day", PMLA, LII (1937), 1005-18. 

707 E. N. S. Thompson, The Seventeenth-Century English Essay, in 
University of Iowa Humanistic Studies, III (1926), No. 3. 

108 Robert Gale Noyes, "Conventions of Song in Restoration Tragedy", 
PMLA, LIII (1938), 162-88. 

70p Autrey Nell Wiley, "Female Prologues and Epilogues in English 
Plays", PMLA, XLyill (1933), 1060-79- 

770 Bertha Monica Stearns. "Early English Periodicals for Ladies (1700- 
1760)", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 38-6o. 

777 Marion K. Bragg, The Formal Eclogue in Eighteenth Century Eng- 

(Ill, viii, 127) Problems in Technique 375 

land, in University of Maine ^Studies, Second Series, No. 6 (1926); see also 
R. F. Jones, "Eclogue Types in English Poetry of the Eighteenth Century", 
JEGP, XXIV (1925), 33-60. 

112 Newell W. Sawyer, The Comedy of Manners from Sheridan to 
Maugham (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, and London: 
Milford and Oxford University Press, 1931). 

113 Ina Beth Sessions, "The Dramatic Monologue", PMLA, LXII (1947), 

114 Howard Mumford Jones, "Methods in Contemporary Biography", 
English Journal, College Edition, XXI (1932), 43-51, 113-22. 

115 Edmund Lester Pearson, Dime Novels; or, Following an Old Trail in 
Popular Literature (Boston: Little, Brown, and Toronto: McClelland and 
Stewart, 1929). 

116 Louis B. Wright, "Animal Actors on the English Stage before 1642", 
PMLA, XLII (1927), 656-69 

117 Richmond P. Bond, English Burlesque Poetry 1700-1750, in Harvard 
Studies in English, VI (1932). 

118 C. A. Moore, "Whig Panegyric Verse, 1700-1760", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 362-401. 

1 19 Robert M. Myers, "Neo-Classical Criticism of the Ode for Music", 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 399-421. 

120 John W. Draper, "The Metrical Tales in XVIII-Century England", 
PMLA, LII (1937), 390-97. 

/-2/ Richard C. Boys, "The Beginnings of the American Poetical Miscel- 
lany, 1714-1800", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [1271-39. 

122 Virginia Shull, "Clerical Drama in Lincoln Cathedral, 1318 to 1561", 
PMLA, LII (1937), 946-66. 

123 Irene Pettit McKeehan, "The Book of the Nativity of St. Cuthbert", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 981-99. 

124 C. O. Chapman, t( The Parson-s Tale: A Medieval Sermon", MLN, 
XLIII (1928), 229-34. 

725 F. G. Black, "The Technique of Letter Fiction in English from 1740 
to 1800", Harvard Studies and Notes in Philology and Literature, XV (1933), 

126 Wilmon Brewer, Sonnets and Sestinas (Boston: Cornhill Publishing 
Co., 1937). 

727 Among the many studies of the novel, or of fiction in general, may 
be mentioned Bliss Perry, A Study of Prose Fiction (Boston and New York: 
Houghton Mifflin, 1902); Clayton [Meeker] Hamilton, Materials and 
Methods of Fiction (New York: Baker and Taylor, 1908); Ernest Bernbaum. 
"The Views of the Great Critics on the Historical Novel", PMLA, XLI 
(1926), 424-41 ; Walter L. Myers, The Later Realism: A Study of Characteri- 
zation in the English Novel (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1927): 
Annie Russell Marble, A Study of the Modern Novel, British and American 
(New York and London: Appleton, 1928); Carl H. Grabo. The Technique of 
the Novel (New York: Scribner's. 1928); Walter L. Myers, "The Novel 

376 Methods of Research (III, viii, 128) 

Dedicate", Virginia Quarterly Review, VIII (1932), 410-18; Joseph W. 
Beach, The Twentieth Century Novel: Studies in Technique (New York and 
London: Century, iQ32 c ); Pelham Edgar, The Art of the Novel from 1700 
to the Present Time (New York: Macmillan, 1933); G[odfreyJ F[rank] 
Singer, The Epistolary Novel: Its Origin, Decline, and Residuary Influence 
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1933); John T. Frederick, 
"New Techniques in the Novel", English Journal, XXIV (1935), 355-63; 
Harlan H. Hatcher, Creating the Modern American Novel (New York: 
Farrar and Rinehart, 1935); Albert M. Turner, The Making of "The Cloister 
and the Hearth" (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1938); Percy Lub- 
bock, The Craft of Fiction (New York: Peter Smith, 1947), originally pub- 
lished in 1929; George Snell, The Shapers of American Fiction, 1798-1947 
(New York: E. P. Button, 1947); Alexander Cowie, The Rise of the Ameri- 
can Novel (New York: American Book Co., 1948), and Willa Cather, Willa 
Gather on Writing (New York: Knopf, 1949). 

128 E. J. MacEwan, Freytag's Technique of the Drama (Chicago: Scott 
Foresman, 1894) English translation of the 5th ed. of Gustav Freytag, Die 
Technik des Dramas (Leipzig, 1863); Cfharles] E[dwyn] Vaughan, Types of 
Tragic Drama (London: Macmillan, 1908); Clayton Hamilton, The Theory 
of the Theatre (New York: Henry Holt, 1910); George Pierce Baker, Dra- 
matic Technique (Boston: Small, Maynard, 1912); Ferdinand Brunetiere, 
The Law of the Drama (New York: Columbia University Press. 1914); 
Dorothy Kaucher, "Modern Dramatic Technique", University of Missouri 
Studies, III (1928), 1-183; MLuriel] CRaraJ Bradbrook, Themes and Con- 
ventions of Elizabethan Tragedy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
1936) ; and Moody E. Prior, The Language of Tragedy (New York: Columbia 
University Press, 1947). 

129 Lu Emily Pearson, "Isolable Lyrics of the Mystery Plays", ELH, III 
(1936), 228-52, and William D[arby] Templeman, "The Place of the Lyric 
in Elizabethan Drama before 1600", Western Reserve Studies, II, No. 2 
(1916), 28-36. 

Among other studies in technique may be mentioned Leonard F. Dean, 
"Literary Problems in More's Richard ///", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 22-41; 
Richard D. Altick, "Symphonic Imagery in Richard II", PMLA, LXII (1947), 
33Q-65; Robert Adger Law, "Richard the Third: A Study in Shakespeare's 
Composition", PMLA, LX (1945), 689-96; Phyllis Brooks Bartlett, "Stylistic 
Devices in Chapman's Iliads", PMLA, LVII (1942), 661-75; Johnstone 
Parr, "The Horoscope in Webster's The Duchess of Malfi", PMLA, LX 
(1945), 760-65; John S. Diekhoff, "The Function of the Prologues in 
Paradise Lost", PMLA, LVII (1942), 697-704; Richard H. Fogle, "Empathic 
Imagery in Keats and Shelley", PMLA, LXI (1946), 163-91; Carlisle Moore, 
"Carlyle's 'Diamond Necklace' and Poetic History", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 
537-57; Paul A. Cundiff, "The Clarity of Browning's Ring Metaphor", PMLA, 
LXIII (1948), 1276-82; J. C. Bailey, "Hardy's 'Mephistophelian Visitants' ", 
PMLA, LXI (1946), 1146-84; Roy P. Basler, "Abraham Lincoln's Rhetoric", 
AmLit, XI (1939-40), [i67J-82; R. W. Short, "The Sentence Structure of 

(HI, ix, 10) Problems in the History of Ideas 377 

Henry James", AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [7i]-38; and William M. Gibson, 
"Materials and Form in Howells's First Novels", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), 

Chapter Nine: Problems in the History of Ideas 

1 Matthew Arnold, Essays in Criticism (London: Macmillan, 1869), 
"The Function of Criticism at the Present Time", pp. 5 and 36. 

2 Arthur O. Lovejoy, "Reflections on the History of Ideas", Journal of 
the History of Ideas, I (1940), 3-23, and idem, The Great Chain of Being 
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1936), Introduction. 

3 James Phillips, Jr., The State in Shakespeare's Greek and Roman 
Plays (New York: Columbia University Press, 1942). 

4 L. C. Knights, Drama and Society in the Age of Jonson (London: 
Chatto and Windus, 1942). 

5 Malcolm Mackenzie Ross, "Elizabethan Society and Letters", Uni- 
versity of Toronto Quarterly, XII (1943), [2441-54. 

6 Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "Reflection on the History of Ideas", Journal of 
the History of Ideas, I (1940), 6. 

7 Emile Durkheim, The Rules of Sociological Method, 8th ed., tr. Sarah 
A. Solovay and John H. Mueller, ed. George E. G. Catlin (Chicago: Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, 1938). 

8 Charles A. Beard, "Written History as an Act of Faith", American 
Historical Review, XXXIX (1933-34), 219-31 ; The Idea of National Interest 
(New York: Macmillan, 1934); "That Noble Dream", American Historical 
Review, XLI (1935-36), 74-87; The Discussion of Human Affairs (New 
York: Macmillan, 1936); Economic Bases of Politics (New York: Knopf, 
1945), rev. ed., first published in 1922; and, in collaboration with Alfred 
Vagts, "Currents in Historiography", American Historical Review, XLII 
(1936-37), 460-83. 

Q Carl Lotus Becker, Every Man His Own Historian (New York: 
Crofts, 1935); "What Is Historiography?", American Historical Review, 
XLIV (1938-39), 20-28; Modern Democracy (New Haven: Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1941); New Liberties for Old (New Haven: Yale University 
Press, and London: Oxford University Press, 1941); The Declaration o] 
Independence: A Study in the History of Political Ideas (New York: Har- 
court Brace, 1922, and Knopf, 1942); Freedom and Responsibility in the 
American Way of Life (New York: Knopf, 1945); and Progress and Power 
(New York: Knopf, 1949), first published in 1936. 

10 Jacques Barzun, Race; a Study in Modern Superstition (New York: 
Harcourt Brace, 1937); Of Human Freedom (Boston: Little, Brown, 1939); 
Romanticism and the Modern Ego (Boston: Little, Brown, 1943); and, in 
collaboration with Hajo Holborn, Herbert Heaton, Dumas Malone, and 
George La Piana, The Interpretation of History, ed. Joseph R. Strayer 
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943). 

378 Methods of Research (III, ix, 11) 

11 Merle Eugene Curti, The Growth of American Thought (New York 
and London: Harper, [1943]); and The Roots of American Loyalty (New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1946). 

12 Bernard Smith, Forces in American Criticism (New York: Harcourt 
Brace, 1939)- 

1 3 Karl Mannheim, Rational and Irrational Elements in Contemporary 
Society (London: Oxford University Press, 1934); Ideology and Utopia 
(New York: Harcourt Brace, 1936); Man and Society in an Age of Recon- 
struction (New York: Harcourt Brace, [1940]); and Diagnosis of Our Time 
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1944). 

Mention should also be made of Howard Mumford Jones, Ideas in America 
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1944) and Arthur 0. Lovejoy, 
Essays in the History of Ideas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1948). 

14 Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "Reflections on the History of Ideas", JHL, 
I (1940), 7- 

15 Idem, "On the Discrimination of Romanticisms", PMLA, XXIX 
(1924), 229-53, and "The Meaning of Romanticism for the Historian of 
Ideas", Journal of the History of Ideas, II (1941), 257-78. Other discussions 
of romanticism include Frederick E. Pierce, "Romanticism and Other Isms", 
JEGP, XXVI (1927), 451-66, and John C. Blankengel, George R. Havens. 
Hoxie N. Fairchild, Kenneth McKenzie, F. Courtney Tarr, and Elizabeth 
Nitchie, "Romanticism: A Symposium", PMLA, LV (1940), 1-60; see also 
below, n. 17. 

1 6 Francis White Weitzmann, "Notes on the Elizabethan Elegie", PMLA, 

L (i935), 435-43- 

17 Arthur 0. Lovejoy, "Optimism and Romanticism", PMLA, XLII 
(1927), 921-45- 

18 Murray W. Bundy, Theory of Imagination (Urbana, Illinois: Uni- 
versity of Illinois, 1927); see also the next work following. 

19 Idem, " 'Invention' and 'Imagination' in the Renaissance", JEGP, 
XXIX (1930), 535-45; 

20 Solomon F. Gingerich, "The Conception of Beauty in the Works of 
Shelley, Keats, and Poe", Essays and Studies in English and Comparative 
Literature by Members of the English Department of the University of 
Michigan (1932), pp. 169-94. 

21 Joseph W. Beach, The Concept of Nature in Nineteenth-Century 
Poetry (New York: Macmillan, 1936). 

22 John W. Draper, "The Theory of the Comic in Eighteenth-Century 
England", JEGP, XXXVII (1938), 207-23. 

23 Alfred Owen Aldridge, "Shaftesbury and the Test of Truth", PMLA, 
LX (1945), 129-56. 

24 Normar Foerster, "Emerson on the Organic Principle in Art", PMLA, 
XLI (1926), 193-208. 

25 Arthur E. Du Bois, "The Cult of Beauty: A Study of John Mase- 
field", PMLA, XLV (1930), 1218-5?. 

(7/7, ix, 45) Problems in the History of Ideas 379 

26 Alfred Owen Aldridge, "Jonathan Edwards and William Godwin on 
Virtue", AmLit, XVIII (1946-47), [3o8]-i8. 

27 B. Sprague Allen, "The Dates of Sentimental and Its Derivatives", 
PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 303-7; another study of sentimentalism is Mildred 
Davis Doyle, Sentimentalism in American Periodicals 1741-1800 (New York: 
New York University, 1944). 

28 William E. Alderman, "Shaftesbury and the Doctrine of Moral Sense 
in the Eighteenth Century", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1087-94. 

2g C. R. Sanders, "Coleridge, F. D. Maurice, and the Distinction be- 
tween the Reason and the Understanding", PMLA, LI (1936), 459-75. 

30 Clarence DeWitt Thorpe, "Addison and Some of His Predecessors on 
'Novelty'", PMLA, LII (1937), 1114-29. 

31 Charles G. Smith, "Spenser's Theory of Friendship", PMLA, XLIX 
(1934), 490-500; see also idem, Spenser 9 s Theory of Friendship (Baltimore: 
Johns Hopkins Press, 1936). 

32 George C. Taylor, "Shakespeare's Attitude toward Love and Honor 
in Troilus and Cressida", PMLA, XLV (1930), 781-86. 

33 Elizabeth Geen, "The Concept of Grace in Wordsworth's Poetry", 
PMLA, LVIII (1943), 689-715. 

34 Floyd Stovall, "Shelley's Doctrine of Love", PMLA, XLV (1930), 


35 Elsa Chapin, "The Literary Interests of Sir Francis Bryan: A Study 
in Early Tudor Ideas", [University of Chicago] Abstracts of Theses, Human- 
istic Series, VIII (1932), 429-33. 

36 Alwin Thaler, "Shakespeare on Style, Imagination, and Poetry", 
PMLA, LIII (1938), 1019-36. 

37 Richard F. Jones, "Richard Mulcaster's View of the English Lan- 
guage", Washington University Studies, Humanistic Series, XIII (1926), 


38 Ernest A. Strathmann, "Sir Walter Ralegh on Natural Philosophy", 
MLQ, I (1940), 49-61. 

30 John Robert Moore, Daniel Defoe and Modern Economic Theory, in 
Indiana University Studies, No. 104 (1935 for 1934). 

40 F. M. Darnall, "Swift's Belief in Immortality", MLN, XLVII (1932), 

41 Rae Blanchard, "Richard Steele and the Status of Women", SP, 
XXVI (1929), 325-55. 

42 George R. Potter, "Mark Akenside, Prophet of Evolution", UP, 
XXIV (1927), 55-64. 

43 Lionel Stevenson, "Brooke's Universal Beauty and Modern Thought", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 198-209. 

44 Alan D. McKillop, "Mrs. Radcliffe on the Supernatural in Poetry", 
JEGP, XXI (1932), 352-59. 

45 Clarence DeWitt Thorpe, "Keats's Interest in Politics and World 
Affairs", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1228-45. 

380 Methods of Research (HI, ix, 46) 

46 Francis W. Palmer, "The Bearing of Science on the Thought of 
Arthur Hugh Clough", PMLA, LIX (1944), 212-25. 

47 Fred A. Dudley, "Matthew Arnold and Science", PMLA, LVII 
(1942), 275-94. 

48 Ruth C. Child, The ^Esthetic of Walter Pater (New York: Macmillan, 

4g William 0. Raymond, "Browning and Higher Criticism", PMLA, 
XLIV (1929), 590-621. 

50 David Williams, "More Light on Franklin's Religious Ideas", Ameri- 
can Historical Review, XLIII (1938), 803-13. 

$i Arthur I. Ladu, "Channing and Transcendentalism", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [i2g]-37. 

52 Idem, "The Political Ideas of Orestes A. Brownson", PQ, XII (1933), 

5j Clifton Joseph Furness, "Walt Whitman's Politics", American Mer- 
cury, XVI (1929), 459-66. 

$4 Edwin Mims, "The Social Philosophy of Ellen Glasgow", Journal of 
Social Forces, IV (1926), 495-503. 

55 T[homas] S [teams J Eliot, "The Humanism of Irving Babbitt", 
Forum, LXXX (1928), 37-44. 

$6 Philip A. Smith, "Bishop Hall, 'Our English Seneca^ ", PMLA, LXIII 
(1948), 1191-1204. 

57 Elbert N. S. Thompson, "The Philosophy of Thomas Traherne", PQ, 
VIII (1929), 97-112. 

58 Newton P. Stallknecht, "Wordsworth and Philosophy", PMLA, XLIV 
(1929), 1116-43; and idem, "Nature and Imagination in Wordsworth's Medi- 
tation upon Mt. Snowden", PMLA, LII (1937), 835-47. See also Melvin 
Rader, "The Transcendentalism of William Wordsworth", MP, XXVI (1928- 
29), 169-90. 

59 Robert P. Falk, "Thomas Paine: Deist or Quaker?", Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography, LXII (1938), 52-63. 

60 William Charvat, "Prescott's Political and Social Attitudes", AmLit, 
XIII (1941-42), [3201-30. 

61 Frederic I. Carpenter, "William James and Emerson", AmLit, XI 
(1939-40), [391-57- 

62 George J. Becker, "Albion W. Tourgee: Pioneer in Social Criticism", 
AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [593-72. 

63 Hyatt Howe Waggoner, "Hart Crane's Bridge to Cathay", AmLit, 
XVI (1944-45), [ii5]-30. 

64 Woodburn 0. Ross, "Concerning Dreiser's Mind", AmLit, XVIII 
(1946-47), [2331-43. 

65 Martin A. Larson, The Modernity of Milton (Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1927). 

66 William P. Dunn, Sir Thomas Browne: A Study in Religious Philoso- 
phy (Menasha, Wisconsin: privately printed, 1926). 

(Ill, fa, 89) Problems in the History of Ideas 381 

67 Clarence D. Thorpe, The Mind of John Keats (New York: Oxford 
University Press, 1926). 

68 Newton Arvin, Hawthorne (Boston: Little, Brown, 1926). 

69 Lewis Mumford, Herman Melville (New York: Literary Guild, 

70 Genevieve Taggard [Mrs. Robert L. Wolf), The Life and Mind of 
Emily Dickinson (New York and London: Knopf, 1930). 

71 Putnam Fennell Jones, "Milton and the Epic Subject from British 
History", PMLA, XLII (1927), 901-9. 

72 Richard Croom Beatty, "Criticism in Fielding's Narratives and His 
Estimate of Critics", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 1087-1100. 

73 Arthur L. Cooke, "Henry Fielding and the Writers of Heroic Ro- 
mance", PMLA, LXII (1947), 984-94. 

74 W. F. Gallaway, Jr., "The Sentimentalism of Goldsmith," PMLA, 
XLVIII (1933), 1167-81. 

75 Harold H. Watts, "Lytton's Theories of Prose Fiction", PMLA, L 
(1935), 274-89. 

76 Emerson Grant Sutcliffe, "Fcemina Vera in Charles Reade's Novels", 
PMLA, XLVI (1931), 126-79. 

77 Donald Smalley, "A Parleying with Aristophanes", PMLA, LV 
(1940), 823-38. 

78 Ruth C. Child, "Swinburne's Mature Standards of Criticism", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 870-79. 

79 Allan G. Halline, "Maxwell Anderson's Dramatic Theory", AmLit, 
XVI (1944-45), [631-81. 

80 Lane Cooper, "Coleridge, Wordsworth, and Mr. Lowes", PMLA, 
XLIII (1928), 582-92. 

81 Dixon Wecter, "Burke's Theory Concerning Words, Images, and Emo- 
tions", PMLA, LV (1940), 167-81. 

82 Ernest Marchand, "The Literary Opinions of Charles Brockden 
Brown", SP, XXXI (1934), 541-66. 

83 Charles Howell Foster, "Hawthorne's Literary Theory", PMLA, LVII 
(1942), 241-54. 

84 Robert P. Falk, "Critical Tendencies in Richard Grant White's 
Shakespeare Commentary", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [1441-54. 

85 Laurence Barrett, "Young Henry James, Critic", AmLit, XX (1948- 

49), [3851-400. 

86 Thomas M. Raysor, "Coleridge's Criticism of Wordsworth", PMLA, 
LIV (1939), 496-510. 

87 Harry Hayden Clark, "Lowell's Criticism of Romantic Literature", 
PMLA, XLI (1926), 209-28. 

88 Harry T. Baker, "Hazlitt as a Shakesperean Critic", PMLA, XLVII 
(1932), 191-99- 

89 William D. Templeman, "Thoreau, Moralist of the Picturesque", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 864-89; James G. Southworth, (< Thoreau, Moralist of 

382 Methods of Research (Ill,ix,90) 

the Picturesque", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 971-74: and Fred W. Lorch. 
"Thoreau and the Organic Principle in Poetry", PMLA, LIII (1938), 286- 

go Morris U. Schappes, "William Ernest Henley's Principles of Crit- 
icism", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1289-1301. 

01 Ruth C. Child, "Is Walter Pater an Impressionistic Critic?", PMLA, 
LIII (1938), 1172-85. 

Q2 Arthur Robinson, "Meredith's Literary Theory and Science: Realism 
Versus the Comic Spirit", PMLA, LIII (1938), 857-68. 

93 William D. Briggs, "Political Ideas in Sidney's Arcadia", SP, XXVIII 
(1931), 137-61; see also idem, "Sidney's Political Ideas", SP, XXIX (1932), 


94 T. C. Wedel, "On the Philosophical Background of Gulliver's 
Travels", SP, XXIII (1926), 434~5O. 

95 Olive B. White, "Richard Taverner's Interpretation of Erasmus in 
Proverbes or Adagies", PMLA, LIX (1944), 928-43. 

96 Hoxie N. Fairchild, "Hartley, Pistorius, and Coleridge", PMLA, LXII 
(1947), 1010-21. 

97 Hyatt Howe Waggoner, "T. S. Eliot and The Hollow Men", AmLit, 
XV (1943-44), [ioi]-26. 

98 Agnes K. Getty, "Chaucer's Changing Conceptions of the Humble 
Lover", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 202-16. 

99 Sister Eugenia, "Coleridge's Scheme of Pantisocracy and American 
Travel Accounts", PMLA, XLV (1930), 1069-84. 

100 J. V. Nash, "The Religious Evolution of Darwin", Open Court, XLII 
(1928), 449-63. 

101 Charles Child Walcutt, "The Three Stages of Theodore Dreiser's 
Naturalism", PMLA, LV (1940), 266-89. 

102 Ralph M. Wardle, "Mary Wollstonecraft, Analytical Reviewer/ 9 
PMLA, LXII (1947), 1000-9. 

103 Mildred Silver, "Emerson and the Idea of Progress", AmLit, XII 
(1940-41), ["i]-i9 and Marjory M. Moody, "The Evolution of Emerson as 
an Abolitionist", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [i]-2i. 

104 Adeline R. Tintner, "The Spoils of Henry James", PMLA, LXI 
(1946), 239-51. 

105 Daniel C. Boughner, "The Psychology of Memory in Spenser's F&rie 
Queene", PMLA, XLVII (1932) ; see also Louise C. Turner Forest, "A Caveat 
for Critics against Invoking Elizabethan Psychology", PMLA, LXI (1946), 


1 06 Laurens Joseph Mills, "The Friendship Theme in Orrery's Plays", 
PMLA,Ull (1938), 795-8o6. 

107 Dorothy Richardson, "Saintsbury and Art for Art's Sake in England", 
PMLA, LIX (1944), 243-60. 

108 Marjorie Nicolson, "Kepler, the Somnium, and John Donne", Journal 
of the History of Ideas, I (1940), 259-80. 

IOQ Otto F. Kranshaar, "Lotze's Influence on the Pragmatism and Prac- 

(Ill, ix, 126) Problems in the History of Ideas 383 

deal Philosophy of William James", Journal of the History of Ideas, I (1940), 
439-58; see also idem, "Lotze's Influence on the Psychology of William 
James", Psychological Review, XLIII (1936), 235-57; idem, "What James's 
Philosophical Orientation Owed to Lotze", Philosophical Review, XLVII 
( I 938), S 1 ?-^; and idem, "Lotze as a Factor in the Development of James's 
Radical Empiricism and Pluralism", Philosophical Review, XLVIII (1939), 


no Estelle Kaplan, Philosophy in the Poetry of Edwin Arlington Robin- 
son (New York: Columbia University Press, 1940). 

/// John S[mith] Harrison, Platonism in English Poetry of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries (New York: Columbia University Press and Mac- 
millan, and London: Macmillan, 1903). 

112 M. Ellwood Smith, "/Esop, a Decayed Celebrity", PMLA, XLVI 
(1931), 225-36. 

j/j Charles Sears Baldwin, Medieval Rhetoric and Poetic (to 1400) 
Interpreted from Representative Works (New York: Macmillan, 1928). 

114 John Livingston Lowes, Convention and Revolt in Poetry (Boston and 
New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1919). 

i/5 Laurens J[oseph] Mills, One Soul in Bodies Twain (Bloomington, 
Indiana: Principia Press, 1937). 

116 Ruth L. Anderson, Elizabethan Psychology and Shakespeare 1 s Plays, 
in University of Iowa Studies, Humanistic Series, III, No. 4 (1927). 

//7 Carroll Collier Moreland, "Ritson's Life of Robin Hood", PMLA, L 
(1935), 522-36. 

118 Paul Spencer Wood, "Native Elements in English Neo-Classicism", 
UP, XXIV (1926-27), 201-8. 

119 Raymond D. Havens, "Changing Taste in the Eighteenth Century: 
A Study of Dryden's and Dodsley's Miscellanies", PMLA, XLIV (1929), 

120 Hoxie N[eale] Fairchild, The Noble Savage: A Study in Romantic 
Naturalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1928). 

121 J. N. Vedder, "The Nature of Romanticism", Faculty Papers of 
Union College, I (1930), 95-114. 

122 Eleanor M. Sickels, The Gloomy Egotist: Moods and Themes of 
Melancholy from Gray to Keats (New York: Columbia University Press, 

12 j Ernest S. Bates, "Mad Shelley: A Study in the Origins of English 
Romanticism", Fred Newton Scott Papers (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, and London: Cambridge University Press, 1929), pp. 117-40. 

124 Edward E. Cassady, "Muckraking in the Gilded Age", AmLit, XIII 
(1941-42), [1341-41. 

125 Notley S. Maddox, "Literary Nationalism in Putnam's Magazine, 
1853-1857", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [1171-25. 

126 Robert E. Streeter, "Association Psychology and Literary Nationalism 
in the North American Review, 1815-1825", AmLit, XVII (1945-46), [243]- 

384 Methods of Research (///, ix, 127) 

127 Robert D. Williams, "Antiquarian Interest in Elizabethan Drama 
before Lamb", PMLA, LIII (1938), 434-44. 

128 Wallace Cable Brown, "Prose Fiction and English Interest in the 
Near East, 1775-1825", PMLA, LIII (1938), 827-36. 

I2Q Joseph Bunn Heidler, The History, from 1700 to 1800, of English 
Criticism of Prose Fiction, in University of Illinois Studies in Language and 
Literature, XIII (1928). 

130 George G. Williams, "The Beginnings of Nature Poetry in the Eight- 
eenth Century", SP, XXVII (1930), 583-608. 

131 Elizabeth Cox Wright, "Continuity in XV Century English Human- 
ism", PMLA, LI (1936), 370-76, and W. Gordon Zeeveld, "Richard Morison, 
Official Apologist for Henry VIII", PMLA, LV (1940), 406-25. 

132 Ralph Hinsdale Goodale, "Schopenhauer and Pessimism in Nineteenth 
Century English Literature", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 241-61. 

133 Arthur 0. Lovejoy and George Boas, Primitivism and Related Ideas 
in Antiquity, Vol. I of A Documentary History of Primitivism and Related 
Ideas, eds. Arthur 0. Lovejoy, Gilbert Chinard, George Boas, and Ronald S. 
Crane (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1935- ). 

134 George Williamson, "The Restoration Revolt against Enthusiasm", 
SP, XXX (1933)* 571-630; see also below, n. 143. 

/J5 William E. Alderman, "Shaftesbury and the Doctrine of Optimism 
in the Eighteenth Century", Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy, XXVIII 
(1933), 297-305. 

136 William Haller, The Rise of Puritanism (New York: Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, 1938). 

^37 C[hauncey] Bfrewster] Tinker, Nature's Simple Plan (Princeton: 
Princeton University Press, 1922). 

138 Lynn Thorndike, "The Survival of Medieval Intellectual Interest into 
Early Modern Times", Speculum, II (1927), 147-59. 

139 Lester Kruger Born, "The Perfect Prince: A Study in Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth Century Ideals", Speculum, III (1928), 470-504. 

140 C. H. Haskins, "The Spread of Ideas in the Middle Ages", Speculum, 
I (1926), 19-30. 

141 Louis B. Wright, "The Renaissance Middle-Class Concern over 
Learning", PQ, IX (1931), 273-96. 

142 Idem, Middle-Class Culture in Elizabethan England (Chapel Hill, 
N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1925). 

143 Clarence M. Webster. "Swift and Some Earlier Satirists of Puritan 
Enthusiasm", PMLA, XLVIII (1933), 1141-53. 

144 W. F. Gallaway, Jr., "The Conservative Attitude toward Fiction, 
1770-1830", PMLA, LV (1940), 1041-59. 

145 C[hauncey] B[rewster] Tinker, The Salon and English Letters (New 
York: Macmillan, 1915). 

146 G. Harrison Orians, "Censure of Fiction in American Romances an'* 
Magazines 1789-1810", PMLA, LII (1937), 195-214. 

(///, ix, 164) Problems in the History of Ideas 385 

147 William C. Frierson, "The English Controversy over Realism in Fic- 
tion, 1885-1895", PMLA, XLIII (1928), 533-50. 

148 Clarence Decker, "Victorian Comment on Russian Realism", PMLA, 
LII (1937), 542-49- 

149 William C. Frierson and Herbert Edwards, "Impact of French Natu- 
ralism on American Critical Opinion 1877-1892", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 

150 Clyde K. Hyder, "The Medieval Background of Swinburne's The 
Leper", PMLA, XLVI (1931), 1280-88. 

151 Erika von Erhardt-Siebold, "Harmony of the Senses in English, 
German, and French Romanticism", PMLA, XLVII (1932), 577-92. 

152 Louis I. Bredvold, "The Tendency toward Platonism in Neo-Classical 
Esthetics", RLE, I (1934), 91-119. 

/5j Raymond D. Havens, "Changing Taste in the Eighteenth Century". 
PMLA, XLIV (1929), 501-36; Edward Niles Hooker, "The Discussion of 
Taste, from 1750 to 1770, and the New Trends in Literary Criticism", PMLA, 
XLIX (1934), 577-92; and R. W. Babcock, "The Idea of Taste in the 
Eighteenth Century", PMLA, L (1935), 922-26. 

154 Clarence R. Decker. "The /Esthetic Revolt against Naturalism in Vic- 
torian Criticism", PMLA, LIII (1938), 844-56. 

755 Frederic E. Faverty, "Legends of Joseph in Old and Middle English", 
PMLA, XLIII (1928), 79-104. 

156 Roscoe E. Parker, "The Reputation of Herod in Early English Litera- 
ture", Speculum, VIII (1933), 59-67. 

757 M. Channing Linthicum, " 'Something Browner than JudasV ", 
PMLA, XLVII (1932), 905-7. 

158 William G. Bowling, "The Wild Prince Hal in Legend and Literature", 
Washington University Studies, Humanistic Series, XIII (1926), 205-34, and 
D. T. Starnes, "More about the Prince Hal Legend", PQ, XV (1936), 358-66. 

159 Beatrice Daw Brown, "Medieval Prototypes of Lorenzo and Jessica", 
MLN, XLIV (1929), 227-32. 

1 60 Archibald A. Hill, "Diomede: The Traditional Development of a 
Character", Essays and Studies in English and Comparative Literature by 
Members of the English Department of the University of Michigan (1932), 
pp. 1-25. 

161 Allen H. Godbey, "The Devil in Legend and Literature", Open Court, 
XLVII (1933), 385-97. 

162 Robert Withington, "The Development of the Vice", Essays in Mem- 
ory of Barrett Wendell (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1926), 
pp. 153-67; idem, "The Ancestry of the 'Vice' ", Speculum, VII (1932), 525- 
29; see also the note following. 

163 Idem, " 'Vice' and 'Parasite'. A Note on the Evolution of the Eliza- 
bethan Villain", PMLA, XLIX (1934), 743-51. 

164 Louis Bfernard] Salomon, The Rebellious Lover in English Poetry 
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1931); also published with- 

386 Methods of Research (HI, ix, 165) 

out notes as Devil Take Her (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 

165 Ruth Kelso, The Institution of the Gentleman in English Literature 
of the Sixteenth Century: A Study in Renaissance Ideals (Urbana, Illinois: 
University of Illinois Press, 1929). 

166 Ezra Kempton Maxfield, "The Quakers in English Stage Plays before 
1800", PMLA, XLV (1930), 256-73, and John Wilson Bowyer, "Quakers on 
the English Stage", PMLA, XLV (1930), 957-58. 

167 John Harrington Smith, "Tony Lumpkin and the Country Booby 
Type in Antecedent English Comedy", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 1038-49. 

168 Helaine Newstead, "The Besieged Ladies in Arthurian Romance", 
PMLA, LXIII (1948), 803-30. 

169 Harold F. Watson, The Sailor in English Fiction and Drama 1550- 
1800 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1931). 

170 John E. Hankins, "Caliban the Bestial Man", PMLA, LXII (1947), 

/// Kenneth C. Slagle, The English Country Squire as Depicted in English 
Prose Fiction from 1740 to 1800 (Philadelphia: privately printed, 1938). 

172 Robert L. Shurter, "The Utopian Novel in America", South Atlantic 
Quarterly, XXXIV (1935), 137-44; a more recent study of Utopian fiction is 
J. O. Bailey, Pilgrims through Time and Space (New York: Argus Books, 


173 Phillips D. Carleton, "The Indian Captivity", AmLit, XV (1943-44), 
[1691-80, and Roy Harvey Pearce, "The Significances of the Captivity Nar- 
rative", AmLit, XIX (1947-48), [~i]-20. 

174 Arnold M. Rose, The Negro's Morale: Group Identification and 
Protest (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949). 

175 Ina Corinne Brown, The Story of the American Negro (New York: 
Friendship Press, 1950), rev. ed.; first published in 1936. 

176 Idem, Race Relations in a Democracy (New York: Harper, 1949). 

177 Bliss Perry, The American Mind (Boston and New York: Houghton 
Mifflin, 1912). 

178 Henry Steele Commager, The American Mind (New Haven: Yale 
University Press, 1950). 

179 Vernon Louis Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (New 
York: Harcourt Brace, 1927-30), 3 vols. 

1 80 Oscar Cargill, Intellectual America: Ideas on the March (New York: 
Macmillan, 1941). 

181 Van Wyck Brooks, Literature in New England: The Flowering of 
New England 1815-1865; New England: Indian Summer 1865-1915 (Garden 
City, N. Y.: Garden City Publishing Co., [1944]); the first of these two 
works was published in 1936, the second in 1940. 

182 Wesley Frank Craven, The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth 
Century, 1607-1689 (Baton Rouge, La.: Louisiana State University Press 
and the Littlefield Fund for Southern History of the University of Texas, 
1949) ; this is Vol. I of A History of the South, eds. Wendell Holmes Stephen- 

(Ill, ix, 201) Problems in the History of Ideas 387 

son and E. Merton Coulter, to be complete in ten volumes, of which four 
volumes have thus far been published. 

183 Hardin Craig, The Enchanted Glass: The Elizabethan Mind in Litera- 
ture (New York: Oxford University Press, 1936). 

184 Perry Miller, The New England Mind: The Seventeenth Century 
(New York: Macmillan, 1939). 

185 Roy Franklin Nichols, The Disruption of American Democracy (New 
York: Macmillan, 1948). 

186 Evarts Boutell Greene, The Revolutionary Generation, 1763-1790 
(New York: Macmillan, 1943) ; this is Vol. IV of A History of American Life, 
eds. Arthur M. Schlesinger and Dixon Ryan Fox (New York: Macmillan, 
I 9 2 7~ )) f which thirteen volumes have been published. 

187 William Charvat, The Origins of American Critical Thought, 1810- 
*835 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, and London: Milford 
and Oxford University Press, 1936). 

1 88 Norman Foerster, American Criticism: A Study in Literary Theory 
from Poe to the Present (Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1928). 

i8g Raymond G[arfield] Gettell, History of American Political Thought 
(New York and London: Century, 1928). 

100 Henry Alonzo Myers, Are Men Equal? An Inquiry into the Meaning 
of American Democracy (New York: Putnam's, 1945). 

191 Thomas G. Manning, David M. Potter, and Wallace E. Davies, Gov- 
ernment and the American Economy, i870-Present (New York: Henry Holt, 

192 Albert Post, Popular Freethought in America 1825-1850 (New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1943). 

103 Sidney Warren, American Freethought , 1860-1914 (New York: Co- 
lumbia University Press, 1943). 

194 Leonard J. Trinterud, The Forming of an American Tradition: A Re- 
examination of Colonial Presbyterianism (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 


19$ Kenneth P. Williams, Lincoln Finds a General: A Military Study of 
the Civil War, Vols. I and II of four (New York: Macmillan, 1949). 

196 Francis Shoemaker, ^Esthetic Experience and the Humanities (New 
York: Columbia University Press, 1943). 

197 Homer C. Hockett and Arthur M. Schlesinger, The Political and Social 
Growth of the American People, 3rd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1940-41), 
2 vols. 

198 Dixon Wecter and others, Changing Patterns in American Civilization 
(Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949). 

199 Years of the Modern, ed. John W. Chase (New York: Longmans, 


200 Michael Kraus, The Atlantic Civilization: Eighteenth Century Origins 
(Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1949). 

20 1 Halvdan Koht. The American Spirit in Europe (Philadelphia: Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania Press, 1949). 

388 Methods of Research (III,ix,202) 

202 Sir John Marriott, English History in English Fiction (New York: 
Button, 1941), and Homer E. Woodbridge, Sir William Temple (New York: 
Modern Language Association, and London: Oxford University Press, 1940). 

203 Joseph B. Collins, Christian Mysticism in the Elizabethan Age (Balti- 
more: Johns Hopkins Press, 1940), and Howard W. Hintz, The Quaker In- 
fluence in American Literature (New York: Revell, 1940). 

204 G. C. Coulton, Studies in Medieval Thought (London and New 
York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1940). 

205 The Letters of Saint Boniface, tr. Ephraim Emerton (New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1940), and Frank J. Klingberg, Anglican Humani- 
tarianism in Colonial New York (Philadelphia: The Church Historical Society, 

Articles in the field of the history of ideas include Eugene F. Bradford, 
"Anglo-Saxon Melancholy", Harvard University Summaries of Theses . . . 
1927 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1931), pp. 148-50; Mar- 
jorie Nicolson, "The Early Stages of Cartesianism in England", SP, XXVI 
( X 9 2 9)> 356-74; Esther E. Burch, "The Sources of New England Democracy: 
A Controversial Statement in Parringston's Main Currents in American 
Thought", AmLit, I 1929-30), [1151-40; George L. Marsh, "The Early Re- 
views of Shelley", MP, XXVII (1929-30), 73-95; R. W. Babcock, "The 
Attack of the Late Eighteenth Century upon Alterations of Shakespeare's 
Plays", MLN, XLV (1930), 446-51; idem, "The Attitude toward Shakes- 
peare's Learning in the Late Eighteenth Century", PQ, IX (1930), 116-22; 
Lily B[ess] Campbell, "Theorie of Revenge in Renaissance England", MP, 
XXVIII (1930-31), 281-96; W. Lee Ustick, "Changing Ideals of Aristocratic 
Character and Conduct in Seventeenth-Century England", MP, XXX (1932- 
33), 147-66; C. H. Faust, "The Background of the Unitarian Opposition to 
Transcendentalism", MP, XXXV (1937-38), 297-324; Neal Frank Double- 
day, "Hawthorne and Literary Nationalism", AmLit, XII (1940-41), [447]- 
53; Hyatt Howe Waggoner, "The Humanistic Idealism of Robert Frost", 
AmLit, XIII (1941-42), [2071-23; Z. S. Fink, "The Theory of the Mixed 
State and the Development of Milton's Political Thought", PMLA, LVII 
(1942), 705-36; David H. Dickason, "Benjamin Orange Flower, Patron of 
the Realists", AmLit, XIV (1942-43), [1481-56; Baxter Hathaway, "John 
Dryden and the Function of Tragedy", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 665-73; Olive 
Wrenchel Parsons, "Whitman the Non-Hegelian", PMLA, LVIII (1943), 
1073-93; Hannah Graham Belcher, "Howells's Opinions on the Religious 
Conflicts of His Age as Exhibited in Magazine Articles", AmLit, XV (1943- 
44), [2621-78; Margaret Denny, "Cheever's Anthology and American Ro- 
manticism", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [i]~9; Eleanor M. Sickels, "Archibald 
MacLeish and American Democracy", AmLit, XV (1943-44), [2231-37; Ruth 
Mohl, "Theories of Monarchy in Mum and the Sothsegger", PMLA, LIX 
(1944), 26-44; R. E. Watters, "Melville's 'Sociality'", AmLit, XVII (1945- 
46), [331-49; Edward S. Le Comte, "Milton's Attitude Towards Women in 
the History of Britain", PMLA, LXII (1947), 977-83; Arthur H. Nethercot, 
"The Quintessence of Idealism; Or, The Slaves of Duty", PMLA, LXII 

(7/7, x, 2) Problems in Folklore 389 

(1947), 844-59; Warrington Winters, "Dickens and the Psychology of 
Dreams", PMLA, LXIII (1948), 984-1006; and Daniel Stempel, "Lafcadio 
Hearn: Interpreter of Japan", AmLit, XX (1948-49), [i]-i9. 

Among more extensive works in the field may be mentioned George T. 
Buckley, Atheism in the English Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago 
Press, 1932); H. M. Knappen, Tudor Puritanism (Chicago: University of 
Chicago Press, 1939); John Paul Pritchard, Return to the Fountains: Some 
Classical Sources of American Criticism (Durham, N. C.: Duke University 
Press, 1942) ; Arthur Alphonse Ekirch, The Idea of Progress in America, 1815- 
1860 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944); Kenneth Walter Cam- 
eron, Emerson the Essayist (Raleigh, N. C.: Thistle Press, 1945), 2 vols.; 
Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (Boston: Little, Brown, 
1945); Bernard Smith, The Democratic Spirit (New York: Knopf, 1945); 
Harvey Wish, Contemporary America: The National Scene since igoo (New 
York and London: Harper, [1945]); Howard Mumford Jones, Education and 
World Tragedy (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1946); Her- 
bert W. Schneider, A History of American Philosophy (New York: Columbia 
University Press, 1946); Van Wyck Brooks, The Times of Melville and 
Whitman (New York: Dutton, 1947); Louis M. Hacker, The Shaping of the 
American Tradition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1947), 2 vols.; 
Lloyd R. Morris, Postscript to Yesterday: the Last Fifty Years (New York: 
Random House, 1947) see also idem y Not So Long Ago (New York: Ran- 
dom House, 1949); Henry Bamford Parkes, The American Experience: An 
Interpretation of the History and Civilization of the American People (New 
York: Knopf, 1947); Eric Fischer, Passing of the European Age (Cambridge, 
Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1948), first published in 1943; Dixon 
Wecter, The Age of the Great Depression, 1929-1941 (New York: Macmillan, 
1948); Max Ascoli, The Power of Freedom (New York: Farrar, Straus, 
1949); The Heritage of America, eds. Henry Steele Commager and Allan 
Nevins (Boston: Little, Brown, 1949); Gilbert Highet, The Classical Tradi- 
tion: Greek and Roman Influences on Western Literature (Oxford: Oxford 
University Press, 1949); Arthur M. Schlesinger, Paths to the Present (New 
York: Macmillan, 1949); Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Vital Center (New 
York: Houghton Mifflin, 1949); Peter Viereck, Conservatism Revisited (New 
York: Scribner's, 1949); and Henry Steele Commager, Majority Rule and 
Minority Rights (New York: Peter Smith, 1950), rev. ed., first published 
in 1943. 

Chapter Ten: Problems in Folklore 

1 Translated by A. W. Ryder (Chicago: 1925); for a good account of 
the whole Panchatantra tradition, and indeed of the whole field of Indie 
fiction, see Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- und Hausmdrchen 
der Briider Grimm, IV, 286 ff. 

2 Edited by N. M. Penzer (London: 1924-28). 

390 Methods of Research (HI, x, 3) 

3 Translated and edited by E. Lancereau (Paris: 1882). 

4 Translated and edited by R. Schmidt (Stuttgart: 1899). 

5 Included in the Ocean of Story (see above, n. 2), and available 
almost completely in A. W. Ryder, Twenty-Two Goblins (London: 1917). 

6 Translated and edited by F. Edgerton (Cambridge, Mass.: 1926). 

7 Ed. E. B. Cowell (Cambridge, England: 1893-1907), 6 vols. 

8 Translated by George Rosen (Leipzig: n.d.). 

9 Ed. Killis Campbell (Boston: 1907); this edition contains a good 
discussion of the whole tradition. 

10 For full bibliographical and comparative treatment and summaries of 
all the tales see V. Chauvin, Bibliographic des Ouvrages Arabes (Liege: 1892- 
1923), 12 vols. The best English translations are those of Lane (London: 
1839-41), 3 vols., and Burton (Benares: 1885), *o v ls. 

11 Cf. M. Caster, The Exempla of the Rabbis (London: 1924) ; M. J. bin 
Gorion, Der Born Judas (Leipzig: 1918- ), 6 vols. 

12 J. G. Frazer, Apollodorus: the Library (London: 1921), 2 vols. 

jj Lucius Apuleius, The Golden Ass . . . , tr. W. Adlington (London: 
Heinemann, and New York: Macmillan, 1915). 

14 Ed. H. Oesterley (Berlin: 1872); English translation by C. Swan 
(London: 1888). Good discussions are found in S. J. Herrtage, The Early 
English Versions of the Gesta Romanorum, in EETS, No. % 33 (1879) an ^ in 
Herbert, Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum, III, 183 ff. 

1$ Ed. T. F. Crane (London: 1890). 

1 6 Neither the Scala Celi (Liibeck: 1476) nor the Summa Predicantium 
(Basel: 1479; the latest edition Antwerp: 1614) have appeared in modern 

17 For a definitive treatment of the exemplum, see J. Wetter, L'Exemp- 
lum dans la litterature . . . du Moyen Age (Paris: 1927). 

18 A good summary of the ^Esop material is given in J. Jacobs, The 
Fables of JEsop (London: 1894); many of the texts are in Hervieux, Les 
Fabulistes Latins (Paris: 1883-99), 5 vols. See also Ward, Catalogue of 
Romances in the British Museum (London: 1893), II, 272 ff. 

IQ For a bibliography see Bolte's edition of Pauli's Schimpf und Ernst 
(Berlin: 1924), II, 243 ff. 

20 A considerable series of these have been published by Hyder Rollins, 
the most important being The Pepys Ballads A Hand/till of Pleasant Delights 
(1924), The Pack of Autolycus (1927), A Pepysian Garland (1922), Cavalier 
and Puritan (1923), and Old English Ballads (1920). The Ballad Society has 
issued, among others, The Roxburghe Ballads and the Bag} or d Ballads in their 
publications beginning in 1869 (London). 

21 See also, for folk music, Herzog, Research in Primitive and Folk 
Music in the United States (Washington: American Council of Learned 
Societies, 1936), Bulletin 24. 

22 A good summary appears in A. Taylor, The Black Ox, in FF Com- 
munications No. 70 (Helsinki: 1927), pp. 3-15, and K. Krohn, Die Folklor- 
istische Arbeitsmethode (Oslo: 1926). 

(HI, x, 32) Problems in Folklore 391 

2j See Archer Taylor, Edward and Sven i Rosengard (Chicago: 1931). 

24 See Aarne, Vergleichende Rdtselforschungen, in FF Communications 
Nos. 26-28 (Helsinki: 1918). 

25 See Elsa Enajarvi-Haavio, The Game of Rich and Poor, in FF Com- 
munications No. 100 (Helsinki: 1923). 

26 See M. Haavio, Kettenmarchenstudien, in FF Communications Nos. 
88, 99 (Helsinki: 1929-31), 2 vols.; A. Wesselski, "Das Marchen vom Tode 
des Huhnchens und andere Kettenmarlein", Hessische Blatter fur Volkskunde, 
XXXII (1933), 1-51 ; A. Taylor, "A Classification of Formula Tales", Journal 
of American Folklore, XL VI (1934), 77 ff. 

27 For a suggestive treatment of this subject, see H. Naumann, Primitive 
Gemeinschaftskultur (Jena: 1921). 

28 See, for example, Bolte and Polivka, Anmerkungen zu den Kinder- 
und Hausmdrchen der Briider Grimm, IV, i ff . ; A. Wesselski, Versuch einer 
Theorie des Mdrchens (Reichenberg: 1931); K. Wehrhan, Die Sage (Leipzig: 
1908); H. Honti, Volksmarchen und Heldensage, in FF Communications No. 
95 (Helsinki: 1931); also Handworterbuch des deutschen Mdrchens, passim] 
A. Taylor, The Proverb (Cambridge, Mass.: 1931); Richard Jente, "A Re- 
view of Proverb Literature since 1920", Corona [Studies in Celebration of 
the 8oth Birthday of Samuel Singer] (Durham, N. C.: 1941), pp. 23-44. 

2Q In Harvard Studies and Notes, XI (1907). 

30 See K. Krohn, Kalavalastudien, in FF Communications Nos. 53, 69, 
71, 72, 75, and 76 (Helsinki: 1924-28). 

j/ See, for example, F. W. Panzer, Studien zur Germanischen Sagen- 
geschichte (Miinchen: 1910), 2 vols. (Beowulf, Sigfrid) ; F. von der Leyen, 
Die Marchen in der Gottersagen der Edda (Berlin: 1899). 

j2 See Herzog, "Musical Typology in Folksong", Southern Folklore 
Quarterly, I (June, 1937), 49-55- 

Appendix A 


I Works on Bibliography and Methods of Research 


AVEY, ALBERT E., The Functions and Forms of Thought (New York: Henry 
Holt, 1912) 

BERRY, G. G., see LANGLOIS, C. V. 

BLACK, JOHN BENNETT, The Art of History (London: Methuen, 1926) 

BOAS, Frederick] SLamuelJ, "Some Aspects of Research", School and Soci- 
ety, XVIII (July 28, 1923), 98-102 

BYRNE, M|uricl| ST. C[lareJ, "Anthony Munday's Spelling as a Literary 
Clue", The Library, 4th series, IV (1923-24), 9-23 

CLARK, Aflbertl C[urtis], The Descent of Manuscripts (Oxford: Clarendon 
Press, 1918) 

COFFEY, PETER, The Science of Logic (New York: Longmans, Green, 1912), 
2 vols. 

COLE, GEORGE WATSON, Compiling a bibliography (New York: Library Jour- 
nal, 1902) 

COOLEY, W[illiam] Fforbes], and others, An Introduction to Reflective Think- 
ing (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 1923) 

CROCE, BENEDETTO, History, Its Theory and Practice, tr. Douglas Ainslie 
(New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1921) 

CRUMP, C[harles] GLeorge,], History and Historical Research (London: 
Routledge, 1928) 

CURL, MERVIN JAMES, Expository Writing (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, 

DEWEY, JOHN, How We Think (Boston: D. C. Heath, 1910) 

Dow, EARLE W., Principles of a Note-System for Historical Studies (New 
York: Century, 1924) 

DUFF, E[dward] G[ordon], see MADAN, F[alconer] 

ESDAILE, ARUNDELL, The Sources of English Literature : A Guide for Students 
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1928) 

[ 393 ] 

394 Appendix A 

, A Student's Manual of Bibliography (London : Allen and Unwin, and 

New York: Scribner's, 1931) 

FLING, FRED M[orrow], The Writing of History (New Haven: Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1920) 

FREEMAN, EDWARD A[ugustus], Methods of Historical Study (London: Mac- 
millan, 1886) 

GEORGE, H[ereford] Bfrooke], Historical Evidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 

GIBSON, S[trickland], see MADAN, F[alconer] 

GREG, W [alter 1 W[ilson], "A Formulary of Collation", The Library, 4th 
series, XIV (i933~34)> 365-82 

, "What Is Bibliography?", Transactions of the Bibliographical Society 

[London], XII (1911-13), 40-53 

, see POLLARD, A [If red] W[illiam] 

Guide to the Use of Libraries. A Manual for College and University 
Students (New York: H. W. Wilson, 1923), 2nd ed. 

JEVONS, W[illiam] S[tanley], Elementary Lessons in Logic (New York: 
Macmillan, 1901) 

, The Principles of Science (New York: Macmillan, 1887) 


JOHNSON, ALLEN, The Historian and Historical Evidence (New York: Scrib- 
ner's, 1926) 

JUSSERAND, JEAN JULES, and others, The Writing of History (New York: 
Scribner's, 1926) 

LANGLOIS, Ch[arles] V[ictor], and SEIGNOBOS, Ch[arles], Introduction to 
the Study of History, tr. G. G. Berry (London: Duckworth, and New 
York: Henry Holt, [1898]. 

McKERROW, RONALD Bfrunleesl, An Inroduction to Bibliography for Literary 
Students (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928), 2nd impression, with correc- 

MADAN, F[alconer]; DUFF Efdward] Gfordon]; and GIBSON, S[trickland], 
"Standard Descriptions of Printed Books", Proceedings and Papers of 
the Oxford Bibliographical Society, Vol. I, Pt. i (1923), 56-64 

A Manual of Style (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1949), nth ed. 

MARSHALL, RICHARD L., The Historical Criticism of Documents (New York: 
Macmillan, 1920) 

MOORE, MARGARET F., Two Select Bibliographies of Medieval Historical 
Study (London: Constable, 1912) 

MUDGE, ISADORE GILBERT, Bibliography (Chicago: American Library Asso- 
ciation, 1915) 

MURRAY, DAVID, Bibliography, Its Scope and Methods (Glasgow: Maclehose, 

PAETOW, L[ouis] J[ohn], A Guide to the Study of Medieval History (New 
York: Crofts, 1931) 

PIGOTT, [Sir] F[rancis] T[aylor], "Practical Notes on Historical Research". 

Specimen Bibliographies 395 

Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 4th series, V (1922), 132- 


POLLARD, A [If red] W[illiam], "Elizabethan Spelling as a Literary and Biblio- 
graphical Clue", The Library, 4th series, IV (1923-24), 1-8 

, and GREG, W [alter] W[ilson], "Some Points in Bibliographical De- 
scription", Transactions of the Bibliographical Society [London], IX 
(1906-8), 31-52 

REEDER, WARD G., How to Write a Thesis (Bloomington, Illinois: Public 
School Publishing Co., 1925) 

ROBINSON, DANIEL S[ommer], The Principles of Reasoning (New York: 
Appleton, 1928) 

ROGERS, WALTER T., A Manual of Bibliography (London: H. Gravel, 1891) 

SCHLUTER, Wfilliam] C[harles], How to Do Research Work (New York: 
Prentice-Hall, 1926) 

SETGNOBOS, Ch[arles], see LANGLOIS, Chfarles] V[ictor] 

SEVERANCE, H[enry] O[rmal], "How Periodicals Aid Research", Library 
Journal, LIII (1928), 590-92 

SHOTWELL, JAMES T., Introduction to the Study of History (New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1923) 

TEGGART, Frederick] J[ohn], Theory of History (New Haven: Yale Univer- 
sity Press, 1925) 

VAN HOESEN, H[enry] B[artlett] and WALTER, FRANK K[eller], Bibliography, 
Practical, Enumerative, and Historical (New York: Scribner's, 1928) 

VINCENT, JOHN M[artin], Historical Research (New York: Peter Smith. 

WALTER, FRANK Kfeller], see VAN HOESEN, H[enry] B[artlett] 

WESTWAY, F[rederic] W[illiam], Scientific Method Its Philosophy and Prac- 
tice (London: Blackie and Son, 1931) 

WILLIAMS, IOLO A[neurin], Elements of Book-Collecting (London: Mathews 
and Marrot, and New York: F. A. Stokes, 1927) 


II Heuristic (The Science of Finding Things) 

BAKER, ERNEST A. The Uses of Libraries. London, 1927 
BECKER, G[USTAV]. Catalogi Bibliothecarum Antiqui. Berlin, 1885 
DE RICCI, SEYMOUR, with the assistance of J. W. WILSON. Census of Medieval 
and Renaissance Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Wash- 
ington, 1934 

DOWLING, MARGARET. "Public Record Office Research: The Equity Side of 

Chancery, 1558-1714", Review of English Studies, VIII (1932), 185-200 

GARDTHAUSEN, V[IKTOR EMIL]. Sammlungen und Kataloge griechischer 

Handschriften. 1903. (Offprint from Byzantinische Archiv) 
GIUSEPPI, M[ONTAGUE] S [FENCER]. A Guide to the Manuscripts Preserved 
in the Public Record Office. London, 1923-24. 2 vols. 

396 Appendix A 

GOTTLIEB, TH[EODORE]. Vber mittelalterliche Bibliotheken. Leipzig, 1890 
HAENEL, G[USTAV]. Catalogi librorum manuscriptorumque qui in bibliothecis 

Gallic?, Helvetia, Belgii, Britannia, Hispanice, Lusitania asservantur. 

Leipzig, 1830 
JAMES, MONTAGUE RHODES. The Wanderings and Homes of Manuscripts. 

London and New York, 1919 
MEADS, DOROTHY M. "Searching Local Records", Review of English Studies, 

IV (1928), 173-90, 301-22 

DE MONTFAUCON, BERNARD. Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum. Paris, 1739. 2 vols. 
RYE, REGINALD ARTHUR. The Students' Guide to the Libraries of London. 

London, 1927 

WEINBERGER, W[ILHELM~|. Catalogus Catalogorum. Vienna and Leipzig, 1902 

/// Paper 

1 Aitken, P. Henderson, "Some notes on the history of paper-making", 

Transactions of the Bibliographical Society [London], XIII (1913- 
15), 201-17 

2 Alibaux, Henri, "Le controle des dates par le filigrane'du papier", Le 

vieux papier, Bulletin de la Societe Archeologique, Historique, et 
Artistique, XVII (October, 1928), fascicule 118, pp. 271-80 

3 Bevan, Efdward] J[ohn], see Cross, Charles Frederick 

4 Briquet, CLharles] M[oise], Les filigranes (Paris, A. Picard & fils, 1907), 

4 vols. 

5 Butler, Frank C., The story of paper-making (Chicago, J. W. Butler 

Paper Company, 1901) 

6 Cross, Charles Frederick, and Bevan, E[dward] J[ohn~|, A text-book of 

paper-making (London, E. and F. N. Spon, 1920), 5th ed. 

7 Heawood, Edward, "Papers used in England after 1600", The library, 

4th series, XI (1930-31), 263-99, 466-98 

8 , "The position on the sheet of early watermarks", The library, 

4th series, IX (1928-29), 38-47 

9 , "Sources of early English paper-supply", The library, 4th series, 

X (1929-30), 282-307, 427-54 

10 } "The use of watermarks in dating old maps and documents", 

The geographical journal, LXIII (1924), 391-412 

11 Jahans, Gordon A., "A brief history of paper", The book-collector's 

quarterly, XV (July-September, 1934), 42-58 

12 Jenkins, Rhys, "Early attempts at paper-making in England, 1495-1586", 

Library association record, II (1900), 479-88. See also pp. 577-88 
and ibid., Ill (IQOI), 239 ff. 

Specimen Bibliographies 397 

IV Infc 

Caneparius, Petrus Maria. De Atramentis cujuscunque Genesis Opus. Rotter- 
dam, 1718. 

Carvalho, David N. Forty Centuries of Ink. New York, 1904. 
Hepworth, T. C., see Mitchell, C. Ainsworth. 
Mitchell, C[harles] Ainsworth. Ink. London, 1923. 

-, and Hepworth, T. C. Inks: Their Composition and Manufacture . . . 

3rd ed. London, 1924. 

V Printing 

H. G. Aldis, The Printed Book (New York: Macmillan, 1940), revised by 

John Carter and E. A. Crutchley. 
Pierce Butler, The Origin of Printing in Europe (Chicago: University of 

Chicago Press, 1940). 
John Carter, see H. G. Aldis. 
R[obert] W[illiam] Chapman, Cancels (London: Constable, and New York: 

R. R. Smith, 1930). 
, "Cancels and Stubs", The Library, 4th series, VIII (1927-28), 

E. Crous, G. Fumagalli, Charles Mortet, Maurits Sabbe, James P. R. Lyell, 

H. R. Plomer, Lauritz Nielsen, L. C. Wharton, G. P. Winship, and 

Lawrence C. Wroth, Printing: a Short History of the Art (London: 

Graf ton, 1927), ed. R. A. Peddie. 
E. A. Crutchley, see H. G. Aldis. 

Hugh William Davies, Devices of the Early Printers 1457-1560: Their His- 
tory and Development (London: Graf ton, 1935). 
F[redericl Sutherland] Ferguson, "Additions to Title-Page Borders 1485- 

1640", The Library, 4th series, XVII (1936-37), 264-311. 

, see R[onald] B[runleesJ McKerrow. 

G. Fumagalli, see E. Crous. 

Harry R. Hoppe, "John Wolfe, Printer and Publisher", The Library, 4th 

Series, XIV (1933-34), 241-88. 
Alfred Forbes Johnson, A Catalogue of Engraved and Etched English Title- 

Pages (Oxford: Bibliographical Society [London], 1934). 

, One Hundred Title-Pages, 1500-1800 (London: John Lane, 1928). 

A. E. M. Kirkwood, "Richard Field, Printer", The Library, 4th series, XII 

(1931-32), 1-39. 
James P. R. Lyell, see E. Crous. 

Douglas C. McMurtrie, The Golden Book (Chicago: Covici, 1928). 
R[onald] B[runlees] McKerrow, "Edward Allde as a Typical Trade Printer", 

The Library, 4th series, X (1929-30), 121-62. 

398 Appendix A 

, Printers' and Publishers 9 Devices Used in England and Scotland 

1485-1640 (London: Bibliographical Society [London], 1913). 

, "The Use of the Galley in Elizabethan Printing", The Library, 4th 

series, II (1921-22), 97-108. 

, and F[rederic] Sutherland] Ferguson, Title-Page Borders Used in 

England and Scotland 1485-1640 (London: the Bibliographical Society 
[London], 1932). 

Stanley Morrison, A Review of Recent Typography in England, the United 
States, France, and Germany (Cambridge [England] : Fleuron, 1927). 

Charles Mortet, see E. Crous. 

Lauritz Nielsen, see E. Crous. 

R. A. Peddie, see E. Crous. 

Henry R. Plomer, "Eliots Court Press", The Library, 4th series, III (1922- 
23), 194-209. 

, see E. Crous. 

Maurits Sabbe, see E. Crous. 

Charles Sayle, "Initial Letters in Early English Printed Books", Transactions 
of the Bibliographical Society [London], VII (1